emphasize the importance of CA
serve as a reminder why teachers should use CA more often in classroom
by Angeline Oh Abai
under the program of Master of Education (Curriculum & Instructional Design)
for Faculty of Education, University Malaysia Sabah.
Try to tell a story here, no matter what your field. You are writing for human beings, not computers. What’s the area, what’s the problem you are trying to understand. How? What you found?
(You are summarizing your core results, not cramming them into this tiny space)
WRITE THIS AFTER THE FIELD RESEARCH
Refer to word document
(Mohd. Radzi, Azmin, #Zolhani, & Abdul Latif, 2007)
Teachers have a different theoretical beliefs of a communicative language teaching than that of the principles of communicative approach.
The national English language curriculum specifies a communicative syllabus, yet classroom learning is [heavily] influenced by an examination-orientated teaching.
The school environment do not support the communicative language teaching due to various constraints.
The general purpose of this paper is to find out the extent of communicative language teaching being implemented in secondary schools according as to principles of communicative approach.
Based on the objectives stated above, this study seeks answers to the following questions.
Communicative Approach is seen less documented teaching method in Sabah classrooms, due to various reasons, despite its early adaptation in the national education policy (clearly expressed or specified) through years of curriculum development.
This should be something about the extent of CA being implemented across the education system. To give the reader a big picture of current strong emphasis of CA in the education system. Seeing that there should be more effort by teachers in school to implement the teaching method in their classroom.
Section Data Elicitation Question
Teacher’s Teaching Style
Grammar/ Communicative Importance
Curriculum Satisfaction Category
Beliefs of CLT
Factors affecting Implementation of CLT
Teaching Training Opportunity
Classroom Observation Permission
There are many methods of teaching language in a classroom. For the past two decades, the trends of teaching a second language have evolved from traditional to contemporary methods. While there have been many debates on the best teacher practices in English language teaching, communicative language teaching or interchangeable, communicative approach has gained most attention for the last few decades. Since its introduction in 1940 by Western linguistics researchers, the method has actively been applied in countries, where English is learned as a foreign language, like China, Japan and India over the traditional methods. Communicative approach allows learners to practice the target language in spoken medium and negotiate in meanings that are useful to real life situation. (quote on why it stays )
In Malaysia, English is strongly spoken as a second language besides learning national language as the medium of communication in daily uses. In Malaysia, English speaking competency is regarded as one of major components of employment skills in a fresh graduates. Malaysia wants to be on par with other countries economically by through monitoring quality of education of language proficiency (NEP,2013). Therefore, communicative approach was introduced in KBSM national education curriculum that teaches the four aspect of language learning – speaking,listening, reading and writing. Macro skills were incorporated in the curriculum which then be reflected in teaching techniques, methods and materials in classroom. The change of curriculum from structural to communicative-thematic syllabus (quote, ) is to address language learning proficiency so that graduates are prepared to face employment requirements of a proficient English speaker.
There is a concern around the teaching approach which teacher’s uses in classroom despite new approaches have been called for in attempts to change the nature of learning from traditional to one that promotes real-life communication. The communicative syllabus has been around for over 30 years, and many of available studies reported teacher’s favorable attitude to communicative approach, the approach is still fuzzy among practitioners mainly because, although it is deemed having versatile principles that are adaptable to various classroom context,there have been a lack of activities which is not prescribed specifically for Malaysian cultural & learning contexts (Reza & Fazirah, 2013). In addition, there is still a prominent nature of exam-orientated learning in school with the respect to the traditional method of assessing reading, writing and vocabulary skills and, thereby less on evaluating communicative competence of target language(Gopal,2014). Moreover, the current state of school conditions occasionally do not support the nature of communicative language teaching due to various constraints which are beyond the teacher’s control(Reza & Fazirah, 2013).
Therefore, this research specifically aims to achieve the following objectives:
1.To analyse the beliefs and practice of English teachers when applying communicative approach in classroom.
2.To observe common trends of CLT classroom activities conducted in classroom by English teachers.
3.To describe factors that affect the implementation of communicative approach in English secondary school.
Based on the objectives stated above, this study seeks answers to the following questions.
What are the beliefs and practice held by teachers when applying communicative approach in classroom?
What are the factors that affect the implementation of communicative language teaching in secondary school.
What are the common trends of CA classroom activities conducted in classroom by English teachers?
Secondary school teachers do actively practice communicative language teaching actively in classroom with application of principles that meet the cultural context of the learners.
This study is to contribute a wider body of knowledge in the area of communicative approach in language teaching as a little study is found for this teaching approach in Sabah. The data and findings will be valuable for teachers, government administrators or curriculum designers who plays important role in shaping the education system in Malaysia. In addition, this study is also to encourage instructors about the practicality of implementing communicative approach when teaching English as a second language in a country of multicultural context.
In a book co-written by Renandya and Richards (2005),mentioned that Communicative Approach, or interchangeably used for communicative language teaching, is a teaching method that can be perceived as a fundamental theories about goals of language teaching, how learners gain knowledge or a skill, the elements of classroom activities that best makes learning easy, and the function assumed by the teachers and learners in the classroom.
The Goals of Language Teaching
The goals of language teaching in the communicative approach, according to Richard, requires an achievement for learners to gain the ability to converse to other speakers in a meaningful communication. It is the ability to understand the meanings interchange in a conversation rather than just about knowing how to form a sentence in the target language. One, who knows the building blocks or rules to building sentence, thus is said competence in the grammar area, may not necessary display the ability to negotiate meanings or information with other speakers.
How Learners Learn a Language
The traditional context to language acquisition of a learner, often are led by teacher dictates him or her to form sentences in a habit that do not welcomes error when producing the correct sentences. This is a contrast to communicative approach as learners are not restricted to only memorizing dialogues or performing drills that minimized changes of mistakes, but taking on their responsibility in learning (Renandya & Richards, 2005). Making mistakes is an opportunity for learners to practice the target language freely with another speaker while increasing the chances of speaking habit.
The Kinds of Classroom Activities that Best Facilitate Learning
Consecutively, the kind of classroom activities that best facilitate learning with the aim of increasing the chances of learners conversing in the target language meaningfully, calls for activities that focus on fluency in language use and away from accuracy of mastering grammar items. Teacher ‘creates classroom activities in which students must negotiate meaning, use communication strategies, correct misunderstandings and work to avoid communication breakdowns’. It is expected to see students work activities out in pair, role-plays, group and project (Renandya & Richards, 2005).
The Roles of Teachers and Learners in the Classroom
The nature of classroom activities induced by the principle of communicative approach also see a change to the interaction between a teacher and learner. The cooperative approach to learning, as stated earlier is less individualistic approach, set students in motion to become at ease with listening to their peers in group or pair tasks, in place of depending on the teacher for a model. At the same time, teachers are to take note of errors made by students and develop or facilitate language learning that allows students to differentiate the function of language in use. Hence, Richard (2005) regards the teacher as one who has assumed the roles of a facilitator and monitor in a classroom.
The English language syllabus has changed over the years. Before 1975, it was a grammar-based syllabus. The skill-based syllabus was then introduced in 1988. The curriculum was once again reviewed in 2003 where the English syllabus is now a language uses syllabus. According to Richard, CA syllabus can be divided to …
The secondary school curriculum has an integration of language teaching through communicative approach beginning 1975. In a book entitled *ELT Methodology; Principles & Practice (2005), which was written for Malaysian teacher training colleges, the author reasoned the changes made in the curriculum with the following rationale (taken from page 20):
According to Bapoo Hashim (2007), a former high education official, on her report which highlighted the various shifts in Malaysian curriculum over the last few years,’the focus changes to communicational syllabus in order to consolidate changes made in the West, especially in the United Kingdom.’ English learning then emphasized meaning or function, contextualized, learning to communicate, error creation and fluency-focus. Communicative competency becomes the language knowledge of student’s overall learning outcome.
English Language Aims
The English language learning in the secondary school is to equip learners in a language skill that would prepare them in real life situations especially in daily conversations and work life. Learners will have the ability to form relationship through conversation and exchange information through spoken and written form. Consequently, this type of learning is translated to learning outcomes of a student specified in Malaysia *Integrated Curriculum of Secondary Schools, KBSM (2003). Thematic topics like people, environment, social issues, values, health, science and technology, encompass those learning outcomes. For example, Form 4 students will be able to learn the function of inquiry for products and services through speaking, listening, writing and reading.
Since the integration of communicative approach to language teaching was introduced in education policy, there is an emphasis in the need to implement this modern teaching method in the school. Bahiyah bt Abdul Hamid (1990), whose study stressed on importance of communicative approach to language teaching,saw its benefit as ‘it encourages autonomous interaction in the classroom through genuine communication instead of participating in teacher manipulated and structured activities’.She was particularly concern about the turn out of university students who had graduated from secondary schools with an attitude to learning that is passive and reserved.
teacher's & student's attitude towards CA
A few local studies were done to study the attitude of teachers and students towards the communicative approach implemented in school. While the overall attitude to communicative approach has been positive, there are a few problems which English teachers faced when implementing the approach in classroom.
(Reza Raissi, Fazirah bt Mohd Nor, 2013)
Factors promoting & hindering CLT
A naturalistic approach is used in this large-scale research to collect information from teacher’s point of view about the teaching method of communicative approach in language teaching. This non-experimental design also records information in classroom for any teacher’s action that represents that of CLT. Therefore, this study considers to be mix-method research into understand the extent of implementing communicative language teaching in secondary school English classroom.
This study targets English language teachers from 50 secondary schools situated in state of Sabah. National public schools are chosen with the consideration that teachers are teaching Form 4 students, and follows the communicative syllabus of Integrated Curriculum of Secondary Schools in English subject.
The location of government schools in this study are selected based on cluster sampling where participants are concentrated in West Coast of the state. In addition, teachers are also randomly selected from the list of schools for classroom observation based on simple random sampling.
All participants will be involved in this study that uses questionnaires consisting of both close and open-ended question items that are used to obtain data both in qualitative and quantitative forms. The selected participants will be subject to classroom manual or electronic recordings of teaching action.
Data Collection and Analysis Procedure
Citation: ( #Gopal, 2014) page 336
*The findings indicated that language tests neglect the aspects of speaking skills when comes to evaluating the learners real life communication skills and also measuring learners’ communicative competence in the target language.
( #Reza & Fazirah, 2013) pg 876
According to some researchers teachers has some problems in implementing CLT in ESL contexts such as teacher’s problems with … and most of the teachers are eager to take form based and knowledge based examinations which conflicts with the principals of CLT.
CITATION:(KBSM, 2003,pg 1)
The Learning Outcomes of the syllabus specify the skills to be achieved by learners in the three areas of language use: the Interpersonal, the Informational and the Aesthetic.
CITATION: ( KBSM, 2003, pg 4)
Preparation for the Real World
The learning outcomes prepare learners to meet the challenges of the real world by focusing on language use in society. To some extenet this is achieved through structuring the curriculum in terms of the Interpersonal, Informational and Aesthetic uses of language. It is also achieved by making use of real-life issues for classroom activities and project work. Whenever the opportunity presents itself, learners are encouraged to meet with people outside of the classroom so that they learn to operate in real-life situations.
Refer to Book:
Exploring Language Classroom REsearch on format of hypothesis.
Techniques & Principles in Language Teaching
by Diane Larsen-Freeman and Marti Anderson
Oxford University Press, Printed in China.
‘method’ to mean a coherent set of links between the actions of a teacher in a classroom and the thoughts that underlie [be the cause or basis of (something)] the actions. The actions are the techniques, and the thoughts are the principles in the title of this book.
teachers - reflect their ideas and challenges in applying CLT in MYan 2nd school
adminstrative executers in the MOE benefit result, revise related curriculum
textbook designers - to know teachers’ ideas about CLT features, adopting textbooks according to teachers’ needs.
The findings of this research are expected to help teachers reflect on their current communicative language testing practices as well as some suggestions for designing and implementing a fair successful method of communicative testing which genuinely test the students communicative ability.
( #Abdul Hamid, 1990)
…directed mainly to language teachers whose learners need to acquire a general communicative ability in the English language which will enable them to cope with everyday situations.
(Raissi, Mohd Nor, A Aziz, Zainal, & Md Salleh, 2013)
curriculum designers, adminstrators, textbook designers, scientist, scholars, teachers, researchers
RELC Portfolio Series 13
Communicative Language Teaching Today
by Willy A Renandya & Jack C Richards
Pusblisher: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre
(Raissi, Mohd Nor, A Aziz, Zainal, & Md Salleh, 2013
CLT is a language teaching approach which mainly focuses on communicative competence of the learners and considers communicative comepetence as the goal of langauge teaching and learning.
Cite: An actual Malaysian context on poor communicative competence
CLT sets its goals the teaching of communicative competence. We can clarify this term by first comparing it with the concept of grammatical competence.
Grammatical competence refers to the knowledge we have of language that ccount for our ability to produces sentences in a language. It refers to knowledge of the building blocks of sentences and how sentences are formed.
While grammatical competence is an important dimension of language learning since once can master the rules of sentence formation in a language and still not be very successful at being able to use the language for meaningful communication. It is the latter capacity which is understood by the term communicative competence.
Early views of language learning focused primarily on the mastery of grammatical competence. Language learning was viewed as a process of mechanical habit formation.Good habits are formed by having students produce correct sentences and not through making mistakes. Errors were to be avoided through controlled opportunities for production (either written or spoken). By memorizing dialogues and performing drills the chances of making mistakes were minimised. Learning was very much seen as under the control of the teacher.
With CLT began a movement away from traditional lesson formats where the focus was on mastery of different items of grammar and practice through controlled activities such as memorisation of dialogues and drills, towards the use of pair work activities, role plays, group work activities and project work.
(pg 14) activities that focus on fluency in language use.
creating classroom activities in which students must negotiate meaning, use communication strategies, correct misunderstandings and work to avoid communication breakdowns.
(pg 4) CLT Today by Jack C Richard
Learners now had to participate in classroom activities that were based on a cooperative rather than individualistic approach to learning.
Students had to become comfortable with listening to their peers in group work or pair work tasks, rather than relying on the teacher for a model;take on responsibility for their own learning.
ELT Methodology: Principles & Practice by Nesamalar Chitravelu
This book is written specially for Malaysian teacher training colleges
(pg 20) Reasons for integration of CA
a. Real communication involves using more than one skill, eg speaking and listening most frequently occur in interactive situations.
b. Integration of language with interests or pupils and needs increases motivatin.
c. variety of input and output in the learning process improves comprehension and retention.
d. language items like vocabulary and grammar are best learnt in contexts, integrated with skills like writing and speaking. This way, pupils can learn not only when it is appropriate to use the target item, but they will also get multiple and varied opportunities to practice the target item.
ELT Curriculum Innovations and Strategies for Implementation in Malaysia
Dato’ Hjh Noor Rezan Bapoo Bt. Bapoo Hashim
(Ministry of Education, Malaysia)
KBSM - Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools
From practicing the structural syllabus, the focus changed to the communicational syllabus in the early seventies in order to consolidate changes made in the West, especially in the United Kingdom.
…the communicational syllabus practiced in Malaysia redefined the focus so that:
(page 2 : CLT Today)
Communicative competence includes the following aspects of language knowledge:
knowing how to use language for a range of different purposes and functions
knowing how to vary our use of languaage according to the setting and participants (eg knowing when to use formal and informal speech or when to use language appropriately for written as opposed to spoken communication)
knowing how to produce and understand different types of texts (e.g. narratives, reports, interviews, and conversation)
knowing how to maintain communication despite having limitations in one’s language knowledge ( e.g through using different kinds of communication strategies)
Integrated Curriculum of Secondary Schools,2003 (pg 1)
The English language syllabus aims to extend learners’English language proficiency in order to meet their needs for English in everyday life, for knowledge acquisition, and for future workplace needs.
The English language curriculum enables learners to:
i. form and maintain relationships through conversation and correspondence; take part in social interactions; and obtain goods and services;
ii. obtain, process and use information from various audio-visual and print sources; and present the information in spoken and written form;
(pg 8 ) Thematic: People, Environment, Social Issues, Values, Health, Science & Technologoy
Causal factirs for low proficiency in spoken English
( #Loh, 2011) pg 324
The relatively high percentage for weaknesses of the L2 classroom practice is closer to the top three factors rather than the 5th. There were subjects who pointed out that there are insufficient speaking activities in the L2 learning environment.
…L2 learners are most likely to face problems in pronunciation, particularly if there is a lack of L2 listening input…prefer their L2 teachers to provide support in the area.
Adopting Communication Language Teaching (CLT) Approach to Enhance oral Competencies Among Students: Teacher’s Attitudes and Beliefs
by amizura Hanadi ( Mohd. Radzi, Azmin, Zolhani, & Abdul Latif, 2007)
Teachers’ Perceptions and Challenges Regarding the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in Malaysian Secondary School by Reza Raissi & Fazirah bt Mohd Nor
**Students’ Perception and Challenges Regarding the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching in Malaysian Secondary School by Reza Raissi, 2013
Comparison of Researchers Findings
(Mohd. Radzi, Azmin, Zolhani, & Abdul Latif, 2007)
Implication for Future Study
A larger scale study that would involve teachers from primary, secondary and tertiary levels should be conducted in gathering insights on teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding CLT in enhancing students’ oral competency.