Convincing a person to do something that they already wanted to do
“You excel so much in the dance, Miss Eliza, that it is cruel to deny me the happiness of seeing you; and though this gentleman disliked the amusement in general, he can have no objection, I am sure, to oblige us for one half hour.” P.27
Here Lizzie is persuaded. Sir William is explaining to her the reasons that he wants her to dance with Darcy. But what makes this situation different from manipulation is that Liz actually kinda wants to dance with Darcy.
“I feel it my duty to to promote and establish the blessing of peace in all families within the reach of influence; and on these grounds I flatter myself that my present overtures of good will are highly commendable, and that the circumstance of my being next in the entail of Lougnbourn estate will be kindly overlooked on your side, and not lead you to reject the offered olive branch.” P.64
Mr. Collins does want to fix things between the two families, but he wants to persuade them by saying things that might not be completely true so that way he can get what he wants.
“He had never in his life witnessed such behavior in a person of rank - such affability and condescension, as he had himself experienced from Lady Catherine.” P.67
The Bennets know that Lady Catherine is a highly ranked woman, but Mr. Collins is using this fact to persuade the Bennets into liking him more.
“I have a warm, unguarded temper, and I may perhaps have sometimes spoken my opinion of him, and to him, too freely. I can recall nothing worse. But the fact is, that we are very different sort of men, and that he hates me.” P.80
Here Mr. Wickham is speaking mostly the truth. Yet he is persuading Lizzie into believing what she wants; that Darcy is a bad man.
“I have always seen a great similarity in the turn of our minds. We are each unsocial, taciturn disposition, unwilling to speak, unless we expect to say something that will amaze the whole room, and be handed down to posterity with all the eclat of a proverb.” P.92
In this situation Lizzie is persuading herself of two conflicting things. The first that her and Darcy are similar and that in reality they should give each other a try as they might work well together, but at the same time she is also pointing out the fact that since all of these things are true that there should be more chemistry between each other.
“Mr. Wickham is blessed with such happy manners as may ensure his making friends - whether he may be equally capable of retaining them, is less certain.” P.93
This is one of Darcy’s first attempts at indirectly persuading Liz of the fact that Wickham is a bad man.
“‘No, no, nonsense, Lizzie. I desire you will stay where you are.’ And upon Elizabeth’s seeming really, with vexed and embarrassed looks, about too escape, she added: ‘Lizzie, I insist upon your staying and hearing Mr. Collins.’” P.104
Mrs. Bennet is persuading Liz here. It may seem as though she is manipulating her but we all know that Liz does have an intrigue to see what Mr. Collins has to say, and it is entirely in Mrs. Bennet’s best interest.
Convincing a person to do something that they did not want to do but that you wanted to do
“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.” P.5
Here jane Austen is manipulating the audience to believe the main premise of her entire novel. If this did not work then the novel would fail.
“She is tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me.” P.13
Jane Austen is once again manipulating the audience by creating a response from Mr. Darcy that makes the audience dislike Darcy from the beginning.
“You had better go on horseback, because it seems likely to rain; and then you must stay all the night.” P.31
Mrs. Bennet is seen manipulating everyone here. Her goal is to have Jane spend as much time with the Bingleys as possible so that they can see her as a possible wife for Mr. Bingley. However, this is considered manipulation because it is not what everyone wants. She is also being manipulative by creating a scheme.
“She is a great deal too ill to be moved. Mr. Jones says we must not think of moving her. We must trespass a little longer on your kindness.” P.42
This situation is considered manipulation because Mrs. Bennet wants Jane to have to stay another night while everyone else is ready for her to leave so she is manipulating everyone by fibbing.
“His appearance was greatly in his favor: he had all the best parts of beauty, a fine countenance, a good figure, and very pleasing address.” P.73
Jane Austen is manipulating the readers by making them believe that Wickham is a good man, while in reality he is a bad character that people fall in love with when they should hate him.
“Both changed colour, one looked white, the other red.” P.74
Jane Austen is manipulating the audience into believing that Darcy is the man iin wrong while Wickham really is.
“The officers of the ———-shire were in general a very creditable, gentlemanlike set, and the best of them were of the present party; but Mr. Wickham was as far beyond them all in person, countenance, air, and walk.” P.77
Jane Austen is once again manipulating the audience by creating a false characteristic of Mr. Wickham that makes the readers believe that he is a wonderfully good man.
“Almost all his actions may be traced to pride; and pride has often been his best friend.” P.82
Her Lizzie is being manipulated because she doesn’t have a complete understanding of pride yet which creates a lack of want for Darcy to be either prideful or not which creates only a want from Wickhams side forcing Lizzie to be manipulated
“And now nothing remains for me but to assure you in the most animated language of the violence of my affection. To fortune I am perfectly indifferent, and shall make no demand of that nature on your father.” P.106
In order for Mr. Collins to have a chance at marrying lizzie, he must manipulate her. This is because Lizzie has no want to marry him at all which causes him to have to manipulate her into get her to consider the marriage offer at all.
“Oh, Mr. Bennet, you are wanted immediately; we are all in an uproar. You must come and make Lizzie marry Mr. Collins, for she vows she will not have him; and if you do not make haste he will change his mind and not have her.” P.111
Here Mrs. Bennet is trying to manipulate Mr. Bennet into using his power to force Liz into marrying someone who she doesn’t love. The only way that Mrs. Bennet knows how to manipulate Lizzie is by the use of her father which creates this scene.
The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community
Society creates rules that one must follow in order to be a member
“In Geneva, as he had been perfectly aware a young man wasn’t at liberty to speak to a young unmarried lady save under rarely-occuring conditions.” P.8
The first evidence of society’s rules. This rules explains when a man is allowed to talk to a woman.
“She might be cold, she might be austere, she might even be prim; for that was apparently - he had already so generalized - what the most “distant” American girls did: they came and planted themselves straight in front of you to show how rigidly unapproachable they were.”
As Winterbourne observes Daisy he discovers that society makes women wish to be unapproachable. This may be because women are below men in society and if they wish to maintain any sort of power and respect they must hold themselves high and keep their real selves hidden.
“I’m very fond of society and I’ve always had plenty of it.” P.14
This quote helps prove the importance of society as a whole. If society can be regarded highly by someone who is hated by society, then one can only imagine the respect society has from its best members.
“Some people had told him that after all American girls were exceedingly innocent, and others had told him that after all they weren’t.” P.15
Even though society has rules that work for the whole, opinions within can still differ. Gossip is a major part of society and Winterbourne can only know as much as he is exposed to. Therefore it is up to Winterbourne to come to a conclusion of which category Daisy falls under.
“He wondered what were the regular conditions and limitations of one’s intercourse with a pretty American flirt.” P.15
Here Winterbourne is questioning what society’s rules are for contact with American flirts because if he knows that if he crosses that line too much then he will be regarded illy by society.
“They’re the sort of Americans that one does one’s duty by just ignoring them.” P.20
Winterbourne’s aunt plays the role of society here by dictating how much contact should be given to Daisy and her family.
“‘She has that charming look they all have,’ his aunt resumed. ‘I can’t think where they pick it up; and she dresses in perfection - no, you don’t know how well she dresses. I can’t think where they get their taste.’” P.20
In order to be ranked highly in society, one must have the best of everything. Here Winterbourne’s aunt points out the fact that the Miller’s dress in style. This however is a conflicting idea due to the fact that they have good clothes but are not high up in society.
“They treat the courier as a family friend - as a gentleman and a scholar. I shouldn’t wonder if he dines with them. Very likely they’ve never seen a man with such good manners, such fine clothes, so like a gentleman - or a scholar.” P.21
Social distinctions were very prevalent. The Millers are regarded lowly for many reasons, one of them being that they are so close with their courier, someone who is clearly of a lower social status.
“That she’s the sort of young lady who expects a man sooner or later to - well, we’ll call it carry her off?” P. 22
Here we see that society expects certain actions from different people. Based off of what society knows about Daisy, they can only assume what sort of actions to expect from her.
“If therefore Miss Daisy Miller exceeded the liberal license allowed to these young women it was probable she did go even by the American allowance rather far.” P.23
Here we see two different societies in play. European society and American society. What this quote is saying is that if Daisy goes far in the European sense that it is even further in the American sense.
“I like a lady to be exclusive; I’m dying to be exclusive myself. Well I guess we are exclusive, mother and I. We don’t speak to any one - or they don’t speak to us.” P.24
1.excluding or not admitting other things.
2.restricted or limited to the person, group, or area concerned
Here we see Daisy’s desire to be exclusive in the sense that she would be above the average person. Yet in reality Daisy is exclusive because she is below the average upper society and is therefore restricted from contact with them because she is below them.
“He felt quite ready to sacrifice his aunt - conversationally; to acknowledge she was a proud rude woman and to make the point that they needn’t mind her.” P.26
In society one must always stand up for their family. Yet here Winterbourne is willing to degrade his aunt in order to become closer with Daisy.
“But mother doesn’t like any of my gentleman friends. She’s down right timid. She always makes a fuss if I introduce a gentleman. But I do introduce them - almost always. If I didn’t introduce my gentleman friends to mother, I shouldn’t think I was natural.” P.27
In Daisy’s eyes she sees that society requires her to introduce her “lovers” for a lack of a better term. Yet in reality society looks down upon this act because she is introducing so many men that shouldn’t have the privilege of meeting women above their social status.
It gave him occasion to note that this was a very different type of maternity from that of the vigilant matrons who massed themselves in the forefront of social intercourse in the dark old city at the other end of the lake.” P.30
Daisy’s mom is not a normal mom. According to the text, a normal mom is one who is at “the forefront of social intercourse.” This means that the average mom is involved in the social world and therefore has more of an effect on their child’s decisions and actions.
“To the young man himself their small excursion showed so far delightfully irregular and incongruously intimate that, even allowing for her habitual sense of freedom, he had some expectation of seeing her appear to find in it the same savour.”P.34
Here we see the dominance of men over women. Winterbourne is “allowing” her some “habitual sense of freedom.” We also see the preconceptions of Winterbourne since he believes to understand what kind of things she will enjoy in their relationship, yet in reality, we do not know whether or not she actually enjoys this “freedom.” Another thing that is important about this is the idea that the woman is subservient. This idea still exists in todays society but it is not nearly as prevalent.
“People continued to look at her a great deal, and Winterbourne could at least take pleasure in his pretty companion’s distinguished air. He had been privately afraid she would talk loud, laugh overmuch, and even perhaps desire to move extravagantly about the boat.” P.34
When on the boat to the castle, people are interested in Daisy. She is a beautiful young lady, I mean who wouldn’t want to look at her? But what makes this regard from society different from the one later in the story when she is viewed as an inappropriate girl? How does society have the right to judge her differently if she is with a different guy in a different country?
“They had the good fortune to have been able to wander without other society than that of their guide; and Winterbourne arranged with this companion that they shouldn’t be hurried - that they should linger and pause wherever they chose.” P.36
Here Winterbourne is completely aware that what he is doing is wrong in societies eyes. However he has rigged this date so that he does not have to see “society” and instead he can act differently around her instead of if society was present.
“They seem to have made several acquaintances, but the courier continues to be the most intime. The young lady, however, is also very intimate with various third-rate Italians, with whom she rackets about in a way that makes much talk.” P.39
Society judges those who hang out with anyone who is lesser than them. This is the reason that they are discussing who Daisy spends her time with.
“Well, the girl tears about alone with her unmistakably low foreigners. As to what happes further you must apply elsewhere for information. She has picked up half a dozen of the regular Roman fortune-hunters of the inferior sort and she takes them about to such houses as she may put her nose into. When she comes to a party - such a party as she can come to - she brings with her a gentleman with a good deal of manner and a wonderful moustache.” P.40
When daisy arrived in Italy, she surrounded herself with people of a much lower class, forcing her to join a lower society. We can see here that society has judged her for those acts because they do not invite her to every party, and when they do invite her it is evident that they do not enjoy the presence of her or her companion therefore punishing her for her actions by not inviting her to the next party.
“They’re hopelessly vulgar, whether or no being hopelessly vulgar is being ‘bad’ is a question for the metaphysicians. They’re bad enough to blush for, at any rate; and for this short life that’s quite enough.” P.40
Vulgar means lacking sophistication or good taste; unrefined. To society, being vulgar is a terrible thing. This means that you are below the upper class. One sense of Daisy’s vulgarity is the sort of people that she hangs out with.
“It’s on account of the society - the society’s splendid. She goes round everywhere; she has made a great number of acquaintances. Of course she goes round more that I do. I must say they’ve all been very sweet - they’ve taken her right in. And then she knows a great many gentlemen. Oh she thinks there’’s nothing like Rome. Of course it;s a great deal pleasanter for a young lady if she knows plenty gentlemen.” P.44
Society can be a wonderful thing to be a part of. Daisy is enticed by the idea of society so much that she finds herself with all sorts of society, which then degrades her of any higher society that could be present.
“He remembered how a cynical compatriot had once told him that American women - the pretty ones, and this gave him a largeness to the axiom - were at once the most exacting in the world and the least endowed with a sense of indebtedness.” P.44
Society consists of ideas. Therefore when one has an idea (an opinion) on another person it then goes into society and has the possibility of becoming a generic opinion.
“‘Alone, my dear - at this hour?’ Mrs. Walker asked. The afternoon was drawing to a close - it was the hour for the throng of carriages and of contemplative pedestrians. ‘I don’t consider it’s safe Daisy.’” P. 46
The reason that Mrs. Walker does not think this time of day to be safe is because there are too many people out and about that could see Daisy with a gentleman friend and then draw conclusions about her. Here Mrs. Walker’s role in society is to try to help Daisy make good decisions.
“The slow-moving, idly-gazing Roman crowd bestowed much attention on the extremely pretty young woman of the English race who passed through it.” P.47
Every member of society looks up to those who are a higher member than they are. In this story the natives are considered a lower class than the Americans which explains why the Romans would be looking at beautiful Daisy.
“I know ever so many people, and they’re all so charming. The society’s extremely select. There are all kinds - English and Germans and Italians. I think I like the English the best. I like their style of conversation.” P.48
Daisy’s desire for society causes her to want to know every sort of people. Yet we can still see that her natural society is still in her as she understands that the English are of the upper class and of the highest sorts of society.
“She had clearly a natural turn for free introductions; she mentioned with the easiest grace the name of each of her companions to the other.” P.50
In societies rules, the man has the power. Here, Daisy has taken the power into her own hands and has introduced the two gentlemen to each other. This however is not a good thing because Daisy is going against society in this situation.
“Would a nice girl - even allowing for her being a little American flirt - make a rendezvous with a presumably low-lived foreigner?” P.51
A person’s character helps to dictate their actions. If someone is considered to be one thing and they prove to be another, then their position in society must be rejudged so that there can be an accurate interpretation of them.
“The rendez-vous in this case indeed had been in broad daylight and in the most crowded corner of Rome; but wasn’t possible to regard the choice of these very circumstances as a proof more of vulgarity than of anything else?” P.51
In a way society would rather you keep your digressions a secret, but at the same time if it is done in the open then there is no secret about it. However, when this occurs society has the complete right to judge you in full.
“She had been walking some quarter of an hour attended by her two cavaliers and responding in a tone of very childish gaiety.” P.51
Society deems a specific time for a person to mature into an adult. Here it is not specific what age a person is supposed to reach this maturity, but from the responses of society from Daisy’s actions on can conclude that Daisy has passed this age.
“That crazy girl mustn’t do this sort of thing. She mustn’t walk here with you two men. Fifty people have remarked her.” P.52
“It’s a pity to let the girl ruin herself!” P.52
“To ask her to get in, to drive her about here for half an hour - so that the world may see she’s not running absolutely wild - and then take her safely home.” P.52
Society tends to comment more on the actions that go against the norm, therefore when Daisy is seen walking with two men, society as a whole will talk about the horror she is bringing. Mrs. Walker wants to hide this so she wishes to remove Daisy from societies eyes so that society might forget what she did wrong.
“You’re old enough to be more reasonable. You’re old enough, dear Miss Miller to be talked about.” P.53
As mentioned before, once a person reaches a certain age, they are expected to preform certain task and not partake in certain actions. Here we see that once that age is reached, society also gains the ability to judge you.
“Flirting with any man she can pick up; sitting in corners with mysterious Italians; dancing all the evening with the same partners; receiving visits at eleven o’clock at night.” P.55
All of these are acts that society can judge Daisy for.
They evidently saw no one; they were too deeply occupied with each other. When they reached the low garden-wall they remained a little looking off at the great flat-topped pine-clusters of Villa Borghese; then the girl’s attendant admirer seated himself familiarly on the broad ledge of the wall. The western sun in the opposite sky sent out a brilliant shaft through a couple of cloud-bars; whereupon the gallant Giobanelli took her parasol out of her hands and opened it. She came a little nearer and he held the parasol over her; then, still holding it, he let it so rest on her shoulder that both of their heads were hidden from Winterbourne.” P.57
Here sight is deceiving. Geo and Daisy are sitting close together which leads the audience to believe that they are being romantic but since their faces can not be seen, we do not know whether or not they are in a real relationship or not.
“Daisy came after eleven o’clock, but she wasn’t on such an occasion, a young lady to wait to be spoken to. She rustled forward in radiant loveliness, smiling and chattering, carrying a large bouquet and attended by Mr. Giovanelli. Every one stopped talking and turned and looked at her while she floated up to Mrs. Walker.” P.59
Here Daisy appears as if their is no worry in the world while in reality, society is judging her to the point that if she is not careful that she will have no society left to be a member of.
“But did you ever hear anything so cool as Mrs. Walker wanting me to get into her carriage and drop poor Mr. Giovanelli, and under the pretext that it was proper? People have different ideas! It would have been most unking; he had been talking about that walk for ten days.” P. 61
Here the difference in the state of mind between Daisy and society is extremely clear. What is wrong to society is right to Daisy which causes major problems.
“The Pincio ain’t the street either, I guess; and I besides, thank goodness, am not a young lady of this country. The young ladies of this country have a dreadfully pokey time of it, by what I can discover; I don’t see why I should change my habits for such stupids.” P.61
Society looks down on those who are “lesser” than them. Here the natives are even seen as “stupids.” This pedestal that the Americans are placed on causes them to not understand any other story besides theirs which goes as far as creating a hatred between the groups.
“When you deal with natives you must go by the custom of the country. American flirting is a purely American silliness; it has - in its ineptitude of innocence - no place in this system.” P.62
Societies exist in all types of forms. Here it is evident that European society differs from American society. What might be acceptable in one can be unacceptable in the other. Here we see that flirting is tolerated in American society but when implemented into the European society, this action takes on a whole new meaning which becomes even less acceptable.
“Though you may be flirting, Mr. Giovanelli isn’t - he means something else.” P.62
Society deems that one groups intentions can be and most likely will be different from another groups. This is more prevalent when a person of a lower status is trying to be with a person of a higher status. Since Daisy is so innocent, she is unable to see the truth of Geo’s affection which causes society to look down on her more.
“If you’re in love with each other it’s another affair altogether!” P.62
In society one must be with another inside their same group. If this does not occur society begins to judge and punish. The reason that one can not be with another in another group is simply that they would be leaving their own social class and be lowering the social class of the other.
“Between Mr. Costello and her friends, much was said about poor little Miss Miller’s going really ‘too far.’” P.68
Society has the ability to judge any person. Within the judgement society also begins to form their decision about what action they want to take next.
“They ceased to invite her, intimation that they wished to make, and make strongly, for the benefit of observant Europeans, the point that though Miss Daisy Miller was a pretty American girl all right, her behavior wasn’t pretty at all - was in fact regarded by her compatriots as quite monstrous.” P. 69
Like in every kind of relationship society has the ability to punish those who do “wrong.” Here societies punishment is ignoring Daisy.
“The air of the other ages surrounded one; but the air of other ages, coldly analysed, was no better than a villainous miasma.” P.74
Within society there are multiple groups. Here we see the difference between the older Italian society and the younger American society. The tension between the two is one of respect and hatred as they are both proud of and envy the other.
“She was a young lady about the shades of whose perversity a foolish puzzled gentleman need no longer trouble his head or his hear. That once questionable quantity had no shades - it was a mere black little blot.” P.74
Society makes a woman want to be mysterious. When a woman is mysterious the man is not able to gain complete control over her. Therefore it is acceptable for a woman to be mysterious. Yet when a woman is finally discovered she loses all mystery and and becomes a different type of member in society.
“Winterbourne stood there beside it with a number of other mourner; a number larger that the scandal exited by the young lady’s career might have made probable.” P.79
Society says that when a scandal occurs, one must be interested in it. This is why so many people came to the funeral, because Daisy Miller herself was a scandal which excited the attention of society.