• Chapter 2
    “Britain and its colonies”

  • chapter 3
    Colonial Ways of life

  • #Chapter 4- “From Colonies to States”

    Mercantilism

    Parties

  • ChAPTER 6
    Shaping a federal Union

  • #Chapter 7-The Federalist Era:

    George Washington (President: 1789-1797) and John Adams (President: 1797-1801)

  • #Chapter 8-The Early Republic: Republicans/Anti-Federalists:

    Thomas Jefferson (President: 1801-1809) and James Madison (President: 1809-1817)

  • Chapter 9
    The dynamics of growth

  • chapter 10
    Nationalism and sectionalism

  • chapter 12
    The old south

  • State’s rights vs strong central government

  • Foreign policy and its impact on US

  • Territorial expansion and its impact on country and individual social groups

  • Economic Expansion and impact on country and individual social groups

  • Proprietary colony

  • royal colony

  • Headright System

  • Jamestown/Va company

  • Puritans

  • Mayflower compact

  • indentured servant

  • Triangular Trade

  • Enlightenment

  • Benjamin Franklin

  • Great Awakeing

  • Jonathan Edwards

  • Mercantilism/Mercantile System

  • Navigation Acts

  • Albany Plan of Union/ Albany Congress

  • The French and Indian War

  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

  • Proclamation of 1763

  • Sons of Liberty

  • Boston Massacre

  • Boston Tea Party

  • Continental Congress

  • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

  • Shay’s rebellion

  • Great Compromise

  • 3/5 Compromise

  • Separation of powers/ checks and balances

  • Federalists vs. antifederalists

  • The federalist papers

  • Federalists/Hamiltonians

  • Reports on Public Credit (1790-1791)

  • Reports on Manufacturers

  • National Bank

  • Jay’s Treaty (1794)

  • Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

  • Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)

  • Primary Source: Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)

  • XYZ Affair (1797)

  • Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)

  • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)

  • Republicans/Anti-Federalists/Jeffersonians

  • “Revolution of 1800”

  • “wise and frugal” government: from Jefferson’s first Inaugural Address (1801)

  • Primary Source: Marbury vs. Madison case (1803)

    & the establishment of “Judicial Review” in the Supreme Court

  • Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • War of 1812

  • “War Hawks”

  • Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)

  • Erie canal

  • Robert fulton/ Steamboat

  • Steam Railway/ Railroad

  • Clipper ship

  • Eli Whitney/ cotton gin

  • Lowell System

  • Potato famine/blight

  • Nativism

  • Know-Nothing party

  • Henry clay/ “American System”

  • Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)

  • Missouri Compromise

  • Monroe doctrine

  • “King cotton”

  • Planter

  • Domestic slave trade

  • Apologists(for slavery)

  • Frederick Douglass

  • “Spirituals”

  • alien and sedition acts (fall of central)

  • whiskey rebellion (showed the govt power)

  • acts by british

  • monroe doctrine

  • navigation acts

  • wars 1812, french and indian, seven years war

  • xyz affair

  • indian removal act

  • missouri compromise

  • owned by one person
    ex maryland owned by lord baltimore

  • colonies ruled by governor and council appointed by king of England
    still owned by britain

  • 1618
    to entice englishmen to come to VIRGINIA

    giving settlers 2 tracts of land
    giving new settlers 1 tract of land
    (tempting for whole families)

  • joint-stock trading company
    1607 settled jamestown

  • Separatist puritans

    • pilgrims
    • to plymouth
    • wanted to separate from church of England
  • Congregationalist Puritans

    • massachusetts bay colony
    • reforming church of england
  • 1620s Plymouth colony
    “civil body politic”
    almost a constitution
    representative democracy
    written by separatists

  • 2-7 years of labor for land in new world or just the price of voyage
    especially in jamestown

  • US —> Europe

    • natural resources
    • crops —tobacco
      Europe —> US
    • manufactured goods, linens horses
  • US—> west indies

    • goods
      West indies—> US
    • slaves
  • West indies—> Euro

    • sugar molasses
      Euro—> W indies
    • Euro products
  • US—> Africa

    • rum
      Africa—> US
    • slaves
  • Africa—> West Indies

    • Slaves
  • What 1700s

    intellectual movement that challenges tradition / religious belief

    • individual
    • reason/logic
  • Why

    Scientific Revolution (1500s-1700s)

    • separation from church
    • reason, experimentation/ observation
  • Impact

    in colonies

    • lead to great Awakening (response to enlightenment)
    • fragments religious life
  • indentured servant to his brother’s printing company

    • science and politics, newspapers, signed D of I, led albany plan of union
  • What 1700s-1730s-1750s

    Religious movement responding to Enlightenment (that challenged puritan establishment)

    • puritan ministers didn’t have right to translate
    • emotions very important to movement
    • individual very important
      • appeals to everyone but rich (women, slaves)
    • first american Avanglical movement
  • Impact

    • turning toward reason and rationality in colonies
    • challenged puritan faith
    • more respect/ power to women
  • 1741 “sinners in the hands of an angry god”
    (evangelicalist)

    • reform immediately for salvation
    • against predestination
  • nation building wealth at expense of its colonies

    • taxing imports and exports of its colonies
  • 1651-1678 England tightening control of colonies’ trade to increase English revenue

    • tariffs and $ going through England
    • merchants needed to by english in americas
  • 1754 Albany congress

    • delegates (ex Ben Franklin) from 7 northern colonies
    • 1st attempt of colonial legislature
  • 1754 Albany plan of Union

    • made HOR concept
    • central colonial govt for indian relations, trade and settlement
    • levy taxes, crown thought it gave colonies too much power
    • rejected but used in 1777 Continental Congress
    • colonies could keep traditional ways
  • (1754-1763) english vs french in america

    • over fertile lands in ohio river valley (for wealth, influence and power)
    • started at forks of ohio
  • impacts

    • George Washington became a recognized leader
    • British had war debt —> taxing colonies
    • french influence vanished from North America
  • ended the Seven years war and french and indian war

    • started era of british dominance
  • royal proclamation to American colonies to prevent colonists from settling past the appalachian mountains

    • made indian reservation land
  • First Continental Congress 1774

    • Suffolk Resolve
      • made Coercive Acts void
      • enabled forces in Massachusetts to oppose British
    • 1st official government in colonies
    • Declaration of American Rights

      Second Continental Congress 1775

    • appointed George Washington head of Continental Army
    • Olive Branch Petition by John Dickens —> shows loyalty to George III
      • king denied and declared war August 22
    • Declaration of Independence
      • July 4, 1776
      • drafted by TJ, official statement of American position
      • life, liberty and pursuit of happiness
  • Who were the Federalists?

    • those in favor Alexander Hamilton’s economic policies:
      • in favor of strong central government w/ power centered in the executive branch, a national bank & assumption of state debts
      • promoted Constitution & wanted to establish capitalism
      • Jefferson (wanted states’ rights to be stronger) vs. Hamilton (wanted stronger national gov’t)
  • What was it?

    • 1st report:
      • Why did it emerge? $79 million debt of state & federal gov’ts from War loans of France, Spain, & Holland
      • What was it?
        • proposed funding the national debt at face value w/ war bonds
        • required the federal gov’t to assume or take over the states’ debts
    • OUTCOME: Debt Assumption Bill (1791-1801)
      • Why did it occur? drafted to help Hamilton/other Federalists pass/legalize Hamilton’s FIRST Report on Public Credit
    • goal to encourage wealthy people to invest by giving them interest-bearing bonds—>angers farmers/soldiers who lost money & could not benefit from the bill
    • controversy: farmers & soldiers needing money already sold their gov’t bonds—>lost money
    • 2nd report:
      • proposed a liquor tax, a national bank & national mint, & the Report on Manufacturers
    • OUTCOME: reports succeeded in:
      • debt assumption (created a budget)
      • system of tariffs (taxes)—>imports (Europe)
      • federal gov’t assumption of state debts
      • deflated war bonds—>exchange for new (national) interest-bearing bonds
    • benefitted northerners, not southerners b/c southern states paid off debts faster
      • Compromise: relocation of capital in Washington (closer to south) in return for enough southern votes for debt assumption plan
  • What was it?

    • extensive gov’t aid program to stimulate industry
    • development in manufacturing/infrastructure
      • reduce dependency on imported goods
      • greater use of machinery
      • development of roads, canals, seaways
    • Hamilton’s federal tariff proposals: to make American products more competitive w/ foreign manufacturers
    • Outcome: transportation of goods
  • Goals:

    • manage money supply/regulate financial activity
    • depository: provide loans to federal gov’t
    • create unified currency (national mint)
  • What was it?

    • A treaty that Chief Justice John Jay negotiated w/ British officials
    • US Goals:
      • Get British troops out of forts on Great Lakes
      • Secure reparations of lost US shippers
      • Compensation for Southern Slaves taken by British
      • Legalize American trade w/ British West Indies
    • Why did it occur/emerge?
      • tension b/t US and Britain
      • US wanted to stay neutral in French revolution—maintain concept of neutrality
    • What was its impact?
      • US agrees to not to bring war supplies into neutral territories (British ports etc.)
      • No French privateers in US ports
      • British don’t have to compensate for slaves
      • US pays war debt to British merchants
      • Britain promises to evacuate the northwestern forts by 1796
      • Britain reimburses US for seizing cargo in 1793-1794
      • Grant US merchants trading rights with British West Indies
    • OVERALL OUTCOME:
      • Public divides: Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Federalists
        • Republicans want to support French b/c the French deserve same rights that Americans have
          • South vs. North
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • Yes b/c it shows that the US does not support the French Revolution
    • What was it?
      • mob of 500 farmers outraged at liquor tax burned down tax collector’s house
        • Washington brought 13,000 troops to intimidate “whiskey boys” & arrested them/ burned their distillery
    • Why did it occur/emerge?
      • people drank liquor more than water (it was easily made), & many farmers sold/used it
    • What was its impact?
      • gov’t looks stronger/more forceful; more sympathy for “whiskey boys”
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • No, the rebellion was anti-federalist b/c it was against federalist taxes
        • the whiskey tax itself was federalist b/c it enforces taxes from the central gov’t
    • What was it?
      • Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney to stop fighting between Indians and colonists
        • Won Americans’ right to ship goods across the Mississippi River
        • Transport goods into New Orleans
        • Promise from each to refrain from attacking each other
        • Westerners liked it because it expanded the crop market
    • Why did it occur/emerge?
      • White Settlers burned Indian villages to try to expand their territory
      • Spain (who has Indian allies) enter into treaty negotiations w/ colonists
    • What was its impact?
      • expanded crop market/ land
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • Yes, b/c its trying to expand trade to benefit its entire nation; national gov’t decision b/c they are trying to benefit nation as a whole, not specific states
    • What was the historical significance of this document?
      • Washington wanted to unite politically to build a stronger nation
      • foreign relations: major emphasis on neutrality, not isolationism
        • believes in keeping the trade doors open, but having as little political connection as possible: not to deepen foreign relations
      • basically saying that “if we remain neutral, we may have the respect of other nations”
      • does not want to extend/expand foreign alliances; “steer clear of permanent Alliances”
    • What was it?
      • 3 French officials (to whom Washington referred to as “X, Y, Z”) tried to bribe US diplomats to pay $250,000 in exchange for peace on seas
    • Why did it occur?
      • the French saw Jay’s Treaty as a violation of existing French-US Alliance; French began seizing US ships/refusing ambassadors, edging towards war
      • Adams decided to meet with French minister to discuss peace; XYZ officials showed up instead
    • What was its impact?
      • French became seen as threat to US
      • French = anti-federalists
      • Alien & Sedition Acts
    • Does it represent Federalist principles?
      • No, because the French were seen as Anti-Federalist & as a threat to the US as a result
        —>not a principle of maintaining neutrality for US
    • What were they?
      • series of laws passed by Federalist Congress to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners (French & Irish=Anti-Federalists/ Republicans; seen as possible threat)
      • power to deport foreigners
      • residency requirement for immigrants to gain citizenship increased from 5 to 14 years
      • Sedition Act: prohibited public opposition to the government (limited free speech/freedom of press)
    • Why did they occur/emerge?
      • to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners
    • What was their impact?
    • Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
    • Does it represent Federalist principles?
      • Yes, because it was designed to punish Republicans (a.k.a. French/Irish)
    • What were they?
      • resolutions written by Jefferson and Madison that argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution
      • nulled/voided Alien & Sedition Acts
      • argued that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws & decide when Congress had exceeded its powers
        • even called upon other states to help w/ repeal
    • Why did they occur/emerge?
      • Republicans in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts
    • What was their impact?
      • weakened Federalist party
    • Does it represent Federalist principles?
      • NO because Jefferson and Madison (Anti-federalists) were AGAINST the Federalist party and the power of the central gov’t/Congress to decide if laws were constitutional or not; they wanted to give more power to the states to limit the power of the Congress
    • Who were they/what were their beliefs?
      • believed in decentralized government
      • vision of freedom/independence
      • believed in states’ rights over rights of federal government
      • agricultural economy (Jefferson)
      • reducing taxes not raising taxes
    • What was it?
      • Jefferson used term to metaphorically describe shift in power from Pres. Adams/Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans (from Federalist Regime to Republicanism)
      • represented common interests of Americans
    • Why did it occur?
      • debates between Adams and Jefferson after Adams’ term
    • What was its impact?
      • proved to other nations that Republicanism began by the revolutionary seed of independence could not only thrive, but succeed
        • reformed/transformed the government
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • No, but it showed the acceptance of Republicanism by the Federalists; it transformed the gov’t to a Democratic Republic
    • What did Jefferson mean?
      • Jefferson meant that the gov’t should live within means/reduce spending/debt
    • What policies did he implement?
      • reduced military spending (doesn’t want the military putting down Anti-federalists)
      • repealed whiskey tax
      • outlawed importation of African slaves (1808)
        • sparks smuggling of slaves
        • start to kidnap blacks from north
    • How did his policies represent Republican ideals?
      • wanted to strengthen state militias and weaken federal military
    • What was the significance of his policies?
      • gradually abolishing slavery
      • strengthens Republican party and appeal to larger segment of country/the people—>different way of seeing things from the federalists (reform)
    • What was it?
      • first case that the Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional
      • Case: Federalist William Marbury’s commission letter, signed by Pres. Adams, was undelivered by secretary of state John Marshall to finalize appt.; when Jefferson took office, new secretary of state James Madison was ordered not to deliver Marbury’s commission papers
      • Marbury sued at Supreme Court for Madison to deliver commission
      • Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist):
        • thought Marbury deserved his commission
        • believed Supreme Court should assume right of judicial review
          • “Judicial Review”: the ability for the Supreme Court to determine whether laws are constitutional or not
    • Why did it occur?
      • case presented opportunity for John Marshall’s strong belief in establishing the power of the Supreme Court for judicial review
    • What was its impact?
      • est. power of Supreme Court for judicial review
      • enhanced system of checks & balances: the Supreme Court checks the Congress/legislative branch (more power to Supreme Court) and thus the judicial branch
      • revealed divisions between Federalists & Republicans—>strengthen federal government
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas?
      • Yes b/c Federalist John Marshall pushed for the establishment of judicial review in the Supreme Court, which would therefore give more power to the central federal gov’t
    • What was it?
      • the acquisition by the US of French territory (Louisiana)—obtained for $15 million
    • Why did it occur?
      • Napoleon regained territory from Spain (1800) Napoleon sold territory to US to cut French losses in Britain
    • What was its impact?
      • separated US from the rest of the world
        • pattern of positive results from US staying out of European affairs
      • territory became haven for free blacks
      • Lewis & Clark Expedition to explore region beyond Mississippi River
    • Causes of War:
      • British policy of intercepting US ships trading w/ France
      • British impressments of American sailors
      • problems w/ Indians on the frontier
      • a group of Congressmen from the South & West who strongly pushed for war (speeches/pushes for war)
    • Effects of War:
      • Increased prestige of the US
      • Generated a new spirit of patriotism among Americans
      • fostered national unity
      • greatly weakened the Federalist party
      • negative: Republicans realized they needed a stronger military presence in order to strengthen the government
    • Who were they?
      • a group of Republican Congressmen who demanded that the US declare war against Britain, invade British Canada, and expel the Spanish from Florida
    • Henry Clay: the British are forcing the US sailors to join British navy, attacked Chesapeake (Clay saw as attack on US & do things that a free nation should have the ability to do), interfered w/ American trade
    • OUTCOME: War Hawks got what they wanted in the War of 1812
    • What was it?
      • peace treaty between Britain and US
    • Why did it occur?
      • result of War of 1812: to make peace between US and Britain
    • What was its impact?
      • Battle of New Orleans (January 1815): led by Andrew Jackson, it took place a few weeks after the treaty had been signed
      • US wins battle; decisive battle: many Americans believe that the battle won the war
  • a ship with lots of sails

  • created in 1792/93
    increased demand for slaves to pick the cotton in south
    encouraged expansion in south / southwest

  • Irish potato famine (1845)

    • 1 million+ Irish peasants killed
  • apologist=supporter
    H. Manly was an apologist for slavery because he thought its benefitted the slaves lives and southern economy compared to the north (gave the poor irish too much hope)

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britain"},{"_id":"3ab1e678ff90ce212300003e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3aa492e5ff90ce212300002d","content":"Headright System"},{"_id":"3aca2ab2837723e3fa00006a","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1e678ff90ce212300003e","content":"1618\nto entice englishmen to come to VIRGINIA\n\ngiving settlers 2 tracts of land\ngiving new settlers 1 tract of land \n (tempting for whole families)"},{"_id":"3ab1e725ff90ce212300003f","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3aa492e5ff90ce212300002d","content":"Jamestown/Va company"},{"_id":"3acbcb81837723e3fa000074","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1e725ff90ce212300003f","content":"joint-stock trading company\n1607 settled 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constitution\nrepresentative democracy\nwritten by separatists \n"},{"_id":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":0.625,"parentId":null,"content":"chapter 3\nColonial Ways of life"},{"_id":"3ab1eb8dff90ce2123000043","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","content":"indentured servant"},{"_id":"3acbd097837723e3fa000075","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1eb8dff90ce2123000043","content":"2-7 years of labor for land in new world or just the price of voyage\nespecially in jamestown"},{"_id":"3ab1ec17ff90ce2123000044","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","content":"Triangular Trade"},{"_id":"3acbe058837723e3fa000076","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1ec17ff90ce2123000044","content":"US --> Europe \n* natural resources\n* crops --tobacco\nEurope --> US\n* manufactured goods, linens horses"},{"_id":"3acbe35e837723e3fa000077","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1ec17ff90ce2123000044","content":"US--> west indies\n* goods\nWest indies--> US\n* slaves"},{"_id":"3acbeadd837723e3fa000078","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1ec17ff90ce2123000044","content":"West indies--> Euro\n* sugar molasses\nEuro--> W indies\n* Euro products"},{"_id":"3acbedb3837723e3fa000079","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3ab1ec17ff90ce2123000044","content":"US--> Africa\n* rum\nAfrica--> US\n* slaves"},{"_id":"3acbefc1837723e3fa00007a","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3ab1ec17ff90ce2123000044","content":"Africa--> West Indies\n* Slaves"},{"_id":"3ab1ec70ff90ce2123000045","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","content":"Enlightenment"},{"_id":"3acbf146837723e3fa00007b","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1ec70ff90ce2123000045","content":"###What 1700s\nintellectual movement that challenges tradition / religious belief\n* individual\n* reason/logic"},{"_id":"3acbfcb9837723e3fa00007c","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1ec70ff90ce2123000045","content":"###Why\nScientific Revolution (1500s-1700s)\n* separation from church\n* reason, experimentation/ observation"},{"_id":"3acc011b837723e3fa00007d","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1ec70ff90ce2123000045","content":"###Impact\nin colonies\n* lead to great Awakening (response to enlightenment)\n* fragments religious life"},{"_id":"3ab1ecd7ff90ce2123000046","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","content":"Benjamin Franklin"},{"_id":"3acc0648837723e3fa00007e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1ecd7ff90ce2123000046","content":"indentured servant to his brother's printing company\n* science and politics, newspapers, signed D of I, led albany plan of union"},{"_id":"3ab1ed5aff90ce2123000047","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","content":"Great Awakeing"},{"_id":"3acc06a1837723e3fa00007f","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1ed5aff90ce2123000047","content":"###What 1700s-1730s-1750s\n**Religious movement** responding to Enlightenment (that challenged puritan establishment)\n* puritan ministers didn't have right to translate\n* emotions very important to movement\n* individual very important\n* * appeals to everyone but rich (women, slaves)\n* first american Avanglical movement\n"},{"_id":"3acc1652837723e3fa000080","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1ed5aff90ce2123000047","content":"###Impact\n* turning toward reason and rationality in colonies\n* challenged puritan faith\n* more respect/ power to women"},{"_id":"3ab1edc3ff90ce2123000048","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"3ab1e888ff90ce2123000042","content":"Jonathan Edwards"},{"_id":"3acc1b1c837723e3fa000081","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1edc3ff90ce2123000048","content":"1741 \"sinners in the hands of an angry god\"\n(evangelicalist)\n* reform immediately for salvation\n* against predestination"},{"_id":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":0.75,"parentId":null,"content":"#Chapter 4- \"From Colonies to States\"\n###Mercantilism\n###Parties"},{"_id":"3aa4a18cff90ce212300002f","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Mercantilism/Mercantile System"},{"_id":"3acc2659837723e3fa000082","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4a18cff90ce212300002f","content":"nation building wealth at expense of its colonies\n* taxing imports and exports of its colonies"},{"_id":"3aa4a3e9ff90ce2123000030","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Navigation Acts"},{"_id":"3acc2868837723e3fa000083","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4a3e9ff90ce2123000030","content":"1651-1678 England tightening control of colonies' trade to increase English revenue\n* tariffs and $ going through England\n* merchants needed to by english in americas"},{"_id":"3aa4a4b7ff90ce2123000031","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Albany Plan of Union/ Albany Congress"},{"_id":"3acc2da2837723e3fa000084","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4a4b7ff90ce2123000031","content":"1754 Albany congress\n* delegates (ex Ben Franklin) from 7 northern colonies\n* 1st attempt of colonial legislature"},{"_id":"3acc32c4837723e3fa000085","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3aa4a4b7ff90ce2123000031","content":"1754 Albany plan of Union\n* made HOR concept\n* central colonial govt for indian relations, trade and settlement\n* levy taxes, crown thought it gave colonies too much power\n* rejected but used in 1777 Continental Congress\n* colonies could keep traditional ways"},{"_id":"3aa4a6f2ff90ce2123000032","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"The French and Indian War"},{"_id":"3acc3a61837723e3fa000086","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4a6f2ff90ce2123000032","content":"(1754-1763) english vs french in america\n* over fertile lands in ohio river valley (for wealth, influence and power)\n* started at forks of ohio"},{"_id":"3acc3fe2837723e3fa000087","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3aa4a6f2ff90ce2123000032","content":"impacts\n* George Washington became a recognized leader\n* British had war debt --> taxing colonies\n* french influence vanished from North America"},{"_id":"3aa4a95fff90ce2123000033","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Treaty of Paris (1763)"},{"_id":"3acc551cf69dfd40a6000086","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4a95fff90ce2123000033","content":"ended the Seven years war and french and indian war\n* started era of british dominance"},{"_id":"3aa4aa4bff90ce2123000034","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Proclamation of 1763"},{"_id":"3acc5970f69dfd40a6000087","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4aa4bff90ce2123000034","content":"royal proclamation to American colonies to prevent colonists from settling past the appalachian mountains\n* made indian reservation land"},{"_id":"3aa4abdcff90ce2123000035","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"#Acts"},{"_id":"3aa4b254ff90ce2123000036","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Sons of Liberty"},{"_id":"3aa4b696ff90ce2123000037","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":9,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Boston Massacre"},{"_id":"3aa4b862ff90ce2123000038","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":10,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Boston Tea Party"},{"_id":"3aa4b952ff90ce2123000039","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":11,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"##Continental Congress"},{"_id":"3aa4be02ff90ce212300003b","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3aa4b952ff90ce2123000039","content":"###First Continental Congress 1774\n* Suffolk Resolve\n * made Coercive Acts void\n * enabled forces in Massachusetts to oppose British\n* 1st official government in colonies\n* Declaration of American Rights\n###Second Continental Congress 1775\n* appointed George Washington head of Continental Army\n* Olive Branch Petition by John Dickens --> shows loyalty to George III\n * king denied and declared war August 22\n* **Declaration of Independence**\n * July 4, 1776\n * drafted by TJ, official statement of American position\n * life, liberty and pursuit of happiness"},{"_id":"3aa4bb9cff90ce212300003a","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":12,"parentId":"3aa49438ff90ce212300002e","content":"Thomas Paine's Common Sense"},{"_id":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":0.875,"parentId":null,"content":"ChAPTER 6\nShaping a federal Union\n"},{"_id":"3ab1f163ff90ce212300004a","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","content":"Shay's rebellion\n"},{"_id":"3ab1f201ff90ce212300004b","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","content":"Great Compromise"},{"_id":"3ab1f2baff90ce212300004c","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","content":"3/5 Compromise"},{"_id":"3ab1f324ff90ce212300004d","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","content":"Separation of powers/ checks and balances"},{"_id":"3ab1f3eeff90ce212300004e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","content":"Federalists vs. antifederalists"},{"_id":"3ab1f496ff90ce212300004f","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"3ab1ef74ff90ce2123000049","content":"The federalist papers"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"#Chapter 7-The Federalist Era:\n##George Washington (President: 1789-1797) and John Adams (President: 1797-1801)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c8","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":0.125,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Federalists/Hamiltonians"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d3","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c8","content":"###Who were the Federalists?\n* those in favor Alexander Hamilton's economic policies:\n * in favor of strong central government w/ power centered in the executive branch, a national bank & assumption of state debts\n * promoted Constitution & wanted to establish capitalism\n * Jefferson (wanted states' rights to be stronger) vs. Hamilton (wanted stronger national gov't)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c9","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":0.1875,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"###Reports on Public Credit (1790-1791)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d4","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c9","content":"*What was it?*\n* **1st report:**\n * *Why did it emerge?* $79 million debt of state & federal gov'ts from War loans of France, Spain, & Holland\n * *What was it?*\n * proposed funding the national debt at face value w/ war bonds\n * required the federal gov't to assume or take over the states' debts\n* OUTCOME: **Debt Assumption Bill **(1791-1801)\n * *Why did it occur?* drafted to help Hamilton/other Federalists pass/legalize Hamilton's FIRST Report on Public Credit\n* goal to encourage wealthy people to invest by giving them interest-bearing bonds-->angers farmers/soldiers who lost money & could not benefit from the bill\n* *controversy:* farmers & soldiers needing money already sold their gov't bonds-->lost money \n* **2nd report: **\n * proposed a liquor tax, a national bank & national mint, & the Report on Manufacturers\n* OUTCOME: reports succeeded in:\n * debt assumption (created a budget)\n * system of tariffs (taxes)-->imports (Europe)\n * federal gov't assumption of state debts\n * deflated war bonds-->exchange for new (national) interest-bearing bonds\n* benefitted northerners, not southerners b/c southern states paid off debts faster\n * Compromise: relocation of capital in Washington (closer to south) in return for enough southern votes for debt assumption plan"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ca","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":0.25,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"###Reports on Manufacturers"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d5","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ca","content":"*What was it?*\n* extensive gov't aid program to stimulate industry\n* development in manufacturing/infrastructure\n * reduce dependency on imported goods\n * greater use of machinery\n * development of roads, canals, seaways\n* Hamilton's federal tariff proposals: to make American products more competitive w/ foreign manufacturers\n* Outcome: transportation of goods"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cb","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"###National Bank"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b0","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cb","content":"Goals:\n* manage money supply/regulate financial activity\n* depository: provide loans to federal gov't\n* create unified currency (national mint)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cc","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Jay's Treaty (1794)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b1","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cc","content":"*What was it?*\n* A treaty that Chief Justice John Jay negotiated w/ British officials\n* US Goals:\n * Get British troops out of forts on Great Lakes\n * Secure reparations of lost US shippers\n * Compensation for Southern Slaves taken by British\n * Legalize American trade w/ British West Indies \n* *Why did it occur/emerge?*\n * tension b/t US and Britain\n * US wanted to stay neutral in French revolution--maintain concept of neutrality\n* *What was its impact?*\n * US agrees to not to bring war supplies into neutral territories (British ports etc.) \n * No French privateers in US ports \n * British don't have to compensate for slaves \n * US pays war debt to British merchants \n * Britain promises to evacuate the northwestern forts by 1796 \n * Britain reimburses US for seizing cargo in 1793-1794\n * Grant US merchants trading rights with British West Indies \n* OVERALL OUTCOME:\n * Public divides: Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Federalists\n * Republicans want to support French b/c the French deserve same rights that Americans have\n * South vs. North\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * Yes b/c it shows that the US does not support the French Revolution"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cd","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Whiskey Rebellion (1794)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b2","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cd","content":"* *What was it?*\n * mob of 500 farmers outraged at liquor tax burned down tax collector's house\n * Washington brought 13,000 troops to intimidate “whiskey boys” & arrested them/ burned their distillery \n* *Why did it occur/emerge?*\n * people drank liquor more than water (it was easily made), & many farmers sold/used it\n* *What was its impact?*\n * gov't looks stronger/more forceful; more sympathy for \"whiskey boys\"\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * No, the rebellion was anti-federalist b/c it was against federalist taxes\n * the whiskey tax itself was federalist b/c it enforces taxes from the central gov't"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ce","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Pinckney's Treaty (1795)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b3","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ce","content":"* *What was it?*\n * Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney to stop fighting between Indians and colonists\n * Won Americans' right to ship goods across the Mississippi River\n * Transport goods into New Orleans\n * Promise from each to refrain from attacking each other\n * Westerners liked it because it expanded the crop market \n* *Why did it occur/emerge?*\n * White Settlers burned Indian villages to try to expand their territory\n * Spain (who has Indian allies) enter into treaty negotiations w/ colonists \n* *What was its impact?*\n * expanded crop market/ land\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * Yes, b/c its trying to expand trade to benefit its entire nation; national gov't decision b/c they are trying to benefit nation as a whole, not specific states"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cf","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Primary Source: Washington's *Farewell Address* (1796)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b4","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020cf","content":"* *What was the historical significance of this document?*\n * Washington wanted to unite politically to build a stronger nation\n * foreign relations: major emphasis on *neutrality*, not isolationism\n * believes in keeping the trade doors open, but having as little political connection as possible: not to deepen foreign relations\n * basically saying that \"if we remain neutral, we may have the respect of other nations\"\n * does not want to extend/expand foreign alliances; \"steer clear of permanent Alliances\""},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d0","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##XYZ Affair (1797)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b5","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d0","content":"* *What was it?*\n * 3 French officials (to whom Washington referred to as \"X, Y, Z\") tried to bribe US diplomats to pay $250,000 in exchange for peace on seas\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * the French saw Jay's Treaty as a violation of existing French-US Alliance; French began seizing US ships/refusing ambassadors, edging towards war\n * Adams decided to meet with French minister to discuss peace; XYZ officials showed up instead\n* *What was its impact?*\n * French became seen as threat to US\n * French = anti-federalists\n * Alien & Sedition Acts\n* *Does it represent Federalist principles?*\n * No, because the French were seen as Anti-Federalist & as a threat to the US as a result\n-->not a principle of maintaining neutrality for US"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d1","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b6","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d1","content":"* *What were they?*\n * series of laws passed by Federalist Congress to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners (**French & Irish**=Anti-Federalists/ Republicans; seen as possible threat)\n * power to deport foreigners \n * residency requirement for immigrants to gain citizenship increased from 5 to 14 years\n * **Sedition Act:** prohibited public opposition to the government (limited free speech/freedom of press)\n* *Why did they occur/emerge?*\n * to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners\n* *What was their impact?* \n* Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions\n* *Does it represent Federalist principles?*\n * Yes, because it was designed to punish Republicans (a.k.a. French/Irish)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d2","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":9,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ae","content":"##Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b7","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020d2","content":"* *What were they?*\n * resolutions written by Jefferson and Madison that argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution\n * nulled/voided Alien & Sedition Acts\n * argued that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws & decide when Congress had exceeded its powers\n * even called upon other states to help w/ repeal\n* *Why did they occur/emerge?*\n * Republicans in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts\n* *What was their impact?*\n * weakened Federalist party\n* *Does it represent Federalist principles?*\n * NO because Jefferson and Madison (Anti-federalists) were AGAINST the Federalist party and the power of the central gov't/Congress to decide if laws were constitutional or not; they wanted to give more power to the states to limit the power of the Congress"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"#Chapter 8-The Early Republic: Republicans/Anti-Federalists:\n##Thomas Jefferson (President: 1801-1809) and James Madison (President: 1809-1817)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b8","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"##Republicans/Anti-Federalists/Jeffersonians"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c0","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b8","content":"* *Who were they/what were their beliefs?*\n * believed in decentralized government\n * vision of freedom/independence\n * believed in states' rights over rights of federal government\n * agricultural economy (Jefferson)\n * reducing taxes not raising taxes"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b9","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"###\"Revolution of 1800\""},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c1","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020b9","content":"* *What was it?*\n * Jefferson used term to metaphorically describe shift in power from Pres. Adams/Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans (from Federalist Regime to Republicanism)\n * represented common interests of Americans\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * debates between Adams and Jefferson after Adams' term\n* *What was its impact?*\n * proved to other nations that Republicanism began by the revolutionary seed of independence could not only thrive, but succeed\n * reformed/transformed the government\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * No, but it showed the acceptance of Republicanism by the Federalists; it transformed the gov't to a Democratic Republic"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ba","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"###\"wise and frugal\" government: from Jefferson's first Inaugural Address (1801)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c2","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ba","content":"* *What did Jefferson mean?*\n * Jefferson meant that the gov't should live within means/reduce spending/debt\n* *What policies did he implement?*\n * reduced military spending (doesn't want the military putting down Anti-federalists)\n * repealed whiskey tax\n * outlawed importation of African slaves (1808)\n * sparks smuggling of slaves\n * start to kidnap blacks from north\n* *How did his policies represent Republican ideals?*\n * wanted to strengthen state militias and weaken federal military\n* *What was the significance of his policies?*\n * gradually abolishing slavery\n * strengthens Republican party and appeal to larger segment of country/the people-->different way of seeing things from the federalists (reform)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bb","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"##Primary Source: *Marbury vs. Madison* case (1803)\n###& the establishment of \"Judicial Review\" in the Supreme Court"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c3","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bb","content":"* *What was it?*\n * first case that the Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional\n * **Case**: Federalist William Marbury's commission letter, signed by Pres. Adams, was undelivered by secretary of state John Marshall to finalize appt.; when Jefferson took office, new secretary of state James Madison was ordered not to deliver Marbury's commission papers\n * Marbury sued at Supreme Court for Madison to deliver commission\n * **Chief Justice John Marshall **(Federalist):\n * thought Marbury deserved his commission\n * believed Supreme Court should assume right of **judicial review**\n * **\"Judicial Review\":** the ability for the Supreme Court to determine whether laws are constitutional or not\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * case presented opportunity for John Marshall's strong belief in establishing the power of the Supreme Court for judicial review\n* *What was its impact?*\n * est. power of Supreme Court for judicial review\n * enhanced system of checks & balances: the Supreme Court checks the Congress/legislative branch (more power to Supreme Court) and thus the judicial branch\n * revealed divisions between Federalists & Republicans-->strengthen federal government\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas?*\n * Yes b/c Federalist John Marshall pushed for the establishment of judicial review in the Supreme Court, which would therefore give more power to the central federal gov't"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bc","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"##Louisiana Purchase (1803)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c4","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bc","content":"* *What was it?*\n * the acquisition by the US of French territory (Louisiana)--obtained for $15 million\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * Napoleon regained territory from Spain (1800) Napoleon sold territory to US to cut French losses in Britain\n* *What was its impact?*\n * separated US from the rest of the world\n * pattern of positive results from US staying out of European affairs\n * territory became haven for free blacks\n * Lewis & Clark Expedition to explore region beyond Mississippi River"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bd","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"##War of 1812"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c5","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bd","content":"* **Causes of War:**\n * British policy of intercepting US ships trading w/ France\n * British impressments of American sailors\n * problems w/ Indians on the frontier\n * a group of Congressmen from the South & West who strongly pushed for war (speeches/pushes for war)\n* **Effects of War:**\n * Increased prestige of the US\n * Generated a new spirit of patriotism among Americans\n * fostered national unity\n * greatly weakened the Federalist party\n * negative: Republicans realized they needed a stronger military presence in order to strengthen the government"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020be","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"###\"War Hawks\""},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c6","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020be","content":"* *Who were they?*\n * a group of Republican Congressmen who demanded that the US declare war against Britain, invade British Canada, and expel the Spanish from Florida\n* Henry Clay: the British are forcing the US sailors to join British navy, attacked *Chesapeake* (Clay saw as attack on US & do things that a free nation should have the ability to do), interfered w/ American trade\n* OUTCOME: War Hawks got what they wanted in the War of 1812"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bf","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020af","content":"###Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)"},{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020c7","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020bf","content":"* *What was it?*\n * peace treaty between Britain and US\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * result of War of 1812: to make peace between US and Britain\n* *What was its impact?*\n * Battle of New Orleans (January 1815): led by Andrew Jackson, it took place a few weeks after the treaty had been signed\n * US wins battle; decisive battle: many Americans believe that the battle won the war"},{"_id":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"Chapter 9\nThe dynamics of growth"},{"_id":"3ab1f6a4ff90ce2123000051","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Erie canal"},{"_id":"3ab1f704ff90ce2123000052","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Robert fulton/ Steamboat"},{"_id":"3ab1f89aff90ce2123000053","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Steam Railway/ Railroad"},{"_id":"3ab1f924ff90ce2123000054","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Clipper ship"},{"_id":"3ace166ac577173133000089","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1f924ff90ce2123000054","content":"a ship with lots of sails"},{"_id":"3ab1f99fff90ce2123000055","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Eli Whitney/ cotton gin"},{"_id":"3acc621af69dfd40a6000088","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1f99fff90ce2123000055","content":"created in 1792/93\nincreased demand for slaves to pick the cotton in south\nencouraged expansion in south / southwest"},{"_id":"3ab1fa1bff90ce2123000056","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Lowell System"},{"_id":"3ab1fa96ff90ce2123000057","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Potato famine/blight"},{"_id":"3abec835ff90ce2123000067","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1fa96ff90ce2123000057","content":"Irish potato famine (1845)\n* 1 million+ Irish peasants killed "},{"_id":"3ab1fb61ff90ce2123000058","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Nativism"},{"_id":"3ab1fbd1ff90ce2123000059","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":9,"parentId":"3ab1f602ff90ce2123000050","content":"Know-Nothing party"},{"_id":"3ab1fc59ff90ce212300005a","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"chapter 10\nNationalism and sectionalism"},{"_id":"3ab1fcfdff90ce212300005b","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1fc59ff90ce212300005a","content":"Henry clay/ \"American System\""},{"_id":"3ab1fdb2ff90ce212300005c","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1fc59ff90ce212300005a","content":"Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)"},{"_id":"3ab1fec7ff90ce212300005d","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1fc59ff90ce212300005a","content":"Missouri Compromise"},{"_id":"3ab1ff52ff90ce212300005e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3ab1fc59ff90ce212300005a","content":"Monroe doctrine"},{"_id":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":null,"content":"chapter 12\nThe old south "},{"_id":"3ab200a6ff90ce2123000060","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","content":"\"King cotton\""},{"_id":"3ab200fcff90ce2123000061","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","content":"Planter"},{"_id":"3ab2013aff90ce2123000062","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","content":"Domestic slave trade"},{"_id":"3ab201b7ff90ce2123000063","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","content":"Apologists(for slavery)\n"},{"_id":"3abeb845ff90ce2123000066","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3ab201b7ff90ce2123000063","content":"apologist=supporter\nH. Manly was an apologist for slavery because he thought its benefitted the slaves lives and southern economy compared to the north (gave the poor irish too much hope)"},{"_id":"3ab20248ff90ce2123000064","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","content":"Frederick Douglass"},{"_id":"3ab20372ff90ce2123000065","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"3ab1ffc4ff90ce212300005f","content":"\"Spirituals\""},{"_id":"3acb79c0837723e3fa00006b","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":null,"content":"###State's rights vs strong central government"},{"_id":"3ad7aa7dc577173133000091","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3acb79c0837723e3fa00006b","content":"alien and sedition acts (fall of central)"},{"_id":"3ad7acb7c577173133000092","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3acb79c0837723e3fa00006b","content":"whiskey rebellion (showed the govt power)"},{"_id":"3ad7adcec577173133000093","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3acb79c0837723e3fa00006b","content":""},{"_id":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":null,"content":"###Foreign policy and its impact on US"},{"_id":"3ad78e05c57717313300008a","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":"acts by british"},{"_id":"3ad799b7c57717313300008b","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":"monroe doctrine"},{"_id":"3ad79a38c57717313300008c","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":"navigation acts"},{"_id":"3ad79d3dc57717313300008d","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":"wars 1812, french and indian, seven years war"},{"_id":"3ad7a284c577173133000090","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":4.5,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":""},{"_id":"3ad79e13c57717313300008e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":"xyz affair"},{"_id":"3ad79f0ec57717313300008f","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"3acb7d93837723e3fa00006c","content":""},{"_id":"3acb7ea5837723e3fa00006d","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":null,"content":"###Territorial expansion and its impact on country and individual social groups"},{"_id":"3ad7beefc577173133000094","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3acb7ea5837723e3fa00006d","content":"indian removal act"},{"_id":"3ad7bf5ec577173133000095","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3acb7ea5837723e3fa00006d","content":"missouri compromise"},{"_id":"3acb80fb837723e3fa00006e","treeId":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","seq":1,"position":9,"parentId":null,"content":"###Economic Expansion and impact on country and individual social groups"}],"tree":{"_id":"52aa0e5a705700953b0020ad","name":"Jr midterm History Study Guide","publicUrl":"history-sg-brendan"}}