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Chapter 2
“Britain and its colonies”

Proprietary colony

owned by one person
ex maryland owned by lord baltimore

royal colony

colonies ruled by governor and council appointed by king of England
still owned by britain

Headright System

to entice englishmen to come to VIRGINIA

giving settlers 2 tracts of land
giving new settlers 1 tract of land
(tempting for whole families)

Jamestown/Va company

joint-stock trading company
1607 settled jamestown


Separatist puritans

  • pilgrims
  • to plymouth
  • wanted to separate from church of England

Congregationalist Puritans

  • massachusetts bay colony
  • reforming church of england

Mayflower compact

1620s Plymouth colony
“civil body politic”
almost a constitution
representative democracy
written by separatists

chapter 3
Colonial Ways of life

indentured servant

2-7 years of labor for land in new world or just the price of voyage
especially in jamestown

Triangular Trade

US —> Europe

  • natural resources
  • crops —tobacco
    Europe —> US
  • manufactured goods, linens horses

US—> west indies

  • goods
    West indies—> US
  • slaves

West indies—> Euro

  • sugar molasses
    Euro—> W indies
  • Euro products

US—> Africa

  • rum
    Africa—> US
  • slaves

Africa—> West Indies

  • Slaves


What 1700s

intellectual movement that challenges tradition / religious belief

  • individual
  • reason/logic


Scientific Revolution (1500s-1700s)

  • separation from church
  • reason, experimentation/ observation


in colonies

  • lead to great Awakening (response to enlightenment)
  • fragments religious life

Benjamin Franklin

indentured servant to his brother’s printing company

  • science and politics, newspapers, signed D of I, led albany plan of union

Great Awakeing

What 1700s-1730s-1750s

Religious movement responding to Enlightenment (that challenged puritan establishment)

  • puritan ministers didn’t have right to translate
  • emotions very important to movement
  • individual very important
    • appeals to everyone but rich (women, slaves)
  • first american Avanglical movement


  • turning toward reason and rationality in colonies
  • challenged puritan faith
  • more respect/ power to women

Jonathan Edwards

1741 “sinners in the hands of an angry god”

  • reform immediately for salvation
  • against predestination

#Chapter 4- “From Colonies to States”



Mercantilism/Mercantile System

nation building wealth at expense of its colonies

  • taxing imports and exports of its colonies

Navigation Acts

1651-1678 England tightening control of colonies’ trade to increase English revenue

  • tariffs and $ going through England
  • merchants needed to by english in americas

Albany Plan of Union/ Albany Congress

1754 Albany congress

  • delegates (ex Ben Franklin) from 7 northern colonies
  • 1st attempt of colonial legislature

1754 Albany plan of Union

  • made HOR concept
  • central colonial govt for indian relations, trade and settlement
  • levy taxes, crown thought it gave colonies too much power
  • rejected but used in 1777 Continental Congress
  • colonies could keep traditional ways

The French and Indian War

(1754-1763) english vs french in america

  • over fertile lands in ohio river valley (for wealth, influence and power)
  • started at forks of ohio


  • George Washington became a recognized leader
  • British had war debt —> taxing colonies
  • french influence vanished from North America

Treaty of Paris (1763)

ended the Seven years war and french and indian war

  • started era of british dominance

Proclamation of 1763

royal proclamation to American colonies to prevent colonists from settling past the appalachian mountains

  • made indian reservation land

Sons of Liberty

Boston Massacre

Boston Tea Party

Continental Congress

First Continental Congress 1774

  • Suffolk Resolve
    • made Coercive Acts void
    • enabled forces in Massachusetts to oppose British
  • 1st official government in colonies
  • Declaration of American Rights

    Second Continental Congress 1775

  • appointed George Washington head of Continental Army
  • Olive Branch Petition by John Dickens —> shows loyalty to George III
    • king denied and declared war August 22
  • Declaration of Independence
    • July 4, 1776
    • drafted by TJ, official statement of American position
    • life, liberty and pursuit of happiness

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

Shaping a federal Union

Shay’s rebellion

Great Compromise

3/5 Compromise

Separation of powers/ checks and balances

Federalists vs. antifederalists

The federalist papers

#Chapter 7-The Federalist Era:

George Washington (President: 1789-1797) and John Adams (President: 1797-1801)


Who were the Federalists?

  • those in favor Alexander Hamilton’s economic policies:
    • in favor of strong central government w/ power centered in the executive branch, a national bank & assumption of state debts
    • promoted Constitution & wanted to establish capitalism
    • Jefferson (wanted states’ rights to be stronger) vs. Hamilton (wanted stronger national gov’t)

Reports on Public Credit (1790-1791)

What was it?

  • 1st report:
    • Why did it emerge? $79 million debt of state & federal gov’ts from War loans of France, Spain, & Holland
    • What was it?
      • proposed funding the national debt at face value w/ war bonds
      • required the federal gov’t to assume or take over the states’ debts
  • OUTCOME: Debt Assumption Bill (1791-1801)
    • Why did it occur? drafted to help Hamilton/other Federalists pass/legalize Hamilton’s FIRST Report on Public Credit
  • goal to encourage wealthy people to invest by giving them interest-bearing bonds—>angers farmers/soldiers who lost money & could not benefit from the bill
  • controversy: farmers & soldiers needing money already sold their gov’t bonds—>lost money
  • 2nd report:
    • proposed a liquor tax, a national bank & national mint, & the Report on Manufacturers
  • OUTCOME: reports succeeded in:
    • debt assumption (created a budget)
    • system of tariffs (taxes)—>imports (Europe)
    • federal gov’t assumption of state debts
    • deflated war bonds—>exchange for new (national) interest-bearing bonds
  • benefitted northerners, not southerners b/c southern states paid off debts faster
    • Compromise: relocation of capital in Washington (closer to south) in return for enough southern votes for debt assumption plan

Reports on Manufacturers

What was it?

  • extensive gov’t aid program to stimulate industry
  • development in manufacturing/infrastructure
    • reduce dependency on imported goods
    • greater use of machinery
    • development of roads, canals, seaways
  • Hamilton’s federal tariff proposals: to make American products more competitive w/ foreign manufacturers
  • Outcome: transportation of goods

National Bank


  • manage money supply/regulate financial activity
  • depository: provide loans to federal gov’t
  • create unified currency (national mint)

Jay’s Treaty (1794)

What was it?

  • A treaty that Chief Justice John Jay negotiated w/ British officials
  • US Goals:
    • Get British troops out of forts on Great Lakes
    • Secure reparations of lost US shippers
    • Compensation for Southern Slaves taken by British
    • Legalize American trade w/ British West Indies
  • Why did it occur/emerge?
    • tension b/t US and Britain
    • US wanted to stay neutral in French revolution—maintain concept of neutrality
  • What was its impact?
    • US agrees to not to bring war supplies into neutral territories (British ports etc.)
    • No French privateers in US ports
    • British don’t have to compensate for slaves
    • US pays war debt to British merchants
    • Britain promises to evacuate the northwestern forts by 1796
    • Britain reimburses US for seizing cargo in 1793-1794
    • Grant US merchants trading rights with British West Indies
    • Public divides: Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Federalists
      • Republicans want to support French b/c the French deserve same rights that Americans have
        • South vs. North
  • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
    • Yes b/c it shows that the US does not support the French Revolution

Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

  • What was it?
    • mob of 500 farmers outraged at liquor tax burned down tax collector’s house
      • Washington brought 13,000 troops to intimidate “whiskey boys” & arrested them/ burned their distillery
  • Why did it occur/emerge?
    • people drank liquor more than water (it was easily made), & many farmers sold/used it
  • What was its impact?
    • gov’t looks stronger/more forceful; more sympathy for “whiskey boys”
  • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
    • No, the rebellion was anti-federalist b/c it was against federalist taxes
      • the whiskey tax itself was federalist b/c it enforces taxes from the central gov’t

Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)

  • What was it?
    • Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney to stop fighting between Indians and colonists
      • Won Americans’ right to ship goods across the Mississippi River
      • Transport goods into New Orleans
      • Promise from each to refrain from attacking each other
      • Westerners liked it because it expanded the crop market
  • Why did it occur/emerge?
    • White Settlers burned Indian villages to try to expand their territory
    • Spain (who has Indian allies) enter into treaty negotiations w/ colonists
  • What was its impact?
    • expanded crop market/ land
  • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
    • Yes, b/c its trying to expand trade to benefit its entire nation; national gov’t decision b/c they are trying to benefit nation as a whole, not specific states

Primary Source: Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)

  • What was the historical significance of this document?
    • Washington wanted to unite politically to build a stronger nation
    • foreign relations: major emphasis on neutrality, not isolationism
      • believes in keeping the trade doors open, but having as little political connection as possible: not to deepen foreign relations
    • basically saying that “if we remain neutral, we may have the respect of other nations”
    • does not want to extend/expand foreign alliances; “steer clear of permanent Alliances”

XYZ Affair (1797)

  • What was it?
    • 3 French officials (to whom Washington referred to as “X, Y, Z”) tried to bribe US diplomats to pay $250,000 in exchange for peace on seas
  • Why did it occur?
    • the French saw Jay’s Treaty as a violation of existing French-US Alliance; French began seizing US ships/refusing ambassadors, edging towards war
    • Adams decided to meet with French minister to discuss peace; XYZ officials showed up instead
  • What was its impact?
    • French became seen as threat to US
    • French = anti-federalists
    • Alien & Sedition Acts
  • Does it represent Federalist principles?
    • No, because the French were seen as Anti-Federalist & as a threat to the US as a result
      —>not a principle of maintaining neutrality for US

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)

  • What were they?
    • series of laws passed by Federalist Congress to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners (French & Irish=Anti-Federalists/ Republicans; seen as possible threat)
    • power to deport foreigners
    • residency requirement for immigrants to gain citizenship increased from 5 to 14 years
    • Sedition Act: prohibited public opposition to the government (limited free speech/freedom of press)
  • Why did they occur/emerge?
    • to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners
  • What was their impact?
  • Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
  • Does it represent Federalist principles?
    • Yes, because it was designed to punish Republicans (a.k.a. French/Irish)

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)

  • What were they?
    • resolutions written by Jefferson and Madison that argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution
    • nulled/voided Alien & Sedition Acts
    • argued that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws & decide when Congress had exceeded its powers
      • even called upon other states to help w/ repeal
  • Why did they occur/emerge?
    • Republicans in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts
  • What was their impact?
    • weakened Federalist party
  • Does it represent Federalist principles?
    • NO because Jefferson and Madison (Anti-federalists) were AGAINST the Federalist party and the power of the central gov’t/Congress to decide if laws were constitutional or not; they wanted to give more power to the states to limit the power of the Congress

#Chapter 8-The Early Republic: Republicans/Anti-Federalists:

Thomas Jefferson (President: 1801-1809) and James Madison (President: 1809-1817)


  • Who were they/what were their beliefs?
    • believed in decentralized government
    • vision of freedom/independence
    • believed in states’ rights over rights of federal government
    • agricultural economy (Jefferson)
    • reducing taxes not raising taxes

“Revolution of 1800”

  • What was it?
    • Jefferson used term to metaphorically describe shift in power from Pres. Adams/Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans (from Federalist Regime to Republicanism)
    • represented common interests of Americans
  • Why did it occur?
    • debates between Adams and Jefferson after Adams’ term
  • What was its impact?
    • proved to other nations that Republicanism began by the revolutionary seed of independence could not only thrive, but succeed
      • reformed/transformed the government
  • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
    • No, but it showed the acceptance of Republicanism by the Federalists; it transformed the gov’t to a Democratic Republic

“wise and frugal” government: from Jefferson’s first Inaugural Address (1801)

  • What did Jefferson mean?
    • Jefferson meant that the gov’t should live within means/reduce spending/debt
  • What policies did he implement?
    • reduced military spending (doesn’t want the military putting down Anti-federalists)
    • repealed whiskey tax
    • outlawed importation of African slaves (1808)
      • sparks smuggling of slaves
      • start to kidnap blacks from north
  • How did his policies represent Republican ideals?
    • wanted to strengthen state militias and weaken federal military
  • What was the significance of his policies?
    • gradually abolishing slavery
    • strengthens Republican party and appeal to larger segment of country/the people—>different way of seeing things from the federalists (reform)

Primary Source: Marbury vs. Madison case (1803)

& the establishment of “Judicial Review” in the Supreme Court

  • What was it?
    • first case that the Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional
    • Case: Federalist William Marbury’s commission letter, signed by Pres. Adams, was undelivered by secretary of state John Marshall to finalize appt.; when Jefferson took office, new secretary of state James Madison was ordered not to deliver Marbury’s commission papers
    • Marbury sued at Supreme Court for Madison to deliver commission
    • Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist):
      • thought Marbury deserved his commission
      • believed Supreme Court should assume right of judicial review
        • “Judicial Review”: the ability for the Supreme Court to determine whether laws are constitutional or not
  • Why did it occur?
    • case presented opportunity for John Marshall’s strong belief in establishing the power of the Supreme Court for judicial review
  • What was its impact?
    • est. power of Supreme Court for judicial review
    • enhanced system of checks & balances: the Supreme Court checks the Congress/legislative branch (more power to Supreme Court) and thus the judicial branch
    • revealed divisions between Federalists & Republicans—>strengthen federal government
  • Does it represent Federalist ideas?
    • Yes b/c Federalist John Marshall pushed for the establishment of judicial review in the Supreme Court, which would therefore give more power to the central federal gov’t

Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • What was it?
    • the acquisition by the US of French territory (Louisiana)—obtained for $15 million
  • Why did it occur?
    • Napoleon regained territory from Spain (1800) Napoleon sold territory to US to cut French losses in Britain
  • What was its impact?
    • separated US from the rest of the world
      • pattern of positive results from US staying out of European affairs
    • territory became haven for free blacks
    • Lewis & Clark Expedition to explore region beyond Mississippi River

War of 1812

  • Causes of War:
    • British policy of intercepting US ships trading w/ France
    • British impressments of American sailors
    • problems w/ Indians on the frontier
    • a group of Congressmen from the South & West who strongly pushed for war (speeches/pushes for war)
  • Effects of War:
    • Increased prestige of the US
    • Generated a new spirit of patriotism among Americans
    • fostered national unity
    • greatly weakened the Federalist party
    • negative: Republicans realized they needed a stronger military presence in order to strengthen the government

“War Hawks”

  • Who were they?
    • a group of Republican Congressmen who demanded that the US declare war against Britain, invade British Canada, and expel the Spanish from Florida
  • Henry Clay: the British are forcing the US sailors to join British navy, attacked Chesapeake (Clay saw as attack on US & do things that a free nation should have the ability to do), interfered w/ American trade
  • OUTCOME: War Hawks got what they wanted in the War of 1812

Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)

  • What was it?
    • peace treaty between Britain and US
  • Why did it occur?
    • result of War of 1812: to make peace between US and Britain
  • What was its impact?
    • Battle of New Orleans (January 1815): led by Andrew Jackson, it took place a few weeks after the treaty had been signed
    • US wins battle; decisive battle: many Americans believe that the battle won the war

Chapter 9
The dynamics of growth

Erie canal

Robert fulton/ Steamboat

Steam Railway/ Railroad

Clipper ship

a ship with lots of sails

Eli Whitney/ cotton gin

created in 1792/93
increased demand for slaves to pick the cotton in south
encouraged expansion in south / southwest

Lowell System

Potato famine/blight

Irish potato famine (1845)

  • 1 million+ Irish peasants killed


Know-Nothing party

chapter 10
Nationalism and sectionalism

Henry clay/ “American System”

Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)

Missouri Compromise

Monroe doctrine

chapter 12
The old south

“King cotton”


Domestic slave trade

Apologists(for slavery)

H. Manly was an apologist for slavery because he thought its benefitted the slaves lives and southern economy compared to the north (gave the poor irish too much hope)

Frederick Douglass


State’s rights vs strong central government

alien and sedition acts (fall of central)

whiskey rebellion (showed the govt power)

Foreign policy and its impact on US

acts by british

monroe doctrine

navigation acts

wars 1812, french and indian, seven years war

xyz affair

Territorial expansion and its impact on country and individual social groups

indian removal act

missouri compromise

Economic Expansion and impact on country and individual social groups