• The construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Interactive 3D and VR environments.

  • Abstract

    Contributing to the construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Interactive 3D and VR environments that can be seen/experienced and altered interactively by a viewer through a First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine.

    Friday, September 22, 2017

  • Introduction

    *Practice Based Research Purpose

    Contributing to the construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Participatory 3D and VR environments that can be seen/experienced and altered interactively by a viewer through a First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine.

    Currently, art and culture are concentrating actively in the participation of the people in events in ways not tried before. Not simply as visitors or viewers but as collaborators who dynamically contribute to art and culture. In such art events the visitor is allowed to modify radically a work of art through interfacing with it. (Arken Bulletin, Vol.7, 2017) ; These specifically fabricated works of art become mutable through the direct interface with visitor.

    The design, planning and implementation of an Interactive Art Event is done through the collaboration of numerous specialists such as art theoriticians, concept artists, and computer specialists under the direction of curators with the support of sponsors.

    The artist creating interactive art exceeds considerations of how it will appear or sound to a spectator/user. The way that it interacts with the spectators is also a fundamental part of its essence. The essential part of such art is mainly in invoking behaviour rather than in anything else. From the creativity’s point of view, the practice of the interaction artist is, therefore, quite different to that of a painter. A painting is static while the interactive art, nevertheless, is as variable as the responses of the spectators to the artwork’s activity ; (Ernest Edmonds, 2015)

    Ongoing explorations into Interactive Art delve into the concept of object/viewer spatial associations, the merging of many approaches of interactive art and the connection between visualization and interactive communication. (Frances Joseph, Nolwenn Hugain-Lacire, & Verena Ziegler, 2012) ;

    The Participatory Art practices in the Art and Culture Events indicate the involvement of many people while the one-to-one relationship implies the Interactive Art which sidesteps the elusiveness of ‘social commitment’, ( Claire Bishop, 2012) ;

    In Participatory Art and Culture events, the artist usually triggers something in various art forms but releases it to the control of the spectators for additional handling, treatment, etc. (Patricia Reed 2008).

    In Instabul Biennial, 2007, David Goldenberg handed over an art installation to the visitors who could do anything they pleased with it in order to see whether or not the existing form would generate further objectives; this gave rise to a number of extended uses for the art work by diverse audiences . (David Goldenberg, 2008).

    The curator would choose to focus on geometrical abstraction paintings as a theme for an Interactive Art Event because they dwell in a nonillusionistic space and topologically they are comprised of nonobjective compositions that invoke thought provoking conceptual meanings. It would be quite a challenge, and innovation at the same time, to metamorphose it into a 3D/VR Interactive environment while remaining non-representational, and object-free.

    As geometric abstraction evolved through the Cubist deconstruction of visual reality and reformulation of the established conventions of form and space. Many artists followed this geometric abstraction and converted it into their own creative language . (Magdalena Dabrowski, 2004);

    For a curator the process of reinterpreting geometrical abstraction paintings through interactivity and game art would constitute a vital evolutionary step in the New Art Media.

    It must be noted that quite a number of geometrical abstraction paintings such as the Proun series of El Lisssitsky and some of the works of László Moholy-Nagy and others go beyond the two dimentions and are depicted in a 3D illusionistic space through novel conceptual topology; Richard J. Difford (1995) supports the view that Lissitsky’s Prouns invoke the illusion of four-dimensional space. Esther Levinger (2016) notes that Lissitsky viewed art as a game and he created complex artwork along those lines ; Rosa Maria Oliveira (2011) in her paper ‘Light and Shadows in Holography: A possible dialogue between Art and Science by using Artistic Holography’ presents a detailed account of László Moholy-Nagy’s experimentations and the distinctiveness of his geometric abstraction paintings . The curator would definitely be interested in including such geometrical abstraction paintings in this Interactive Art Event.

    New Media has radically transformed the ways in which art can be shown to the public as a spectacle, this resulted in altering the way in which curators presented exhibitions of artwork adopting the new digital techniques of exposition, such as real-time online applications and within virtual reality. An artistic exhibition through Virtual Reality (VR) offers us sensational new potentials and for the curation of not only digitised versions of traditional but also oppotrunities for innovative presentation of contemporary art works . (Jeni Maleshkova, Matthew Purver, Oliver Grau, Peter McOwan, 2014)

    The ‘variable paintings’ of Öyvind Fahlström are interactively rearrangeable. This is an innovation that came about through Fahlström’s discovery of concretism, his interest in semiotic theory and pursuit of art as an interactive game art. Basically each ‘variable painting’ was a composition of magnetized elements that could be juxtaposed in various arrangements by the user/spectator just like is seen in the diverse chess position diagrams. These interactive and open works of art are easily modifiable to new postdigital platforms. (Annika Öhrner, 2012) ;

    In an Interactive Art Installation a curator may request the amalgamation of especially selected game routines such as lives for the user/spectator. Celia Pearce (2006) , advocates that such inclusion of Game Art would implicate the disruption of a number of artistic privileges and that this possibility upsets many artists because they suppose that if they hand over their artwork to the spectators, their point of view will greatly undermined. However, by now artists and curators have accepted the fact that Participatory and Interactive Art imposes the sharing of the art-making practice with the audience.

    With a First Person Controller (FPS) an enviroment is seen same as from the viewpoint of the player character in computer games. It is available in all game engines - applications with which to create computer games, one of them is Unity 3D. A First Person perspective is consistently used in various genres, ranging from adventure games to flight simulators and some Interactive Installations.
    It is a viewpoint used to represent the perspective of a user within a location, as in flight and racing simulators. Alan Crespi (2013) clarified that FPS is an significant part of constructing a game in respect to the immersion into a 3D/VR location and controls how the player moves around, how he reacts and especially interacts within that location.
    A FPS can be preconfigured in a multitude of ways: by defining his height, mass, how he runs, jumps etc. Additionally through scripts (computer programs in C Sharp language) these properties can be extended further or even customized radically.

    The relocating the 3D geometric composition elements of the painting
    is done in Unity 3D game engine through the First Person Controller. This may cause a series of random repositionings of the 3D geometric elements (of all sizes) of the painting within the bounds of the 3D/VR scene.
    Alternatively, as a First Person Controller the user/spectator may take up or push and reposition any 3D geometric element with mass less than his own. Large elements will be considered immovable while any repositioning may be done on elements with ‘mass’ less than that of the First Person Controller.
    If a very big 3D geometric element (i.e a huge sphere) after moving randomly falls on the First Person Controller he is destroyed or if he has a number of lives he will be left with one less; this possibility combines Interactive Art with Game Art. The First Person Controller/spectator walks, runs, jumps and even floats/flies within the 3D/VR environment.

    • Contribution to the Construction of an Interactive Art Event
    • Interactive Art Event
    • Reinterpretation of a geometric abstract painting
    • Variable Paintings
    • Into a Participatory/Interactive 3D and VR environment
    • Altered interactively by a viewer
    • Game Art
    • First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine .

  • Introduction
    Practice Based Research Purpose

    Contributing to the construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Participatory 3D and VR environments that can be seen/experienced and altered interactively by a viewer through a First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine.

    Currently, art and culture are concentrating actively in the participation of the people in events in ways not tried before. Not simply as visitors or viewers but as collaborators who dynamically contribute to art and culture. In such art events the visitor is allowed to modify radically a work of art through interfacing with it. (Arken Bulletin, Vol.7, 2017) ; These specifically fabricated works of art become mutable through the direct interface with visitor.

    The design, planning and implementation of an Interactive Art Event is done through the collaboration of numerous specialists such as art theoriticians, concept artists, and computer specialists under the direction of curators with the support of sponsors.

    The artist creating interactive art exceeds considerations of how it will appear or sound to a spectator/user. The way that it interacts with the spectators is also a fundamental part of its essence. The essential part of such art is mainly in invoking behaviour rather than in anything else. From the creativity’s point of view, the practice of the interaction artist is, therefore, quite different to that of a painter. A painting is static while the interactive art, nevertheless, is as variable as the responses of the spectators to the artwork’s activity ; (Ernest Edmonds, 2015)

    Ongoing explorations into Interactive Art delve into the concept of object/viewer spatial associations, the merging of many approaches of interactive art and the connection between visualization and interactive communication. (Frances Joseph, Nolwenn Hugain-Lacire, & Verena Ziegler, 2012) ;

    The Participatory Art practices in the Art and Culture Events indicate the involvement of many people while the one-to-one relationship implies the Interactive Art which sidesteps the elusiveness of ‘social commitment’, ( Claire Bishop, 2012) ;

    In Participatory Art and Culture events, the artist usually triggers something in various art forms but releases it to the control of the spectators for additional handling, treatment, etc. (Patricia Reed 2008).

    In Instabul Biennial, 2007, David Goldenberg handed over an art installation to the visitors who could do anything they pleased with it in order to see whether or not the existing form would generate further objectives; this gave rise to a number of extended uses for the art work by diverse audiences . (David Goldenberg, 2008).

    The curator would choose to focus on geometrical abstraction paintings as a theme for an Interactive Art Event because they dwell in a nonillusionistic space and topologically they are comprised of nonobjective compositions that invoke thought provoking conceptual meanings. It would be quite a challenge, and innovation at the same time, to metamorphose it into a 3D/VR Interactive environment while remaining non-representational, and object-free.

    As geometric abstraction evolved through the Cubist deconstruction of visual reality and reformulation of the established conventions of form and space. Many artists followed this geometric abstraction and converted it into their own creative language . (Magdalena Dabrowski, 2004);

    For a curator the process of reinterpreting geometrical abstraction paintings through interactivity and game art would constitute a vital evolutionary step in the New Art Media.

    It must be noted that quite a number of geometrical abstraction paintings such as the Proun series of El Lisssitsky and some of the works of László Moholy-Nagy and others go beyond the two dimentions and are depicted in a 3D illusionistic space through novel conceptual topology; Richard J. Difford (1995) supports the view that Lissitsky’s Prouns invoke the illusion of four-dimensional space. Esther Levinger (2016) notes that Lissitsky viewed art as a game and he created complex artwork along those lines ; Rosa Maria Oliveira (2011) in her paper ‘Light and Shadows in Holography: A possible dialogue between Art and Science by using Artistic Holography’ presents a detailed account of László Moholy-Nagy’s experimentations and the distinctiveness of his geometric abstraction paintings . The curator would definitely be interested in including such geometrical abstraction paintings in this Interactive Art Event.

    New Media has radically transformed the ways in which art can be shown to the public as a spectacle, this resulted in altering the way in which curators presented exhibitions of artwork adopting the new digital techniques of exposition, such as real-time online applications and within virtual reality. An artistic exhibition through Virtual Reality (VR) offers us sensational new potentials and for the curation of not only digitised versions of traditional but also oppotrunities for innovative presentation of contemporary art works . (Jeni Maleshkova, Matthew Purver, Oliver Grau, Peter McOwan, 2014)

    The ‘variable paintings’ of Öyvind Fahlström are interactively rearrangeable. This is an innovation that came about through Fahlström’s discovery of concretism, his interest in semiotic theory and pursuit of art as an interactive game art. Basically each ‘variable painting’ was a composition of magnetized elements that could be juxtaposed in various arrangements by the user/spectator just like is seen in the diverse chess position diagrams. These interactive and open works of art are easily modifiable to new postdigital platforms. (Annika Öhrner, 2012) ;

    In an Interactive Art Installation a curator may request the amalgamation of especially selected game routines such as lives for the user/spectator. Celia Pearce (2006) , advocates that such inclusion of Game Art would implicate the disruption of a number of artistic privileges and that this possibility upsets many artists because they suppose that if they hand over their artwork to the spectators, their point of view will greatly undermined. However, by now artists and curators have accepted the fact that Participatory and Interactive Art imposes the sharing of the art-making practice with the audience.

    With a First Person Controller (FPS) an enviroment is seen same as from the viewpoint of the player character in computer games. It is available in all game engines - applications with which to create computer games, one of them is Unity 3D. A First Person perspective is consistently used in various genres, ranging from adventure games to flight simulators and some Interactive Installations.
    It is a viewpoint used to represent the perspective of a user within a location, as in flight and racing simulators. Alan Crespi (2013) clarified that FPS is an significant part of constructing a game in respect to the immersion into a 3D/VR location and controls how the player moves around, how he reacts and especially interacts within that location.
    A FPS can be preconfigured in a multitude of ways: by defining his height, mass, how he runs, jumps etc. Additionally through scripts (computer programs in C Sharp language) these properties can be extended further or even customized radically.

    The relocating the 3D geometric composition elements of the painting
    is done in Unity 3D game engine through the First Person Controller. This may cause a series of random repositionings of the 3D geometric elements (of all sizes) of the painting within the bounds of the 3D/VR scene.
    Alternatively, as a First Person Controller the user/spectator may take up or push and reposition any 3D geometric element with mass less than his own. Large elements will be considered immovable while any repositioning may be done on elements with ‘mass’ less than that of the First Person Controller.
    If a very big 3D geometric element (i.e a huge sphere) after moving randomly falls on the First Person Controller he is destroyed or if he has a number of lives he will be left with one less; this possibility combines Interactive Art with Game Art. The First Person Controller/spectator walks, runs, jumps and even floats/flies within the 3D/VR environment.

    • Contribution to the Construction of an Interactive Art Event
    • Interactive Art Event
    • Reinterpretation of a geometric abstract painting
    • Variable Paintings
    • Into a Participatory/Interactive 3D and VR environment
    • Altered interactively by a viewer
    • Game Art
    • First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine .

    References

  • Rendering the painting as a 3D/VR Environment

    Each painting will be rendered as a Unity 3D scene, the painting maybe rendered either as a side or as a plan view. The elements of the composition have to be given arbitrary heights because the information from the painting does not refer to it as it is two-dimensional.

    The ‘frame’, (outer bounds) of the painting will not necessarily be static; it could be a rectangular box or the perspective camera’s frustum i.e. the shape of the region that can be seen by the First Person Controller and rendered by the camera. Initially, the First Person Controller is standing in front of the painting.

    As each abstract geometric painting is comprised of simple colorfull geometric shapes, the construction of the painting as a 3D/VR scene is a straightforward design process.

  • Relocating the 3D geometric composition elements of the painting

    The spectator-user through the First Person Controller may cause a series of random repositionings of the 3D geometric elements (of all sizes) of the painting within the bounds of the 3D/VR scene. Alternatively, he may take up and reposition any 3D geometric element. Large elements will be considered immovable while any repositioning may be done on elements with ‘mass’ less than that of the First Person Controller.
    If a very big 3D geometric element (i.e a huge sphere) after moving randomly falls on the First Person Controller he is destroyed or if he has a number of lives he will be left with one less.

  • Moving about inside the painting

    The First Person Controller moves inside the painting interactivity by the spectator-user (AI), he can lift and move composition elements and place them in new positions. He walks, runs, jumps and even floats/flies within the 3D/VR environment.

  • Applying the laws of Physics

    Any 3D geometric composition element repositioning will be done under the laws of physics that work within Unity and it may result in the colliding of elements with each other or even the First Person Controller.

  • Experiential narrative as a viewer / First Person Controller of a painting at a MoMA exhibition of selected Sophie Taeuber-Arp’s Geometric Abstract Paintings as 3D/ VR interactive environments /scenes

    “[Art is a set of] artefacts or images with symbolic meanings as a means of communication.” -Steve Mithen

    Initially, the viewer is standing in front of a Geometric Abstract Painting. He reflects on the meaning of the composition, as he coprehends it, comparing it with the title given by the artist. He looks at all the elements of the composition and tries again to figure out the meaning of the painting, this is not something easy as the composition is geometric and abstract and non representational; and even then there are times when the meaning would be hard to understand.

    He imagines that he can experiment by trying out random or conscious repositionings of the elements of the composition, not necessarily by imposing constraints, so that noumerous new compositions are created through the use of the same elements but keeping any connections that they may have between each other the same as in the original painting. He assumes that some of them have aesthetic values and others not at all. He wonders if it would somehow be possible to pick up the compositions that have aesthetic values. He speculates even if all new compositions have the same elements and connectivity, their meaning is not the same as the meaning of the original.

    There are many virtual galleries of art where the viewer can select which painting he can look at and listen to the art criticism about it; he can choose to look at any of the numerous paintings on the gallery. But he is a virtual viewer who can go inside the 3D/VR representation of the selected painting and move about inside it, or even fly/hover all over each and every element of the 3D/VR composition of the elements as solids. The ‘frame’, (outer bounds) of the painting will not necessarily be static; it could be a plane, a rectangular box or a sphere or it could be Unity 3D’s perspective camera’s frustrum.

    Initially, the viewer/First Person Controller has a height of 180 centimeters and he stands one meter away from the painting. In the Unity 3D scene the First Person Controller is inside the scene and his height is related to the scale of the painting, maybe it has to be between 1/6 and 1/12 of the paintings (or at some other ratio that can be found by trial and error) as it is rendered in the 3D/VR environment. The scale of the painting will differ somewhat depending on whether or not we see it as a side or as a plan view.

    He is allowed, if he so wishes, to cause the repositioning of the elements, either to random positions with or without constraints, or by pushing them, provided that their weight and size is less than his own. An after effect of a repositioning is that it may cause an element to collide with another and this invokes the laws of physics that cause further colliding between the elements or himself and more repositioning.

    This 3D/VR implementation is done in Unity 3D with code written in C sharp and includes AI routines where it is applicable. The viewer acts as a First Person Controller and has a number of lives that become diminished when an element twice his size or more collides with him. When all his lives are finished, the viewer is removed from the 3D/VR environment and finds himself again in the gallery and in front of the painting.

  • Alternate Geometric Abstract Painting compositions

    A Geometric Abstract Painting may be altered if the elements/shapes that comprise it alter their positions either randomly , through interaction or through the laws of physics by colliding with each other. These generated alternate compositions would differ from the original and one can classify them into different categories according to certain criteria. Some of these alternate compositions could still support the original composition’s concept and could carry the same title followed by a serial number. The generation of these alternates may be done under certain constraints.
    It would be interesting to evaluate their aesthetic value and keep only those compositions that have artistic merit.

  • Stages of Implementation

    1. Setting up the scene includes: 3D representation of the Abstract Painting, Camera View, Lighting , Environment (floor, Sky), First Person Controller.
    2. Testing and adjusting the scale of the 3D environment in relation to the height of the First Person Controller.
    3. Testing the movement of the First Person Controller within the scene: walk, run, jump, float.
    4. Testing the Random Repositioning the 3D geometric elements of the painting under the laws of physics and with the constraint that they remain mostly within the scene (With the First Person Controller static and at the edge of the scene).
    5. Testing the grabbing by the First Person Controller of small elements of the painting and moving them about and placing them in new positions.
    6. As the First Person Controller activates the random repositioning of the 3D geometric elements of the painting within the 3D/VR scene which may result in the loss of on of his lives as the elements collide between themselves and also with him.
{"cards":[{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff831","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11204956,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"**The construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Interactive 3D and VR environments.**"},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11204972,"position":1,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff831","content":"# Abstract\nContributing to the construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Interactive 3D and VR environments that can be seen/experienced and altered interactively by a viewer through a First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine. \n\nFriday, September 22, 2017\n\n"},{"_id":"7e4dddea45919d1d91000041","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11204908,"position":0.5625,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","content":"**Introduction \nPractice Based Research Purpose**\n\nContributing to the construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Participatory 3D and VR environments that can be seen/experienced and altered interactively by a viewer through a First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine. \n\nCurrently, art and culture are concentrating actively in the participation of the people in events in ways not tried before. Not simply as visitors or viewers but as collaborators who dynamically contribute to art and culture. In such art events the visitor is allowed to modify radically a work of art through interfacing with it. (Arken Bulletin, Vol.7, 2017) ; These specifically fabricated works of art become mutable through the direct interface with visitor.\n\nThe design, planning and implementation of an Interactive Art Event is done through the collaboration of numerous specialists such as art theoriticians, concept artists, and computer specialists under the direction of curators with the support of sponsors. \n\nThe artist creating interactive art exceeds considerations of how it will appear or sound to a spectator/user. The way that it interacts with the spectators is also a fundamental part of its essence. The essential part of such art is mainly in invoking behaviour rather than in anything else. From the creativity’s point of view, the practice of the interaction artist is, therefore, quite different to that of a painter. A painting is static while the interactive art, nevertheless, is as variable as the responses of the spectators to the artwork's activity ; (Ernest Edmonds, 2015)\n\nOngoing explorations into Interactive Art delve into the concept of object/viewer spatial associations, the merging of many approaches of interactive art and the connection between visualization and interactive communication. (Frances Joseph, Nolwenn Hugain-Lacire, & Verena Ziegler, 2012) ;\n\nThe Participatory Art practices in the Art and Culture Events indicate the involvement of many people while the one-to-one relationship implies the Interactive Art which sidesteps the elusiveness of ‘social commitment’, ( Claire Bishop, 2012) ;\n\nIn Participatory Art and Culture events, the artist usually triggers something in various art forms but releases it to the control of the spectators for additional handling, treatment, etc. (Patricia Reed 2008).\n\nIn Instabul Biennial, 2007, David Goldenberg handed over an art installation to the visitors who could do anything they pleased with it in order to see whether or not the existing form would generate further objectives; this gave rise to a number of extended uses for the art work by diverse audiences . (David Goldenberg, 2008).\n\nThe curator would choose to focus on geometrical abstraction paintings as a theme for an Interactive Art Event because they dwell in a nonillusionistic space and topologically they are comprised of nonobjective compositions that invoke thought provoking conceptual meanings. It would be quite a challenge, and innovation at the same time, to metamorphose it into a 3D/VR Interactive environment while remaining non-representational, and object-free.\n\nAs geometric abstraction evolved through the Cubist deconstruction of visual reality and reformulation of the established conventions of form and space. Many artists followed this geometric abstraction and converted it into their own creative language . (Magdalena Dabrowski, 2004); \n\nFor a curator the process of reinterpreting geometrical abstraction paintings through interactivity and game art would constitute a vital evolutionary step in the New Art Media. \n\nIt must be noted that quite a number of geometrical abstraction paintings such as the Proun series of El Lisssitsky and some of the works of László Moholy-Nagy and others go beyond the two dimentions and are depicted in a 3D illusionistic space through novel conceptual topology; Richard J. Difford (1995) supports the view that Lissitsky’s Prouns invoke the illusion of four-dimensional space. Esther Levinger (2016) notes that Lissitsky viewed art as a game and he created complex artwork along those lines ; Rosa Maria Oliveira (2011) in her paper ‘Light and Shadows in Holography: A possible dialogue between Art and Science by using Artistic Holography’ presents a detailed account of László Moholy-Nagy’s experimentations and the distinctiveness of his geometric abstraction paintings . The curator would definitely be interested in including such geometrical abstraction paintings in this Interactive Art Event.\n\nNew Media has radically transformed the ways in which art can be shown to the public as a spectacle, this resulted in altering the way in which curators presented exhibitions of artwork adopting the new digital techniques of exposition, such as real-time online applications and within virtual reality. An artistic exhibition through Virtual Reality (VR) offers us sensational new potentials and for the curation of not only digitised versions of traditional but also oppotrunities for innovative presentation of contemporary art works . (Jeni Maleshkova, Matthew Purver, Oliver Grau, Peter McOwan, 2014)\n\nThe ‘variable paintings’ of Öyvind Fahlström are interactively rearrangeable. This is an innovation that came about through Fahlström’s discovery of concretism, his interest in semiotic theory and pursuit of art as an interactive game art. Basically each ‘variable painting’ was a composition of magnetized elements that could be juxtaposed in various arrangements by the user/spectator just like is seen in the diverse chess position diagrams. These interactive and open works of art are easily modifiable to new postdigital platforms. (Annika Öhrner, 2012) ; \n\nIn an Interactive Art Installation a curator may request the amalgamation of especially selected game routines such as lives for the user/spectator. Celia Pearce (2006) , advocates that such inclusion of Game Art would implicate the disruption of a number of artistic privileges and that this possibility upsets many artists because they suppose that if they hand over their artwork to the spectators, their point of view will greatly undermined. However, by now artists and curators have accepted the fact that Participatory and Interactive Art imposes the sharing of the art-making practice with the audience. \n\nWith a First Person Controller (FPS) an enviroment is seen same as from the viewpoint of the player character in computer games. It is available in all game engines - applications with which to create computer games, one of them is Unity 3D. A First Person perspective is consistently used in various genres, ranging from adventure games to flight simulators and some Interactive Installations. \nIt is a viewpoint used to represent the perspective of a user within a location, as in flight and racing simulators. Alan Crespi (2013) clarified that FPS is an significant part of constructing a game in respect to the immersion into a 3D/VR location and controls how the player moves around, how he reacts and especially interacts within that location. \nA FPS can be preconfigured in a multitude of ways: by defining his height, mass, how he runs, jumps etc. Additionally through scripts (computer programs in C Sharp language) these properties can be extended further or even customized radically.\n\nThe relocating the 3D geometric composition elements of the painting\nis done in Unity 3D game engine through the First Person Controller. This may cause a series of random repositionings of the 3D geometric elements (of all sizes) of the painting within the bounds of the 3D/VR scene. \nAlternatively, as a First Person Controller the user/spectator may take up or push and reposition any 3D geometric element with mass less than his own. Large elements will be considered immovable while any repositioning may be done on elements with 'mass' less than that of the First Person Controller. \nIf a very big 3D geometric element (i.e a huge sphere) after moving randomly falls on the First Person Controller he is destroyed or if he has a number of lives he will be left with one less; this possibility combines Interactive Art with Game Art. The First Person Controller/spectator walks, runs, jumps and even floats/flies within the 3D/VR environment.\n\n•\tContribution to the Construction of an Interactive Art Event \n•\tInteractive Art Event \n•\tReinterpretation of a geometric abstract painting \n•\tVariable Paintings\n•\tInto a Participatory/Interactive 3D and VR environment \n•\tAltered interactively by a viewer \n•\tGame Art\n•\tFirst Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine . \n\nReferences\n\n"},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff834","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11169683,"position":1.125,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","content":"### Rendering the painting as a 3D/VR Environment\n\nEach painting will be rendered as a Unity 3D scene, the painting maybe rendered either as a side or as a plan view. The elements of the composition have to be given arbitrary heights because the information from the painting does not refer to it as it is two-dimensional.\n\nThe ‘frame’, (outer bounds) of the painting will not necessarily be static; it could be a rectangular box or the perspective camera’s frustum i.e. the shape of the region that can be seen by the First Person Controller and rendered by the camera. Initially, the First Person Controller is standing in front of the painting.\n\nAs each abstract geometric painting is comprised of simple colorfull geometric shapes, the construction of the painting as a 3D/VR scene is a straightforward design process.\n"},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff838","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11096015,"position":3,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff834","content":"..."},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff839","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11096016,"position":4,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff834","content":"..."},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83d","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11201011,"position":1.25,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","content":"### Relocating the 3D geometric composition elements of the painting\n\nThe spectator-user through the First Person Controller may cause a series of random repositionings of the 3D geometric elements (of all sizes) of the painting within the bounds of the 3D/VR scene. Alternatively, he may take up and reposition any 3D geometric element. Large elements will be considered immovable while any repositioning may be done on elements with 'mass' less than that of the First Person Controller.\nIf a very big 3D geometric element (i.e a huge sphere) after moving randomly falls on the First Person Controller he is destroyed or if he has a number of lives he will be left with one less.\n"},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83e","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11096021,"position":1,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83d","content":"..."},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83f","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11096022,"position":2,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83d","content":"..."},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83a","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11130317,"position":1.625,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","content":"### Moving about inside the painting\n\nThe First Person Controller moves inside the painting interactivity by the spectator-user (AI), he can lift and move composition elements and place them in new positions. He walks, runs, jumps and even floats/flies within the 3D/VR environment.\n"},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83b","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11096018,"position":1,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83a","content":"..."},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83c","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11096019,"position":2,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff83a","content":"..."},{"_id":"7eec1b3d13abdaea970000a5","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11120240,"position":1.71875,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","content":"### Applying the laws of Physics\nAny 3D geometric composition element repositioning will be done under the laws of physics that work within Unity and it may result in the colliding of elements with each other or even the First Person Controller.\n"},{"_id":"7eec14f213abdaea970000a7","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11120241,"position":1,"parentId":"7eec1b3d13abdaea970000a5","content":"### Alternate Geometric Abstract Painting compositions\n\nA Geometric Abstract Painting may be altered if the elements/shapes that comprise it alter their positions either randomly , through interaction or through the laws of physics by colliding with each other. These generated alternate compositions would differ from the original and one can classify them into different categories according to certain criteria. Some of these alternate compositions could still support the original composition’s concept and could carry the same title followed by a serial number. The generation of these alternates may be done under certain constraints.\nIt would be interesting to evaluate their aesthetic value and keep only those compositions that have artistic merit.\n"},{"_id":"7eec138213abdaea970000a8","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11200981,"position":1.90625,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff832","content":"### Experiential narrative as a viewer / First Person Controller of a painting at a MoMA exhibition of selected Sophie Taeuber-Arp’s Geometric Abstract Paintings as 3D/ VR interactive environments /scenes\n\n*\"[Art is a set of] artefacts or images with symbolic meanings as a means of communication.\" *-Steve Mithen\n\nInitially, the viewer is standing in front of a Geometric Abstract Painting. He reflects on the meaning of the composition, as he coprehends it, comparing it with the title given by the artist. He looks at all the elements of the composition and tries again to figure out the meaning of the painting, this is not something easy as the composition is geometric and abstract and non representational; and even then there are times when the meaning would be hard to understand.\n\nHe imagines that he can experiment by trying out random or conscious repositionings of the elements of the composition, not necessarily by imposing constraints, so that noumerous new compositions are created through the use of the same elements but keeping any connections that they may have between each other the same as in the original painting. He assumes that some of them have aesthetic values and others not at all. He wonders if it would somehow be possible to pick up the compositions that have aesthetic values. He speculates even if all new compositions have the same elements and connectivity, their meaning is not the same as the meaning of the original.\n\nThere are many virtual galleries of art where the viewer can select which painting he can look at and listen to the art criticism about it; he can choose to look at any of the numerous paintings on the gallery. But he is a virtual viewer who can go inside the 3D/VR representation of the selected painting and move about inside it, or even fly/hover all over each and every element of the 3D/VR composition of the elements as solids. The ‘frame’, (outer bounds) of the painting will not necessarily be static; it could be a plane, a rectangular box or a sphere or it could be Unity 3D’s perspective camera’s frustrum.\n\nInitially, the viewer/First Person Controller has a height of 180 centimeters and he stands one meter away from the painting. In the Unity 3D scene the First Person Controller is inside the scene and his height is related to the scale of the painting, maybe it has to be between 1/6 and 1/12 of the paintings (or at some other ratio that can be found by trial and error) as it is rendered in the 3D/VR environment. The scale of the painting will differ somewhat depending on whether or not we see it as a side or as a plan view. \n\nHe is allowed, if he so wishes, to cause the repositioning of the elements, either to random positions with or without constraints, or by pushing them, provided that their weight and size is less than his own. An after effect of a repositioning is that it may cause an element to collide with another and this invokes the laws of physics that cause further colliding between the elements or himself and more repositioning. \n\nThis 3D/VR implementation is done in Unity 3D with code written in C sharp and includes AI routines where it is applicable. The viewer acts as a First Person Controller and has a number of lives that become diminished when an element twice his size or more collides with him. When all his lives are finished, the viewer is removed from the 3D/VR environment and finds himself again in the gallery and in front of the painting.\n\n"},{"_id":"7eec19c113abdaea970000a6","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11120479,"position":1,"parentId":"7eec138213abdaea970000a8","content":"### Stages of Implementation\n1. Setting up the scene includes: 3D representation of the Abstract Painting, Camera View, Lighting , Environment (floor, Sky), First Person Controller.\n2. Testing and adjusting the scale of the 3D environment in relation to the height of the First Person Controller.\n3. Testing the movement of the First Person Controller within the scene: walk, run, jump, float.\n4. Testing the Random Repositioning the 3D geometric elements of the painting under the laws of physics and with the constraint that they remain mostly within the scene (With the First Person Controller static and at the edge of the scene).\n5. Testing the grabbing by the First Person Controller of small elements of the painting and moving them about and placing them in new positions.\n6. As the First Person Controller activates the random repositioning of the 3D geometric elements of the painting within the 3D/VR scene which may result in the loss of on of his lives as the elements collide between themselves and also with him.\n"},{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff833","treeId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","seq":11204929,"position":1.25,"parentId":"59b52d24532367f0494ff831","content":"### Introduction \n*Practice Based Research Purpose\n\nContributing to the construction of a MoMA Art Event that reinterprets a series of geometric abstract paintings as Participatory 3D and VR environments that can be seen/experienced and altered interactively by a viewer through a First Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine. \n\nCurrently, art and culture are concentrating actively in the participation of the people in events in ways not tried before. Not simply as visitors or viewers but as collaborators who dynamically contribute to art and culture. In such art events the visitor is allowed to modify radically a work of art through interfacing with it. (Arken Bulletin, Vol.7, 2017) ; These specifically fabricated works of art become mutable through the direct interface with visitor.\n\nThe design, planning and implementation of an Interactive Art Event is done through the collaboration of numerous specialists such as art theoriticians, concept artists, and computer specialists under the direction of curators with the support of sponsors. \n\nThe artist creating interactive art exceeds considerations of how it will appear or sound to a spectator/user. The way that it interacts with the spectators is also a fundamental part of its essence. The essential part of such art is mainly in invoking behaviour rather than in anything else. From the creativity’s point of view, the practice of the interaction artist is, therefore, quite different to that of a painter. A painting is static while the interactive art, nevertheless, is as variable as the responses of the spectators to the artwork's activity ; (Ernest Edmonds, 2015)\n\nOngoing explorations into Interactive Art delve into the concept of object/viewer spatial associations, the merging of many approaches of interactive art and the connection between visualization and interactive communication. (Frances Joseph, Nolwenn Hugain-Lacire, & Verena Ziegler, 2012) ;\n\nThe Participatory Art practices in the Art and Culture Events indicate the involvement of many people while the one-to-one relationship implies the Interactive Art which sidesteps the elusiveness of ‘social commitment’, ( Claire Bishop, 2012) ;\n\nIn Participatory Art and Culture events, the artist usually triggers something in various art forms but releases it to the control of the spectators for additional handling, treatment, etc. (Patricia Reed 2008).\n\nIn Instabul Biennial, 2007, David Goldenberg handed over an art installation to the visitors who could do anything they pleased with it in order to see whether or not the existing form would generate further objectives; this gave rise to a number of extended uses for the art work by diverse audiences . (David Goldenberg, 2008).\n\nThe curator would choose to focus on geometrical abstraction paintings as a theme for an Interactive Art Event because they dwell in a nonillusionistic space and topologically they are comprised of nonobjective compositions that invoke thought provoking conceptual meanings. It would be quite a challenge, and innovation at the same time, to metamorphose it into a 3D/VR Interactive environment while remaining non-representational, and object-free.\n\nAs geometric abstraction evolved through the Cubist deconstruction of visual reality and reformulation of the established conventions of form and space. Many artists followed this geometric abstraction and converted it into their own creative language . (Magdalena Dabrowski, 2004); \n\nFor a curator the process of reinterpreting geometrical abstraction paintings through interactivity and game art would constitute a vital evolutionary step in the New Art Media. \n\nIt must be noted that quite a number of geometrical abstraction paintings such as the Proun series of El Lisssitsky and some of the works of László Moholy-Nagy and others go beyond the two dimentions and are depicted in a 3D illusionistic space through novel conceptual topology; Richard J. Difford (1995) supports the view that Lissitsky’s Prouns invoke the illusion of four-dimensional space. Esther Levinger (2016) notes that Lissitsky viewed art as a game and he created complex artwork along those lines ; Rosa Maria Oliveira (2011) in her paper ‘Light and Shadows in Holography: A possible dialogue between Art and Science by using Artistic Holography’ presents a detailed account of László Moholy-Nagy’s experimentations and the distinctiveness of his geometric abstraction paintings . The curator would definitely be interested in including such geometrical abstraction paintings in this Interactive Art Event.\n\nNew Media has radically transformed the ways in which art can be shown to the public as a spectacle, this resulted in altering the way in which curators presented exhibitions of artwork adopting the new digital techniques of exposition, such as real-time online applications and within virtual reality. An artistic exhibition through Virtual Reality (VR) offers us sensational new potentials and for the curation of not only digitised versions of traditional but also oppotrunities for innovative presentation of contemporary art works . (Jeni Maleshkova, Matthew Purver, Oliver Grau, Peter McOwan, 2014)\n\nThe ‘variable paintings’ of Öyvind Fahlström are interactively rearrangeable. This is an innovation that came about through Fahlström’s discovery of concretism, his interest in semiotic theory and pursuit of art as an interactive game art. Basically each ‘variable painting’ was a composition of magnetized elements that could be juxtaposed in various arrangements by the user/spectator just like is seen in the diverse chess position diagrams. These interactive and open works of art are easily modifiable to new postdigital platforms. (Annika Öhrner, 2012) ; \n\nIn an Interactive Art Installation a curator may request the amalgamation of especially selected game routines such as lives for the user/spectator. Celia Pearce (2006) , advocates that such inclusion of Game Art would implicate the disruption of a number of artistic privileges and that this possibility upsets many artists because they suppose that if they hand over their artwork to the spectators, their point of view will greatly undermined. However, by now artists and curators have accepted the fact that Participatory and Interactive Art imposes the sharing of the art-making practice with the audience. \n\nWith a First Person Controller (FPS) an enviroment is seen same as from the viewpoint of the player character in computer games. It is available in all game engines - applications with which to create computer games, one of them is Unity 3D. A First Person perspective is consistently used in various genres, ranging from adventure games to flight simulators and some Interactive Installations. \nIt is a viewpoint used to represent the perspective of a user within a location, as in flight and racing simulators. Alan Crespi (2013) clarified that FPS is an significant part of constructing a game in respect to the immersion into a 3D/VR location and controls how the player moves around, how he reacts and especially interacts within that location. \nA FPS can be preconfigured in a multitude of ways: by defining his height, mass, how he runs, jumps etc. Additionally through scripts (computer programs in C Sharp language) these properties can be extended further or even customized radically.\n\nThe relocating the 3D geometric composition elements of the painting\nis done in Unity 3D game engine through the First Person Controller. This may cause a series of random repositionings of the 3D geometric elements (of all sizes) of the painting within the bounds of the 3D/VR scene. \nAlternatively, as a First Person Controller the user/spectator may take up or push and reposition any 3D geometric element with mass less than his own. Large elements will be considered immovable while any repositioning may be done on elements with 'mass' less than that of the First Person Controller. \nIf a very big 3D geometric element (i.e a huge sphere) after moving randomly falls on the First Person Controller he is destroyed or if he has a number of lives he will be left with one less; this possibility combines Interactive Art with Game Art. The First Person Controller/spectator walks, runs, jumps and even floats/flies within the 3D/VR environment.\n\n•\tContribution to the Construction of an Interactive Art Event \n•\tInteractive Art Event \n•\tReinterpretation of a geometric abstract painting \n•\tVariable Paintings\n•\tInto a Participatory/Interactive 3D and VR environment \n•\tAltered interactively by a viewer \n•\tGame Art\n•\tFirst Person Controller in Unity 3D game engine . \n\n"}],"tree":{"_id":"59b52d24532367f0494ff830","name":"Academic Paper Arp","publicUrl":"academic-paper-arp"}}