• Simplifying Solution Space

    Enabling Non-Expert Users to Innovate and Design with Toolkits

  • Part1: Introduction to Toolkits for User Innovation and Design

    • user needs
    • Organizational Strategy with Toolkits
  • Part3: Identifying Usage of Solution Space

    Case Studies on User Innovations by Toolkits

    How do users simplify solution space when creating innovative DIY products?
    Exploring and Testing

  • Part2: Exploring Structures of Toolkit Solution Space

    How is solution space simplified in toolkits for UID in 3D printing?

    How do toolkits for UID in 3D printing simplify solution space?

  • Part4: Designing a Toolkit to Recommend from Solution Space

    How can solution space be simplified using recommendations from a learning toolkit for UID?
    RQ3: Can average users have focussed navigation through toolkit solution space through the use of recommender systems and genetic algorithms?

    Can toolkits enable average users to quickly arrive at solutions that match both their explicit and implicit needs?

  • Part5: Simplifying Solution Space for Non-Expert Users

  • Challenge of Simplifying Toolkit Solution Space

    • Start with a story on enabling need formation with solution information and converting ideas into concrete solutions
    • 3D printing is the upcoming technology that provides exactly that and promises more when it is available to everyday users
    • Some examples of Toolkits in 3D printing
    • Solution Space of 3D printing is typically too broad for the average user
    • It needs to be structured, thus bringing us to the RQ
    • Why is researching toolkits’ solution space important to companies? Why is it important to users?

    All points below will have examples.

  • Defining Toolkits for User Innovation and Design

    The term toolkits has been used in many different contexts. There are toolkits for user innovation, mass customization, education, idea contests and so on.

    Each have their own purposes and the purpose is often reflected in their designs.

    Should also define solution space here

  • Significance of Studying Toolkit Solution Space

    Put in parts from the opensym paper
    The following has to be clear:

    • WHo is the firm?
    • WHo is the customer?
    • What are the resources in connection with the toolkit and how is it better?
  • Structure of Thesis

    • Description of each part of the thesis
    • Research approach of the thesis

    Here I should use the outside, inside and inbetween theory as a structure

  • Needs and Objectives of the Study

  • Understanding the Context of DIY electronics

  • Method and Data

  • User Innovation in cases

  • Dynamic Interfaces to Simplify Solution Space

  • Needs and Objectives of the Study

  • A framework for Toolkit Solution Space

    • Users design products with the help of toolkits
    • They design products by following a series of QOC steps outlined in design space analysis. They are:
      • design questions
      • options for the above questions
      • criteria constraints for choosing between the options
  • Understanding the Context of 3D Printing and Open Hardware

    Literature review on Toolkits, further than whats in the introduction chapter

    Literature review on 3D printing

  • Method and Data

    • For this explorative descriptive study, I looked at various design toolkits offered in 3D printing where users can design 3D objects. These 3D objects can then be printed by a service online or by the users themselves.
  • Design Elements of Toolkit Solution Space

  • User created Toolkits to Simplify Solution Space

  • Needs and Objectives of the Study

  • Theoretical Underpinning

  • Method and Data

  • Toolkit to Recommend Products that Match User Needs

    (Artifact description and Evaluation)

  • Automating Tedious Design to Simplify Solution Space

    (Discussion)

  • Summary of Studies and Scientific Contribution

  • Managerial Implications

  • Future Research

  • Example to start out the thesis

    DIY kitchen
    Electronics
    3d printed toys
    bicycle
    surf boat
    robotic hand
    laser powered modem

    user needs something different than what is offered, but cannot transfer his needs, so uses a toolkit to design the user’s innovative product

    These user needs may be articulated through other co-creation methods, but have higher costs.

  • When users have sticky need information, that they cannot express very well, there is a higher cost of transferring their need information to the manufacturer.

  • As user needs also get very heterogeneous, it becomes difficult for manufacturers to cater them with standardized offerings.

  • Toolkits transfer need information of users. Need information is limited by the flexibility of the manufacturing process. With technologies like 3d printing, flexibility of manufacturing has increased. Hence users have an increased solution space to innovate and design based in their needs,

    Some examples of 3d printing indeed increases the solution space

    Average users have basic toolkits for customization, whose solution space needs to be structured from the potential solution space.

    Average users have been known to be able to only customize and not innovate.

  • The thesis aims to solve this overall research question.

    Overall RQ: How can solution space of toolkits for UID in 3D printing be simplified for basic users?

  • Toolkits allow manufacturers to go beyond producing differentiated products, expand their markets beyond product categories. In extreme cases, they also ensure that the manufacturer is at the cutting edge of innovation by being associated with the latest user innovations.

    Toolkits design also often transmits successful user innovation information back to the manufacturer and they then include them in their standard offerings.

    There are examples in papers, some empirical examples here will also do nicely.

  • Toolkit for User Innovation

    They were initially defined by V. Hippel as systems which had user need innovation. It was a loose description, and not necessarily aimed at systems for innovation. But the characteristics they were supposed to have were the following:

    • have a defined solution space
    • Trial and error cycles
    • Easy to use interface
    • modular design
    • visual confirmation (?)
  • Toolkits for Mass-Customization

    The concept of mass-customization is a gradual evolution from the underlying concept of toolkits. Toolkits are here used to get customers preferences, which are predefined or anticipated by the manufacturer in the form of a defined easy solution space.

  • Toolkits for Idea Contests

    Toolkits for Idea Contests are more like structured forms to get ideas from participants in a structured manner. They are of course much different from the toolkits that we have already defined and they will not be considered for the study.

    (this can be explained with a picture)

  • “An artifact can be thought of as a meeting point—an ‘interface’ in today’s terms—between an ‘inner’ environment, the substance and organization of the artifact itself, and an ‘outer’ environment, the surroundings in which it operates.”

  • According to Simon (1996, p. 6)
    sciences of the artificial

  • RQ2: How are toolkits for UID used in the context of 3D printing?

    How do users simplify solution space when creating innovative products?

    • In the previous study we found out how solution space is structured
    • We also identified instances in 3d printing toolkits where it is simplified
    • We need to know how users use these toolkits
    • there have been experiments with MC toolkits
    • a study from users perspective on toolkits for NPD is missing

    • I study the design of these user innovations, associated documentation and interviews

    • This gives me a better understanding of interactions with toolkits
  • Some papers on DIY

  • Describe Thingiverse, Instructables, Hackathons

  • Research Approach

  • Research Method

    (Research Design)

  • Research Sample

    (Case Studies)

  • Users innovating in communities

  • Users innovating in maker event

  • User innovation at early stages

  • User innovations after many iterations

  • Abstract

    Toolkits for user innovation and design have a solution space that enables as well as constrains users in creating new products. Emergence of flexible production technologies like additive manufacturing has increased the potential flexibility for structuring toolkit solution space. However structuring toolkit solution space, especially for basic toolkits aimed at average end users, is a challenge. In this paper we aim to develop an understanding on solution space and how it is structured. We first propose attributes of toolkit solution space in terms of design space offered to users. The structure of toolkit solution space is described qualitatively using mini-cases on solution space of web based toolkits in additive manufacturing (3D printing) and technologies used to create the toolkits. We find that basic toolkits in additive manufacturing mostly belong to two categories: toolkit’s solution space that is designed from scratch using 3D design tools, leaving a few parameters for users to customize and toolkits that are developed using ‘meta-toolkits’. These meta-toolkits are expert toolkits for users to create basic toolkits. Hence allowing users to create innovative products as well as customize them.

    • The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of the solution space of 3D printing toolkits for user design
  • Literature talks about basic toolkits for customization and expert toolkits for innovation, based on the solution space and this is related to the user involvement needed.

    However how can we define the size of the solution space?

    Can we do it based on the design decisions that users make?

    A categorization of toolkit solution space will help us identify different characteristics or attributes of toolkits for UID.

  • As I focussed on toolkits to end users in this study, I aimed to look for toolkits that were available either free to use To find a list of toolkits in 3D printing I searched for the keywords: 3D printing, 3d design using google, bing and yahoo online web searches. The first 100 results from each search engine were browsed through to identify toolkits for this study.

  • There were 92 toolkits identified from the search results and studied. X number of these toolkits were web based, and free to use. While y number were design tools that had to be installed into one’s own desktop. Out of these y1 were free and open source, y2 required a license but had available demos. There were also z number of toolkits that were initially identified as 3d printing toolkits but filtered out of this study because their closed model with high license fees.

  • To study the solution space of the toolkits, I took the perspective of a user and examined the user interface of the toolkits and how

    Each toolkit was analyzed to see what design questions users answer when they use the toolkit. For each design question, the design options that the users have were recorded. Any constraining criteria that the toolkit has that could be identified while exploring the toolkit were also recorded. These three dimensions describe the structure of the solution space the toolkits provide to users. Furthermore the user interface elements with which users interact to make design decisions are also listed to get a more detailed understanding of the toolkit solution space.

  • User involvement can be defined as the average time taken for the user to use the toolkit. By logging the various questions and options offered of each toolkit, the average can be calculated.

    The number of questions and options are important but what is also important is if the order of the design questions is important. Sequential design options are different.

    The nature of the trial and error cycle is also logged.

  • Summary of the previous parts and a connect to this part

  • Needs and objectives of this part

  • Research Question

  • Research method used

  • Artifact Description & Evaluation

  • Papers on recommendation systems

    *need to organize below
    Configurator Toolkits
    Mass Confusion
    Recommender Systems

    • Multiple case study approach
    • Open source user innovations and using interviews, websites, design files, docs etc
    • 2 Main cases and 4 complementary cases
    • Followed by case study of 9 teams from Startify7
  • Two Single Case Studies

    • Open source DiY user innovations
    • User innovations in a course setting may be ommited

    • user innovations developed in a workshop setting

  • Overview of sample in the context of DIY sites that are there

  • In the communities studied, users started to work independently and share their designs online.

  • The complicated designs are developed over time in many iterations and can include contributions from collaborators

  • Used freely available toolkits and off the shelf products

  • Did not restrict themselves to toolkit solution space and limits of designs

  • Built their own interfaces

  • RQ1.1: What are the attributes of toolkit solution space for user design in 3D printing?

  • RQ3: Can basic users have focussed navigation through toolkit solution space through the use of recommender systems and genetic algorithms?

  • Case Study on

    {"cards":[{"_id":"5238f91d8c359e922e000048","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5168502,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"# Simplifying Solution Space\nEnabling Non-Expert Users to Innovate and Design with Toolkits"},{"_id":"5238fa498c359e922e00004a","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5386145,"position":1,"parentId":"5238f91d8c359e922e000048","content":"## Part1: Introduction to Toolkits for User Innovation and Design\n- user needs\n- Organizational Strategy with Toolkits\n\n\n"},{"_id":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5519453,"position":1,"parentId":"5238fa498c359e922e00004a","content":"### Challenge of Simplifying Toolkit Solution Space \n\n* Start with a story on enabling need formation with solution information and converting ideas into concrete solutions\n* 3D printing is the upcoming technology that provides exactly that and promises more when it is available to everyday users\n* Some examples of Toolkits in 3D printing\n* Solution Space of 3D printing is typically too broad for the average user \n* It needs to be structured, thus bringing us to the RQ \n* Why is researching toolkits' solution space important to companies? Why is it important to users?\n\nAll points below will have examples.\n\n\n"},{"_id":"5910a230317b1feb4e00002b","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3029769,"position":0.25,"parentId":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","content":"#### Example to start out the thesis\n\nDIY kitchen\nElectronics\n3d printed toys\nbicycle\nsurf boat\nrobotic hand\nlaser powered modem\n\nuser needs something different than what is offered, but cannot transfer his needs, so uses a toolkit to design the user's innovative product\n\nThese user needs may be articulated through other co-creation methods, but have higher costs.\n"},{"_id":"591098d9317b1feb4e000029","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3026998,"position":0.5,"parentId":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","content":"When users have sticky need information, that they cannot express very well, there is a higher cost of transferring their need information to the manufacturer."},{"_id":"5910a029317b1feb4e00002a","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3027008,"position":0.75,"parentId":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","content":"As user needs also get very heterogeneous, it becomes difficult for manufacturers to cater them with standardized offerings."},{"_id":"5911fd83317b1feb4e00002c","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3029675,"position":0.875,"parentId":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","content":"Toolkits transfer need information of users. Need information is limited by the flexibility of the manufacturing process. With technologies like 3d printing, flexibility of manufacturing has increased. Hence users have an increased solution space to innovate and design based in their needs,\n\nSome examples of 3d printing indeed increases the solution space\n \nAverage users have basic toolkits for customization, whose solution space needs to be structured from the potential solution space.\n\nAverage users have been known to be able to only customize and not innovate.\n"},{"_id":"52390e538c359e922e000060","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3026743,"position":1,"parentId":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","content":"The thesis aims to solve this overall research question.\n\nOverall RQ: How can solution space of toolkits for UID in 3D printing be simplified for basic users? "},{"_id":"59153245317b1feb4e00002d","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3029778,"position":2,"parentId":"523904e28c359e922e00004f","content":"Toolkits allow manufacturers to go beyond producing differentiated products, expand their markets beyond product categories. In extreme cases, they also ensure that the manufacturer is at the cutting edge of innovation by being associated with the latest user innovations.\n\nToolkits design also often transmits successful user innovation information back to the manufacturer and they then include them in their standard offerings.\n\nThere are examples in papers, some empirical examples here will also do nicely."},{"_id":"523905988c359e922e000050","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5164220,"position":2,"parentId":"5238fa498c359e922e00004a","content":"###Defining Toolkits for User Innovation and Design \n\nThe term toolkits has been used in many different contexts. There are toolkits for user innovation, mass customization, education, idea contests and so on.\n\nEach have their own purposes and the purpose is often reflected in their designs.\n\nShould also define solution space here\n\n"},{"_id":"591026de317b1feb4e000027","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3026801,"position":1,"parentId":"523905988c359e922e000050","content":"#### Toolkit for User Innovation\n\nThey were initially defined by V. Hippel as systems which had user need innovation. It was a loose description, and not necessarily aimed at systems for innovation. But the characteristics they were supposed to have were the following:\n* have a defined solution space\n* Trial and error cycles\n* Easy to use interface\n* modular design\n* visual confirmation (?)\n"},{"_id":"59103382317b1feb4e000028","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039729,"position":2,"parentId":"523905988c359e922e000050","content":"#### Toolkits for Mass-Customization\n\nThe concept of mass-customization is a gradual evolution from the underlying concept of toolkits. Toolkits are here used to get customers preferences, which are predefined or anticipated by the manufacturer in the form of a defined easy solution space. "},{"_id":"59276522317b1feb4e00002e","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039735,"position":3,"parentId":"523905988c359e922e000050","content":"#### Toolkits for Idea Contests\nToolkits for Idea Contests are more like structured forms to get ideas from participants in a structured manner. They are of course much different from the toolkits that we have already defined and they will not be considered for the study.\n\n(this can be explained with a picture)"},{"_id":"5e443f439dbb5f21d7000035","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155679,"position":2.5,"parentId":"5238fa498c359e922e00004a","content":"###Significance of Studying Toolkit Solution Space\n\nPut in parts from the opensym paper\nThe following has to be clear: \n* WHo is the firm? \n* WHo is the customer? \n* What are the resources in connection with the toolkit and how is it better?"},{"_id":"5239062f8c359e922e000051","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5253681,"position":3,"parentId":"5238fa498c359e922e00004a","content":"###Structure of Thesis\n* Description of each part of the thesis\n* Research approach of the thesis\n\nHere I should use the outside, inside and inbetween theory as a structure\n\n\n"},{"_id":"5eb1c3db5609180686000043","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5253683,"position":1,"parentId":"5239062f8c359e922e000051","content":"“An artifact can be thought of as a meeting point—an ‘interface’ in today’s terms—between an ‘inner’ environment, the substance and organization of the artifact itself, and an ‘outer’ environment, the surroundings in which it operates.”"},{"_id":"5eb1c61f5609180686000044","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5253697,"position":2,"parentId":"5239062f8c359e922e000051","content":"According to Simon (1996, p. 6)\nsciences of the artificial"},{"_id":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444743,"position":1.5,"parentId":"5238f91d8c359e922e000048","content":"##Part3: Identifying Usage of Solution Space\n#### Case Studies on User Innovations by Toolkits\n\nHow do users simplify solution space when creating innovative DIY products?\nExploring and Testing\n"},{"_id":"523909da8c359e922e000056","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5164225,"position":1,"parentId":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","content":"###Needs and Objectives of the Study\n"},{"_id":"523910028c359e922e000062","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5278534,"position":1,"parentId":"523909da8c359e922e000056","content":"RQ2: How are toolkits for UID used in the context of 3D printing?\n\nHow do users simplify solution space when creating innovative products?\n"},{"_id":"5e532e3765ef8507f300003c","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5278531,"position":2,"parentId":"523909da8c359e922e000056","content":"* In the previous study we found out how solution space is structured\n* We also identified instances in 3d printing toolkits where it is simplified\n* We need to know how users use these toolkits\n* there have been experiments with MC toolkits\n* a study from users perspective on toolkits for NPD is missing \n\n* I study the design of these user innovations, associated documentation and interviews\n* This gives me a better understanding of interactions with toolkits\n"},{"_id":"5e4f888e9dbb5f21d700003a","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5164226,"position":1.5,"parentId":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","content":"###Understanding the Context of DIY electronics\n"},{"_id":"5e53396565ef8507f300003d","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5167562,"position":1,"parentId":"5e4f888e9dbb5f21d700003a","content":"Some papers on DIY "},{"_id":"5f0893e4c7966ee77000004a","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5317014,"position":2,"parentId":"5e4f888e9dbb5f21d700003a","content":"Describe Thingiverse, Instructables, Hackathons\n"},{"_id":"52390a6b8c359e922e000057","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155691,"position":2,"parentId":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","content":"###Method and Data\n"},{"_id":"5ed75f1b5609180686000048","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5279305,"position":0.25,"parentId":"52390a6b8c359e922e000057","content":"Research Approach\n"},{"_id":"5e53516e65ef8507f300003f","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5279307,"position":0.5,"parentId":"52390a6b8c359e922e000057","content":"#### Research Method\n(Research Design)"},{"_id":"5e53b66265ef8507f3000042","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5168349,"position":1,"parentId":"5e53516e65ef8507f300003f","content":"* Multiple case study approach\n* Open source user innovations and using interviews, websites, design files, docs etc\n* 2 Main cases and 4 complementary cases\n* Followed by case study of 9 teams from Startify7\n\n\n"},{"_id":"5ef1e4ddc7966ee770000048","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5303170,"position":1,"parentId":"5e53b66265ef8507f3000042","content":"Case Study on "},{"_id":"5ef1e65bc7966ee770000049","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5304912,"position":2,"parentId":"5e53516e65ef8507f300003f","content":"Two Single Case Studies\n- Open source DiY user innovations\n- User innovations in a course setting **may be ommited**\n\n- user innovations developed in a workshop setting\n"},{"_id":"5e533a7e65ef8507f300003e","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5279308,"position":1,"parentId":"52390a6b8c359e922e000057","content":"#### Research Sample\n\n(Case Studies)"},{"_id":"5e5353f065ef8507f3000040","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5167685,"position":1,"parentId":"5e533a7e65ef8507f300003e","content":"Overview of sample in the context of DIY sites that are there\n\n"},{"_id":"5e53547c65ef8507f3000041","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5167970,"position":2,"parentId":"5e533a7e65ef8507f300003e","content":""},{"_id":"52390a968c359e922e000058","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444913,"position":3,"parentId":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","content":"###User Innovation in cases\n\n"},{"_id":"5fa899054e27f430790000d3","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444904,"position":1,"parentId":"52390a968c359e922e000058","content":"Users innovating in communities\n"},{"_id":"5faad97e8a223d773d000051","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5447200,"position":1.5,"parentId":"5fa899054e27f430790000d3","content":"In the communities studied, users started to work independently and share their designs online. \n"},{"_id":"5faae0d88a223d773d000052","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5447217,"position":1.625,"parentId":"5fa899054e27f430790000d3","content":"The complicated designs are developed over time in many iterations and can include contributions from collaborators"},{"_id":"5faaec848a223d773d0000a0","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5447204,"position":1.75,"parentId":"5fa899054e27f430790000d3","content":"Used freely available toolkits and off the shelf products"},{"_id":"565de45d30a55bcb34da2644","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5447211,"position":1.875,"parentId":"5fa899054e27f430790000d3","content":"Did not restrict themselves to toolkit solution space and limits of designs"},{"_id":"5faae2828a223d773d000053","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5447205,"position":3,"parentId":"5fa899054e27f430790000d3","content":"Built their own interfaces"},{"_id":"5fa89a2e4e27f430790000d4","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444907,"position":2,"parentId":"52390a968c359e922e000058","content":"Users innovating in maker event"},{"_id":"5fa89ac34e27f430790000d5","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444909,"position":3,"parentId":"52390a968c359e922e000058","content":"User innovation at early stages\n"},{"_id":"5fa89b6e4e27f430790000d6","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444910,"position":4,"parentId":"52390a968c359e922e000058","content":"User innovations after many iterations"},{"_id":"5e4445679dbb5f21d7000038","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444915,"position":4,"parentId":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","content":"###Dynamic Interfaces to Simplify Solution Space"},{"_id":"5fa89cb64e27f430790000d7","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5444914,"position":5,"parentId":"5238fc0f8c359e922e00004c","content":""},{"_id":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5278516,"position":2,"parentId":"5238f91d8c359e922e000048","content":"## Part2: Exploring Structures of Toolkit Solution Space\n\nHow is solution space simplified in toolkits for UID in 3D printing?\n\nHow do toolkits for UID in 3D printing simplify solution space?"},{"_id":"523908918c359e922e000052","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3667236,"position":1,"parentId":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","content":"### Needs and Objectives of the Study\n\n"},{"_id":"59dea104e74460a530000033","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3152752,"position":1,"parentId":"523908918c359e922e000052","content":"#### Abstract\nToolkits for user innovation and design have a solution space that enables as well as constrains users in creating new products. Emergence of flexible production technologies like additive manufacturing has increased the potential flexibility for structuring toolkit solution space. However structuring toolkit solution space, especially for basic toolkits aimed at average end users, is a challenge. In this paper we aim to develop an understanding on solution space and how it is structured. We first propose attributes of toolkit solution space in terms of design space offered to users. The structure of toolkit solution space is described qualitatively using mini-cases on solution space of web based toolkits in additive manufacturing (3D printing) and technologies used to create the toolkits. We find that basic toolkits in additive manufacturing mostly belong to two categories: toolkit’s solution space that is designed from scratch using 3D design tools, leaving a few parameters for users to customize and toolkits that are developed using ‘meta-toolkits’. These meta-toolkits are expert toolkits for users to create basic toolkits. Hence allowing users to create innovative products as well as customize them. "},{"_id":"56f57999c12c63d54a000023","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":4657861,"position":2,"parentId":"523908918c359e922e000052","content":"* The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of the solution space of 3D printing toolkits for user design"},{"_id":"52390f258c359e922e000061","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":4657868,"position":1,"parentId":"56f57999c12c63d54a000023","content":"RQ1.1: What are the attributes of toolkit solution space for user design in 3D printing?\n\n"},{"_id":"59dea06de74460a530000032","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3153238,"position":2,"parentId":"56f57999c12c63d54a000023","content":""},{"_id":"57011020c12c63d54a0000d6","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039741,"position":3,"parentId":"523908918c359e922e000052","content":"Literature talks about basic toolkits for customization and expert toolkits for innovation, based on the solution space and this is related to the user involvement needed.\n\nHowever how can we define the size of the solution space?\n\nCan we do it based on the design decisions that users make?\n\nA categorization of toolkit solution space will help us identify different characteristics or attributes of toolkits for UID."},{"_id":"523908e88c359e922e000053","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155805,"position":2,"parentId":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","content":"###A framework for Toolkit Solution Space\n* Users design products with the help of toolkits\n* They design products by following a series of QOC steps outlined in design space analysis. They are:\n * design questions\n * options for the above questions\n * criteria constraints for choosing between the options\n\n\n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"5e4440779dbb5f21d7000036","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5164224,"position":2.5,"parentId":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","content":"###Understanding the Context of 3D Printing and Open Hardware\n\nLiterature review on Toolkits, further than whats in the introduction chapter\n\nLiterature review on 3D printing\n\n"},{"_id":"523909158c359e922e000054","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039793,"position":3,"parentId":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","content":"\n### Method and Data\n* For this explorative descriptive study, I looked at various design toolkits offered in 3D printing where users can design 3D objects. These 3D objects can then be printed by a service online or by the users themselves.\n"},{"_id":"59278ac6317b1feb4e00002f","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039797,"position":1,"parentId":"523909158c359e922e000054","content":"\n\nAs I focussed on toolkits to end users in this study, I aimed to look for toolkits that were available either free to use To find a list of toolkits in 3D printing I searched for the keywords: 3D printing, 3d design using google, bing and yahoo online web searches. The first 100 results from each search engine were browsed through to identify toolkits for this study. \n\n"},{"_id":"59278d66317b1feb4e000031","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039812,"position":1.5,"parentId":"523909158c359e922e000054","content":"There were 92 toolkits identified from the search results and studied. X number of these toolkits were web based, and free to use. While y number were design tools that had to be installed into one's own desktop. Out of these y1 were free and open source, y2 required a license but had available demos. There were also z number of toolkits that were initially identified as 3d printing toolkits but filtered out of this study because their closed model with high license fees. "},{"_id":"59278f25317b1feb4e000032","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039821,"position":1.75,"parentId":"523909158c359e922e000054","content":"To study the solution space of the toolkits, I took the perspective of a user and examined the user interface of the toolkits and how \n\nEach toolkit was analyzed to see what design questions users answer when they use the toolkit. For each design question, the design options that the users have were recorded. Any constraining criteria that the toolkit has that could be identified while exploring the toolkit were also recorded. These three dimensions describe the structure of the solution space the toolkits provide to users. Furthermore the user interface elements with which users interact to make design decisions are also listed to get a more detailed understanding of the toolkit solution space. \n"},{"_id":"59278c48317b1feb4e000030","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":3039796,"position":2,"parentId":"523909158c359e922e000054","content":"\nUser involvement can be defined as the average time taken for the user to use the toolkit. By logging the various questions and options offered of each toolkit, the average can be calculated.\n\nThe number of questions and options are important but what is also important is if the order of the design questions is important. Sequential design options are different.\n\nThe nature of the trial and error cycle is also logged.\n"},{"_id":"523909418c359e922e000055","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155578,"position":4,"parentId":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","content":"###Design Elements of Toolkit Solution Space\n\n"},{"_id":"5e4442899dbb5f21d7000037","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155576,"position":5,"parentId":"5238fb748c359e922e00004b","content":"###User created Toolkits to Simplify Solution Space"},{"_id":"5238fc778c359e922e00004d","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5386372,"position":4,"parentId":"5238f91d8c359e922e000048","content":"##Part4: Designing a Toolkit to Recommend from Solution Space\n#### \n\nHow can solution space be simplified using recommendations from a learning toolkit for UID? \nRQ3: Can average users have focussed navigation through toolkit solution space through the use of recommender systems and genetic algorithms?\n\nCan toolkits enable average users to quickly arrive at solutions that match both their explicit and implicit needs?\n\n\n"},{"_id":"52390b078c359e922e000059","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155595,"position":1,"parentId":"5238fc778c359e922e00004d","content":"###Needs and Objectives of the Study\n"},{"_id":"5fc21ac98c3f288145000058","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5465998,"position":2,"parentId":"52390b078c359e922e000059","content":"Summary of the previous parts and a connect to this part\n\n"},{"_id":"5fc21bde8c3f288145000059","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5465999,"position":3,"parentId":"52390b078c359e922e000059","content":"Needs and objectives of this part"},{"_id":"5fc21c5e8c3f28814500005a","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466000,"position":4,"parentId":"52390b078c359e922e000059","content":"Research Question"},{"_id":"523910d98c359e922e000063","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466001,"position":1,"parentId":"5fc21c5e8c3f28814500005a","content":"RQ3: Can basic users have focussed navigation through toolkit solution space through the use of recommender systems and genetic algorithms?\n"},{"_id":"5fc21d098c3f28814500005b","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466003,"position":5,"parentId":"52390b078c359e922e000059","content":"Research method used"},{"_id":"5fc21d5e8c3f28814500005c","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466052,"position":6,"parentId":"52390b078c359e922e000059","content":"Artifact Description & Evaluation"},{"_id":"5fc1df0b8c3f288145000056","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5467878,"position":1.5,"parentId":"5238fc778c359e922e00004d","content":"###Theoretical Underpinning"},{"_id":"5fc1e00f8c3f288145000057","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466919,"position":1,"parentId":"5fc1df0b8c3f288145000056","content":"Papers on recommendation systems\n\n*need to organize below\nConfigurator Toolkits\nMass Confusion\nRecommender Systems\n"},{"_id":"52390b708c359e922e00005a","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":2302432,"position":2,"parentId":"5238fc778c359e922e00004d","content":"###Method and Data\n\n\n"},{"_id":"547916542c4cc14371000055","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":2302435,"position":1,"parentId":"52390b708c359e922e00005a","content":"####Evaluation Study 1\nMake sequential observational studies on individuals with the prototype toolkit. Current Status - completed 2/10"},{"_id":"54791ad02c4cc14371000056","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5254092,"position":2,"parentId":"52390b708c359e922e00005a","content":"####Evaluation Study 2\nPerform experiment on user behavior with toolkit based on recommender systems. The control group uses a normal toolkit. Usage behavior is logged and logs are analyzed to achieve results.\n\nMymöbelstück is the toolkit used for control group\nhttp://oldconfig.class.wi1projects.com/huelle_konf.php"},{"_id":"5eb25f805609180686000045","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5254094,"position":3,"parentId":"52390b708c359e922e00005a","content":"http://aisel.aisnet.org/jais/vol16/iss5/3/\n\n[1] Mandviwalla, M. Generating and justifying design theory. Journal of the Association for Information Systems 16, (2015), 314–344.\n"},{"_id":"5eb2636b5609180686000046","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5254098,"position":4,"parentId":"52390b708c359e922e00005a","content":"https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/sciences-artificial"},{"_id":"52390b938c359e922e00005b","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466053,"position":3,"parentId":"5238fc778c359e922e00004d","content":"###Toolkit to Recommend Products that Match User Needs\n\n(Artifact description and Evaluation)"},{"_id":"5e4447829dbb5f21d7000039","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5466054,"position":4,"parentId":"5238fc778c359e922e00004d","content":"###Automating Tedious Design to Simplify Solution Space\n\n(Discussion)"},{"_id":"5238fd178c359e922e00004e","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5386444,"position":5,"parentId":"5238f91d8c359e922e000048","content":"##Part5: Simplifying Solution Space for Non-Expert Users\n\n"},{"_id":"52390c1f8c359e922e00005d","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5386440,"position":1,"parentId":"5238fd178c359e922e00004e","content":"###Summary of Studies and Scientific Contribution\n\n"},{"_id":"52390c798c359e922e00005e","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155590,"position":2,"parentId":"5238fd178c359e922e00004e","content":"###Managerial Implications\n"},{"_id":"52390cc08c359e922e00005f","treeId":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","seq":5155589,"position":3,"parentId":"5238fd178c359e922e00004e","content":"###Future Research\n\n\n"}],"tree":{"_id":"5238eb3f8c359e922e000045","name":"Dissertation HSN","publicUrl":"dissertation-hsn"}}