Structural Health Monitoring & Structural Inspections
Structures deform as they experience load, resulting in stress developing within the body of the structure. These deformations, and consequently stresses, can be monitored to ensure that they do not exceed specified limits adopted during design, i.e. serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state. CSI offers different Structural Health Monitoring methods to suit the client needs, such as:
Concrete Scanning offers flexible timeframes for Structural Health Monitoring; it can be done as a one-off during test day, continuously for a specific duration (days, weeks, months), or periodically/seasonally for example to gauge the different environmental effect during summer/winter to the expansion and contraction of steel railway structure.
Clients/engineers are most likely concerned if there are cracks in RC floor, beam, column, or wall especially if the structure is relatively new and has only experienced the service load it is designed for. They will want to ensure that these cracks do not widen beyond the limit imposed during design. Other times, an engineer might be interested in the existing stress within old pre-stress elements, such as within a hollow core or flat slab units, to ensure they are sufficient in capacity to support additional loading.
Unreinforced Masonry Testing
Unreinforced masonry (URM) testing consists of non-destructive and Concrete Structure Investigations on brickwork and stonework, which are common and often used in heritage building systems throughout New Zealand. Tests can be done on the individual masonry units, the bonding mortar, or the combination of these.
URM testing will be very useful when structural engineering consultancies are required to perform retrofitting design on URM structures. URM structures have been shown to perform poorly during earthquakes and it is now mandatory to strengthen these structures in the most seismically active regions in New Zealand, such as Wellington and the Canterbury area. Our service can provide the information required by the design engineers to perform their calculations for the retrofitting purpose.
Just like any other construction materials, it is important to know the actual properties of the masonry units constituting the concerned structures before any reliable retrofitting design can be performed. However, masonry structures, especially those composed of clay bricks or stones, are so inhomogeneous that their strength properties highly depend on a range of factors, primarily workmanship. It is not advisable to perform the retrofitting design using the value of these strength parameters obtained from literature. Through our service, the representative value of these parameters can be provided. Beside the information obtained through scanning, the following strength parameters required for retrofitting design can be obtained through the services above
Concrete Structure Investigations
Concrete Structure Investigations Ltd are non-destructive inspection and detection specialists to consulting engineers, and the construction and civil industries nationwide.
Our Core Values are Demonstrated in our Work Every Day.
Accuracy: We have experienced and trained staff using the best non destructive equipment available to the market, we have robust procedures in place to ensure that our findings are accurate and peer reviewed. We have been put to the test on many occasions, we have not been found wanting and always stand behind our work.
Innovation: CSI is always looking for new and smarter ways to do things, we can develop our own technologies and applications, we have a very diverse toolkit and wide spectrum of technologies. We love a good challenge and will always find way to continuously improve our service.
Independence: We truly are independent and take our independence very seriously. We make sure to deliver factual, substantiated evidence and findings to allow you or your team to make the right decisions with confidence. CSI are not in the business of doing remediation so the only incentive that exists is providing accurate data.
Non Destructive Inspection involves the evaluation of existing structures without causing damage, with the intention of gaining a better understanding of key structural elements. A reliable structural condition assessment with CSI relies on rigorous observations and collecting accurate data so we can adequately describe the existing condition of the structure. Concrete Structure Investigations have award-winning expertise and the resources to provide you with accurate, independent and innovative non-destructive testing.
Drossbachs are a common construction system widely used in NZ. Unfortunately, they are often not installed with the required attention to detail, causing many issues throughout the structure. If Drossbachs are not fully grouted, the strength of the structure is severely compromised, endangering people’s lives.
A Drossbach Duct is used as a duct former for a variety of precast and cast – insitu concrete works including:
– Precast connectors
– Service penetrations
– Formers for starter bars
– Post-tensioning ducts
Non Destructive Inspection
Corrosion Surveys are testing methods CSI use to determine the causes and the action of corrosion, particularly in steel reinforcement.When you need to know the condition of reinforcement and its susceptibility to corrosion. e.g. in a basement wall panel where cracks have developed, or in a bridge beam exposed to sea water
How we do NDT
CSI has a wide range of proven NDT techniques, and are award-winning specialists in the Non Destructive Inspection and inspection industry. Our NDT services include (but are not limited to) drossbach investigation, corrosion testing, material testing, low strain impact integrity tests, pull off/shear tests, quality assurance, structural health and monitoring inspections, unreinforced masonry testing, ultrasonic testing and concrete scanning.
CSI offers Concrete Scanning and steel reinforcing bar properties testing through compressive and uniaxial tension tests, respectively. The test to determine concrete compressive strength conducted according to NZS 3112: Part 2: 1986 while the test to determine the tensile strength of reinforcing bars is conducted according to AS/NZS 4671. Additionally, CSI is also able to determine weld shear strength of mesh reinforcement, where the test is conducted according to BS EN ISO 15630-2.
Low Strain Impact Integrity Tests
Pile Integrity Testing is a low-strain, non-destructive testing method that assesses the condition of cast-in- place piles, drilled shafts or driven concrete/timber piles. A client may need to determine integrity and/or toe depth of piles to ensure they meet specified load capacities. PIT is especially useful on standalone piles, i.e. those not connected to a footing and before construction of the superstructure (visible portion of the building). Piles with connecting elements can also be tested, in certain conditions
Quality assurance is necessary for successful building outcomes. Quality assurance of all work should occur at all stages throughout the building process, from project inception to final commissioning and handover. This enables the early identification and remediation of any shortcomings in design and construction, resulting in efficiencies and savings in project delivery. It is also a very good way to demonstrate the quality of work. For us QA would be NDT of key structural elements. We at CSI believe that having a real grasp on the way a building or structure is being built is paramount to any engineer, designer or owner. The use of early QA helps ensure that contractors and installers work to the highest possible standard.
Well…why wouldn’t you? We are involved so often in jobs where if some measures where put in place to carry out some independent QA there very likely wouldn’t be any need for us to be involved in the project at a later stage. We are seeing time and time again the massive expense and time that is being spent on post construction investigations, legal disputes and remediation works. QA undertaken randomly and frequently will have a positive impact on construction quality, it will also allow demonstration of the quality of work as well as catching issues at a point in which they can be remediated more cost effectively.
Excavation is a completely not unusual practice for constructing contractors, concrete specialists, forensic professionals, and structural engineers. However, it’s almost not possible to realize what lies beneath the floor. This will emerge as a first-rate challenge when the time comes to start excavating.
Starting from electrical wiring to water pipes, there may be various objects underneath concrete slabs or inside concrete columns and partitions.
That’s why Concrete Scanning is important.
Those tradespeople want particular data on what\’s lying below concrete slabs or at the back of concrete walls and columns to keep away from any viable damage.
Concrete scanning process
Concrete Structure Investigations use floor penetrating radar technology to try to decide what lies under the floor. Floor penetrating radar makes use of electromagnetic pulses to take photos of any obstructions mendacity inner, under, or behind concrete structures.
The high-frequency scanners transmit radio waves at 1.6 GHz or 2.6 GHz to supply high-decision imaging. As soon as the experts installation the scanner in your given vicinity and begin scanning the location, they\’ll get hold of instant images because the scanner operates.
It starts through scanning a rectangular meter first, and because the pics begin coming in, the scanner begins running on a larger scale.
Soon sufficient there are masses of images that become aware of the exact area of any feasible application lines beneath the surface. One of the motives why concrete scanning is so famous amongst creation experts and engineers is due to its pinpoint accuracy.
Apart from the particular pictures, you furthermore may get a detailed document with measurements describing the area of any traces, how deep they are from the top of the surface, and info in their surrounding regions.
Pros of concrete scanning
Concrete scanning is completed on-site to acquire and confirm facts regarding the obstructions mendacity below concrete systems. It reduces the risks of digging through utility lines that could create significant troubles in neighboring regions.
Here are some more blessings of concrete scanning which you ought to recognize:
Concrete scanning is a first-rate example of the old announcing degree twice, cut once. If you have the tools to test for underground utilities, it\’s vital to apply them to double test the place before starting any construction project.
Warding off the difficulty in the first vicinity is a great deal better than looking to mend a serious hassle.
This means that the excessive-resolution pics accrued from the concrete scanners not only prevent you from damages but also the software traces inside the first vicinity save you even greater from repairing any capacity damage brought about.
Safe running surroundings
Today’s concrete scanning manner is non-adverse. A small device that looks like a vacuum purifier is an installation within the given place.
You’ll slightly even notice the scanner during it works. Within few minutes, you will have the concrete pictures in front of you entire with a detailed file.
Concrete Structure Investigations
Concrete Structure Investigations are a non-destructive inspection to map the condition of concrete-like density and thickness along with many hidden flaws. Concrete structure investigations are an incredibly useful tool for designers, engineers, and architects. Nondestructive testing or non-destructive Concrete structure inspection is necessary to determine a product’s integrity. This testing method is used in most manufacturing, fabrication, and in-service inspections.
How non-destructive Concrete structure inspections have come to be one of the maximum useful tools?
The upkeep work needs lots of cutting, coring, and drilling of Concrete structure investigations for alteration reasons. While slicing the concrete, employees on occasion accidentally reduce thru the reinforcement bar the final results are each high priced and threatening.
It will weigh more on your budget for an additional fee of restore; will delay the work with a purpose to forge a bad effect on the entire method for non-destructive Concrete structure investigations. It creates excessive tension which is dangerous to the complete structure. Further, accidental breaking of electrical cables in the concrete now not only disrupts electrical delivery occasionally may also injure or takes the life of employees.
It almost havocs the danger upon both labors and structure. But the particular image provided by concrete scanning successfully prevents such perilous incidents from taking place.
Earlier GPR X-Rays were used to find underground utilities. The downside of X-rays is it requires getting right of entry to both sides of concrete. One side gets the radioactive materials while the movie is poisoned on the alternative facet while GPR requires getting entry to the handiest one side of the concrete. GPR is likewise a good deal faster than x-rays it takes only 10 mins to scan 2 square toes location.
How Concrete structure investigations discover the reinforcement bars?
A rebar or reinforcement bar is used within the Concrete structure investigations to elevate the tensile energy of the shape. There is usually a want to reduce or drill via the concrete therefore it is vital to locate the rebar underneath the floor. Neglecting this would draw predominant dangerous consequences. Ground Penetrate Radar GPR can locate and maps the depth of the rebar with a 99% correct result.
Floor Penetrate Radar GPR- GPR is a mechanical and geophysical device that uses radar pulses to create a subsurface photo. It is widely used to locate numerous subsurface gadgets for the secure production process.
A whole survey of the entire property is first to be carried out. It gives know-how of the energy of the floor and underground utilities and devices. Then GPR technicians ferret out the precise regions that need interest.
Electromagnetic wands emit radar pulses which the transmitter gets to discover the surface items. Based totally on the acquired records GPR creates an image of surface gadgets and their genuine region. These objects are then at the Non Destructive Inspection to offer correct layout and dimensions.
The GPR picture affords all the pertinent records to fulfill the task intention. 3-dimensional modeling of the image gives a greater realistic analysis of the site.