Chemistry provides one of many levels of explanation on which we can describe the real world - http://everything2.com/user/Oolong/writeups/Levels+of+explanation
Ionic bonding makes a great deal of sense once you get your head round it - http://oolong.co.uk/ionic-bonding
Metallic bonding is even simpler than ionic, in a way - http://everything2.com/user/Oolong/writeups/metallic+bonding
Electrolysis - why does electricity break up chemical compounds anyway?
A bit more detail on the deal with atoms tending to end up with eight electrons in their outside shell:
On rocks in general - http://everything2.com/user/Oolong/writeups/rock
Limestone is a lot more interesting than you might expect - http://everything2.com/title/limestone
Carbon is unbelievably versatile, and more than any other element is responsible for the fact there is such a thing as life - http://everything2.com/user/Oolong/writeups/Carbon