• Overview

    • Primary target audience in our survey would be married women who are currently not in the LF
      (find out why; also in this group is there are predominant proportion of ‘home-centred’ women as compared to the secondary group)
    • Secondary target audience would be married women that are currently in the labour force - we could further breakdown the demographics to look at isolated effects E.g. Cohort Effect
    • Economic reasoning: we’ll still use the opportunity cost and the incentives that the women face
    • What we mean by optimisation (beginning with an end in mind!) —>
    1. Those who have set preferences E.g. Adaptive could have the right environment to thrive in
    2. in the Long run, try to change the preferences towards adaptive?
  • Chapter 1
    Snapshot of the current situation in Singapore

  • Chapter 2
    Our Approach - Study and Qualitative Research

  • Chapter 3
    Motivating factors/ Barriers to entry

  • Chapter 4
    Policy Analysis and Recommendation

  • Chapter 1 (what we are looking for) + the whole finished questionnaire (appendix A, tabulation of results (appendix B)

    restructure the labour force?

    • Introduce theoretical framework
    • HK, Finland
    • Singapore
      Statistics isn’t enough
      We need to do an original investigation
      We went down to the grassroot level as we could not answer the questions by our own or through published statistics

    • Final draft of chapter 1 with indifference curve and models

    Comparative analysis with nordic countries
    E.g. Finland, Sweden, Australia (M-shaped FLFP curve)

    How to alter people’s incentive structure without altering the culture —> subsidies, wages, tax grants
    —> How to shift them from non-production to production?

    Integrate Finland’s system (wonderful grant) into Survey —> how will it affect your behavioral pattern? Give them different scenarios? Play with their economic incentives

    • go through our draft line-by-line —> and decide on key ideas
  • SCOPE FOR EXPANSION?

  • Singapore LFPR is underutilized!

  • Methodology

    • Introduction
    • Approach
    • Strategy/ Research Design
    • Ethics
    • Limitations
  • Results and Discussion

  • Evaluation of results

    • implications
    • compared with other countries/ theoretical studies
    • What we have done
      • Is it sufficient
      • Possible Challenges/ Areas of improvement
    • What we have not done?
      • Why?
      • Can it be adapted to Singapore? (Policies of other countries)
  • Benchmarks

    • MLFP (but this is not a sound argument)
    • Mincer’s benchmark
    • FLFP in nordic countries
    • Calculation of Opportunity cost (exclude replacement cost) —> married women not in the labour force
  • Economic Analysis

    • Life-cycle labour-leisure supply model (static/ dynamic)
    • Opportunity Cost (calculation - implicit and explicit)
    • Incentives
    • Time allocation model
    • Perceptions
    • Labour supply
    • Labour market segregation/ discrimination
    • Optimization
  • 3 leading actors

    Workers, firms and government

    Key decisions motivated by the desire to optimise (maximise wellbeing)

    • work or not?
    • how many hours to work?
    • how much effort allocated to work?
    • skills to acquire?
    • when to quit?
    • which occupation?
  • Introduction

    • Have a clear introduction and give the reader a brief preview of what is to come
    • Characteristics of population of study: sampling size
    • Period when survey is conducted (after)
  • Introduction

    • Our survey has four areas: Ideology towards family and child-bearing, Perception towards policies

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the different factors that affect the work decisions of married women. This study used deductive approach in which a qualitative survey was carried out among married women between the age of 21 - 60 in Singapore. The purpose of the survey was to get their responses on the different facets that govern their incentives towards employment.

  • “Reed goes further to present that the inductive approach is “where specific observations or measurements are made in order to develop broader conclusions, generalisation and theories. The deductive
    on the other hand, is “where one starts thinking about generalisations, then proceeds towards specifics on how to prove or implement the generalisations.”

  • Demographics of Sample

    • Target N= 130 - 150
    • Married Women
    • Age: over 23 (make sure there isn’t other critical factors such as unplanned marriage due to pregnancy)
    • Exclude women who are in the 1st year of their marriage (Revealed preference) - they may still be adjusting to marriage life, preferences may still be unfixed
    • According to racial make-up of Singapore, to reduce any biasedness due to differences in preferences between races
    • 2 groups: Women in labour force, Women not in labour force
    • Further breakdown to analyse impact of cohort effects (E.g. Cohort effects - women between 21 - 30)
    • We exclude discouraged workers + marginally attached workers

    Sources

    • Community Centres - dancing/ recreational classes
    • Acquaintances from Churches/ Mosque/ Temples
    • Former colleagues
    • Friends
    • Teacher-classmates from NIE
      etc. (where to find career women?)
  • Approach - content of research

    • Qualitative or quantitative? Why?
    • Objective of research
  • Strategy/ Research Design

    • Method of collection: survey/interviews? Why? (Should convince that it is the best method)
    • Sample group
      * Why this sample group?
      * What questions were asked?
    • Type of interview questions? Structured or unstructured?
    • How did questions contribute to study?
  • Research Methods
    We chose to employ both qualitative (width) and quantitive (depth) methods in study for it to be more comprehensive and reduce bias caused by our perceptions and stereotypes.

    First, we engaged in a pilot study with 15 married women. Through an interview whereby the interviewers have some guiding questions to ask but do no necessarily follow them thoroughly. Interviewers may add on additional questions according to the respondent’s answers to the general guiding questions. Respondents are to give open-ended answers to better reflect their underlying concerns. The goal here is to widen our scope and the whole pre-understanding of women’s employment situations through first-hand accounts.

    We designed the interviews in a way that could minimize the observer effect. For example, instead of asking “Do you think having kids negatively impact your career advancement?”, we asked “How do you think having kids influence your career?”

    The results we obtained from the pilot study thus formed a foundation of our quantitative study. “Quantitative methods on the other hand are based on already decided and well-structured questions, which all the respondents will be asked. The information is reduced to a certain area of interest and respondents will be repeated the same questions. This can be combined with open questions, which give the respondents the flexibility to answer from different
    perspectives.”

  • Ethics

    • Steps taken to ensure no harm, e.g. insensitive questions
    • How we dealt with issue of confidentiality of data/data protection
  • Limitation

    • Is it restricted to only one country?
    • Only certain age group interviewed?
    • Will more people give us more results?
  • Survey Questions
    Demographics

    • Age

    work or not?

    • Hakim’s Preferences
      Home centred, Adaptive or Work Centred
    • Spouse/Family’s preferences
    • Non-labour income may not be a good proxy for labour supply. ‘Perceived’ purchasing power may be a better proxy.
    • Housework as an normal good?
    • LFP decision: based on a comparison of the market wage with the reservation wage (increase in LFP may be due to a decline in women’s reservation wage, not just due to rise in market wage)
    • Wages vs. Fertility

    how many hours to work?

    • Time allocation: Home production, Leisure, Consumption
    • Technological advances and home production
    • Age of children: younger kids, higher the Rw

    how much effort allocated to work?

    skills to acquire?

    when to quit?

    which occupation?

    • Willingness to work in service industry and the likes (deviates from your previous job scope)
{"cards":[{"_id":"36f93336c4507c311500002a","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":0.5,"parentId":null,"content":"***Overview***\n* Primary target audience in our survey would be married women who are currently not in the LF\n(find out why; also in this group is there are predominant proportion of 'home-centred' women as compared to the secondary group)\n* Secondary target audience would be married women that are currently in the labour force - we could further breakdown the demographics to look at isolated effects E.g. Cohort Effect\n\n- Economic reasoning: we'll still use the opportunity cost and the incentives that the women face \n- What we mean by optimisation (beginning with an end in mind!) -->\n1. Those who have set preferences E.g. Adaptive could have the right environment to thrive in\n2. in the Long run, try to change the preferences towards adaptive?\n\n"},{"_id":"36f85ee4c4507c311500001a","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"*Chapter 1*\nSnapshot of the current situation in Singapore\n"},{"_id":"3d07a660c5af7d004e000034","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":0.25,"parentId":"36f85ee4c4507c311500001a","content":""},{"_id":"3703c45b93fb0bc294000039","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":0.5,"parentId":"36f85ee4c4507c311500001a","content":"Chapter 1 (what we are looking for) + the whole finished questionnaire (appendix A, tabulation of results (appendix B)\n\nrestructure the labour force?\n"},{"_id":"36f8c383c4507c311500001b","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f85ee4c4507c311500001a","content":"* Introduce theoretical framework\n- HK, Finland\n- Singapore\nStatistics isn't enough\nWe need to do an original investigation \nWe went down to the grassroot level as we could not answer the questions by our own or through published statistics \n\n- Final draft of chapter 1 with indifference curve and models \n\nComparative analysis with nordic countries \nE.g. Finland, Sweden, Australia (M-shaped FLFP curve)\n\nHow to alter people's incentive structure without altering the culture --> subsidies, wages, tax grants \n--> How to shift them from non-production to production?\n\nIntegrate Finland's system (wonderful grant) into Survey --> how will it affect your behavioral pattern? Give them different scenarios? Play with their economic incentives \n- go through our draft line-by-line --> and decide on key ideas"},{"_id":"36f8c8a4c4507c311500001e","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36f85ee4c4507c311500001a","content":"*SCOPE FOR EXPANSION*?"},{"_id":"36f8ca4ec4507c311500001f","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f8c8a4c4507c311500001e","content":"**Benchmarks**\n* MLFP (but this is not a sound argument)\n* Mincer's benchmark\n* FLFP in nordic countries\n* Calculation of Opportunity cost (exclude replacement cost) --> married women not in the labour force"},{"_id":"36fab63ac4507c3115000032","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36f8c8a4c4507c311500001e","content":"`Economic Analysis`\n* Life-cycle labour-leisure supply model (static/ dynamic)\n* Opportunity Cost (calculation - implicit and explicit)\n* Incentives\n* Time allocation model\n* Perceptions\n* Labour supply\n* Labour market segregation/ discrimination\n* Optimization \n"},{"_id":"36faf4e1c4507c3115000036","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36f8c8a4c4507c311500001e","content":"##3 leading actors##\nWorkers, firms and government\n\n*Key decisions motivated by the desire to optimise (maximise wellbeing)*\n* work or not?\n* how many hours to work?\n* how much effort allocated to work?\n* skills to acquire?\n* when to quit?\n* which occupation?"},{"_id":"36f8c6bcc4507c311500001d","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"36f85ee4c4507c311500001a","content":"Singapore LFPR is underutilized!\n"},{"_id":"36f8d114c4507c3115000021","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"*Chapter 2*\nOur Approach - Study and Qualitative Research"},{"_id":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f8d114c4507c3115000021","content":"**Methodology**\n* Introduction\n* Approach\n* Strategy/ Research Design \n* Ethics\n* Limitations\n"},{"_id":"36f8e1fdc4507c3115000024","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"**Introduction**\n * Have a clear introduction and give the reader a brief preview of what is to come\n * Characteristics of population of study: sampling size\n * Period when survey is conducted (after)\n"},{"_id":"36faad96c4507c3115000031","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1.25,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"`Introduction`\n* Our survey has four areas: Ideology towards family and child-bearing, Perception towards policies\n\nThe main purpose of this study was to assess the different factors that affect the work decisions of married women. This study used deductive approach in which a qualitative survey was carried out among married women between the age of 21 - 60 in Singapore. The purpose of the survey was to get their responses on the different facets that govern their incentives towards employment. \n"},{"_id":"36facb2bc4507c3115000033","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1.375,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"**\"Reed goes further to present that the inductive approach is “where specific observations or measurements are made in order to develop broader conclusions, generalisation and theories. The deductive \non the other hand, is “where one starts thinking about generalisations, then proceeds towards specifics on how to prove or implement the generalisations.\"**"},{"_id":"36fa2d89c4507c3115000030","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1.5,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"`Demographics of Sample`\n- Target N= 130 - 150\n- Married Women\n- Age: over 23 (make sure there isn't other critical factors such as unplanned marriage due to pregnancy)\n- Exclude women who are in the 1st year of their marriage (Revealed preference) - they may still be adjusting to marriage life, preferences may still be unfixed\n- According to racial make-up of Singapore, to reduce any biasedness due to differences in preferences between races\n- 2 groups: Women in labour force, Women not in labour force \n- Further breakdown to analyse impact of cohort effects (E.g. Cohort effects - women between 21 - 30)\n- We exclude discouraged workers + marginally attached workers\n\n**Sources**\n- Community Centres - dancing/ recreational classes\n- Acquaintances from Churches/ Mosque/ Temples\n- Former colleagues\n- Friends\n- Teacher-classmates from NIE\netc. (where to find career women?)\n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"36f8e43fc4507c3115000025","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"**Approach - content of research**\n * Qualitative or quantitative? Why?\n * Objective of research\n"},{"_id":"36f8e57ec4507c3115000026","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"**Strategy/ Research Design**\n* Method of collection: survey/interviews? Why? (Should convince that it is the best method)\n* Sample group\n * Why this sample group?\n * What questions were asked?\n* Type of interview questions? Structured or unstructured?\n* How did questions contribute to study?\n"},{"_id":"36fad02fc4507c3115000034","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":3.5,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"`Research Methods`\nWe chose to employ both qualitative (width) and quantitive (depth) methods in study for it to be more comprehensive and reduce bias caused by our perceptions and stereotypes.\n\nFirst, we engaged in a pilot study with 15 married women. Through an interview whereby the interviewers have some guiding questions to ask but do no necessarily follow them thoroughly. Interviewers may add on additional questions according to the respondent's answers to the general guiding questions. Respondents are to give open-ended answers to better reflect their underlying concerns. The goal here is to widen our scope and the whole pre-understanding of women's employment situations through first-hand accounts. \n\nWe designed the interviews in a way that could minimize the observer effect. For example, instead of asking \"Do you think having kids negatively impact your career advancement?\", we asked \"How do you think having kids influence your career?\" \n\nThe results we obtained from the pilot study thus formed a foundation of our quantitative study. \"Quantitative methods on the other hand are based on already decided and well-structured questions, which all the respondents will be asked. The information is reduced to a certain area of interest and respondents will be repeated the same questions. This can be combined with open questions, which give the respondents the flexibility to answer from different \nperspectives.\""},{"_id":"36f8fbe6c4507c3115000027","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"**Ethics**\n* Steps taken to ensure no harm, e.g. insensitive questions\n* How we dealt with issue of confidentiality of data/data protection\n\n\n"},{"_id":"36f8ff14c4507c3115000029","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"**Limitation**\n* Is it restricted to only one country?\n* Only certain age group interviewed?\n* Will more people give us more results? \n"},{"_id":"36fa23c3c4507c311500002f","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"36f8d5abc4507c3115000022","content":"`Survey Questions`\n**Demographics**\n* Age\n\n\n###work or not?###\n* Hakim's Preferences\nHome centred, Adaptive or Work Centred\n* Spouse/Family's preferences\n* Non-labour income may not be a good proxy for labour supply. 'Perceived' purchasing power may be a better proxy.\n* Housework as an normal good?\n* LFP decision: based on a comparison of the market wage with the reservation wage (increase in LFP may be due to a decline in women's reservation wage, not just due to rise in market wage)\n* Wages vs. Fertility\n\n\n###how many hours to work?###\n* Time allocation: Home production, Leisure, Consumption\n* Technological advances and home production\n* Age of children: younger kids, higher the Rw\n\n###how much effort allocated to work?###\n\n\n###skills to acquire?###\n\n\n###when to quit?###\n\n\n###which occupation?###\n* Willingness to work in service industry and the likes (deviates from your previous job scope)\n\n\n"},{"_id":"36f8e045c4507c3115000023","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36f8d114c4507c3115000021","content":"**Results and Discussion**\n"},{"_id":"36fa0a5bc4507c311500002b","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"*Chapter 3* \nMotivating factors/ Barriers to entry\n"},{"_id":"36fa1c1fc4507c311500002c","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36fa0a5bc4507c311500002b","content":"Evaluation of results\n* implications\n* compared with other countries/ theoretical studies"},{"_id":"36fa1e2cc4507c311500002d","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"*Chapter 4*\nPolicy Analysis and Recommendation\n"},{"_id":"36fa1f94c4507c311500002e","treeId":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36fa1e2cc4507c311500002d","content":"* What we have done\n * Is it sufficient\n * Possible Challenges/ Areas of improvement\n* What we have not done?\n * Why?\n * Can it be adapted to Singapore? (Policies of other countries)\n"}],"tree":{"_id":"36f85eb1c4507c3115000017","name":"FYP - overlooked segments of Singapore labour force","publicUrl":"fypgp17"}}