• #Chapter 7-The Federalist Era:

    George Washington (President: 1789-1797) and John Adams (President: 1797-1801)

  • #Chapter 8-The Early Republic: Republicans/Anti-Federalists:

    Thomas Jefferson (President: 1801-1809) and James Madison (President: 1809-1817)

  • Federalists/Hamiltonians

  • Reports on Public Credit (1790-1791)

  • Reports on Manufacturers

  • National Bank

  • Jay’s Treaty (1794)

  • Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

  • Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)

  • Primary Source: Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)

  • XYZ Affair (1797)

  • Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)

  • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)

  • Republicans/Anti-Federalists/Jeffersonians

  • “Revolution of 1800”

  • “wise and frugal” government: from Jefferson’s first Inaugural Address (1801)

  • Primary Source: Marbury vs. Madison case (1803)

    & the establishment of “Judicial Review” in the Supreme Court

  • Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • War of 1812

  • “War Hawks”

  • Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)

  • Who were the Federalists?

    • those in favor Alexander Hamilton’s economic policies:
      • in favor of strong central government w/ power centered in the executive branch, a national bank & assumption of state debts
      • promoted Constitution & wanted to establish capitalism
      • Jefferson (wanted states’ rights to be stronger) vs. Hamilton (wanted stronger national gov’t)
  • What was it?

    • 1st report:
      • Why did it emerge? $79 million debt of state & federal gov’ts from War loans of France, Spain, & Holland
      • What was it?
        • proposed funding the national debt at face value w/ war bonds
        • required the federal gov’t to assume or take over the states’ debts
    • OUTCOME: Debt Assumption Bill (1791-1801)
      • Why did it occur? drafted to help Hamilton/other Federalists pass/legalize Hamilton’s FIRST Report on Public Credit
    • goal to encourage wealthy people to invest by giving them interest-bearing bonds—>angers farmers/soldiers who lost money & could not benefit from the bill
    • controversy: farmers & soldiers needing money already sold their gov’t bonds—>lost money
    • 2nd report:
      • proposed a liquor tax, a national bank & national mint, & the Report on Manufacturers
    • OUTCOME: reports succeeded in:
      • debt assumption (created a budget)
      • system of tariffs (taxes)—>imports (Europe)
      • federal gov’t assumption of state debts
      • deflated war bonds—>exchange for new (national) interest-bearing bonds
    • benefitted northerners, not southerners b/c southern states paid off debts faster
      • Compromise: relocation of capital in Washington (closer to south) in return for enough southern votes for debt assumption plan
  • What was it?

    • extensive gov’t aid program to stimulate industry
    • development in manufacturing/infrastructure
      • reduce dependency on imported goods
      • greater use of machinery
      • development of roads, canals, seaways
    • Hamilton’s federal tariff proposals: to make American products more competitive w/ foreign manufacturers
    • Outcome: transportation of goods
  • Goals:

    • manage money supply/regulate financial activity
    • depository: provide loans to federal gov’t
    • create unified currency (national mint)
  • What was it?

    • A treaty that Chief Justice John Jay negotiated w/ British officials
    • US Goals:
      • Get British troops out of forts on Great Lakes
      • Secure reparations of lost US shippers
      • Compensation for Southern Slaves taken by British
      • Legalize American trade w/ British West Indies
    • Why did it occur/emerge?
      • tension b/t US and Britain
      • US wanted to stay neutral in French revolution—maintain concept of neutrality
    • What was its impact?
      • US agrees to not to bring war supplies into neutral territories (British ports etc.)
      • No French privateers in US ports
      • British don’t have to compensate for slaves
      • US pays war debt to British merchants
      • Britain promises to evacuate the northwestern forts by 1796
      • Britain reimburses US for seizing cargo in 1793-1794
      • Grant US merchants trading rights with British West Indies
    • OVERALL OUTCOME:
      • Public divides: Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Federalists
        • Republicans want to support French b/c the French deserve same rights that Americans have
          • South vs. North
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • Yes b/c it shows that the US does not support the French Revolution
    • What was it?
      • mob of 500 farmers outraged at liquor tax burned down tax collector’s house
        • Washington brought 13,000 troops to intimidate “whiskey boys” & arrested them/ burned their distillery
    • Why did it occur/emerge?
      • people drank liquor more than water (it was easily made), & many farmers sold/used it
    • What was its impact?
      • gov’t looks stronger/more forceful; more sympathy for “whiskey boys”
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • No, the rebellion was anti-federalist b/c it was against federalist taxes
        • the whiskey tax itself was federalist b/c it enforces taxes from the central gov’t
    • What was it?
      • Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney to stop fighting between Indians and colonists
        • Won Americans’ right to ship goods across the Mississippi River
        • Transport goods into New Orleans
        • Promise from each to refrain from attacking each other
        • Westerners liked it because it expanded the crop market
    • Why did it occur/emerge?
      • White Settlers burned Indian villages to try to expand their territory
      • Spain (who has Indian allies) enter into treaty negotiations w/ colonists
    • What was its impact?
      • expanded crop market/ land
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • Yes, b/c its trying to expand trade to benefit its entire nation; national gov’t decision b/c they are trying to benefit nation as a whole, not specific states
    • What was the historical significance of this document?
      • Washington wanted to unite politically to build a stronger nation
      • foreign relations: major emphasis on neutrality, not isolationism
        • believes in keeping the trade doors open, but having as little political connection as possible: not to deepen foreign relations
      • basically saying that “if we remain neutral, we may have the respect of other nations”
      • does not want to extend/expand foreign alliances; “steer clear of permanent Alliances”
    • What was it?
      • 3 French officials (to whom Washington referred to as “X, Y, Z”) tried to bribe US diplomats to pay $250,000 in exchange for peace on seas
    • Why did it occur?
      • the French saw Jay’s Treaty as a violation of existing French-US Alliance; French began seizing US ships/refusing ambassadors, edging towards war
      • Adams decided to meet with French minister to discuss peace; XYZ officials showed up instead
    • What was its impact?
      • French became seen as threat to US
      • French = anti-federalists
      • Alien & Sedition Acts
    • Does it represent Federalist principles?
      • No, because the French were seen as Anti-Federalist & as a threat to the US as a result
        —>not a principle of maintaining neutrality for US
    • What were they?
      • series of laws passed by Federalist Congress to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners (French & Irish=Anti-Federalists/ Republicans; seen as possible threat)
      • power to deport foreigners
      • residency requirement for immigrants to gain citizenship increased from 5 to 14 years
      • Sedition Act: prohibited public opposition to the government (limited free speech/freedom of press)
    • Why did they occur/emerge?
      • to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners
    • What was their impact?
    • Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
    • Does it represent Federalist principles?
      • Yes, because it was designed to punish Republicans (a.k.a. French/Irish)
    • What were they?
      • resolutions written by Jefferson and Madison that argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution
      • nulled/voided Alien & Sedition Acts
      • argued that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws & decide when Congress had exceeded its powers
        • even called upon other states to help w/ repeal
    • Why did they occur/emerge?
      • Republicans in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts
    • What was their impact?
      • weakened Federalist party
    • Does it represent Federalist principles?
      • NO because Jefferson and Madison (Anti-federalists) were AGAINST the Federalist party and the power of the central gov’t/Congress to decide if laws were constitutional or not; they wanted to give more power to the states to limit the power of the Congress
    • Who were they/what were their beliefs?
      • believed in decentralized government
      • vision of freedom/independence
      • believed in states’ rights over rights of federal government
      • agricultural economy (Jefferson)
      • reducing taxes not raising taxes
    • What was it?
      • Jefferson used term to metaphorically describe shift in power from Pres. Adams/Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans (from Federalist Regime to Republicanism)
      • represented common interests of Americans
    • Why did it occur?
      • debates between Adams and Jefferson after Adams’ term
    • What was its impact?
      • proved to other nations that Republicanism began by the revolutionary seed of independence could not only thrive, but succeed
        • reformed/transformed the government
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?
      • No, but it showed the acceptance of Republicanism by the Federalists; it transformed the gov’t to a Democratic Republic
    • What did Jefferson mean?
      • Jefferson meant that the gov’t should live within means/reduce spending/debt
    • What policies did he implement?
      • reduced military spending (doesn’t want the military putting down Anti-federalists)
      • repealed whiskey tax
      • outlawed importation of African slaves (1808)
        • sparks smuggling of slaves
        • start to kidnap blacks from north
    • How did his policies represent Republican ideals?
      • wanted to strengthen state militias and weaken federal military
    • What was the significance of his policies?
      • gradually abolishing slavery
      • strengthens Republican party and appeal to larger segment of country/the people—>different way of seeing things from the federalists (reform)
    • What was it?
      • first case that the Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional
      • Case: Federalist William Marbury’s commission letter, signed by Pres. Adams, was undelivered by secretary of state John Marshall to finalize appt.; when Jefferson took office, new secretary of state James Madison was ordered not to deliver Marbury’s commission papers
      • Marbury sued at Supreme Court for Madison to deliver commission
      • Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist):
        • thought Marbury deserved his commission
        • believed Supreme Court should assume right of judicial review
          • “Judicial Review”: the ability for the Supreme Court to determine whether laws are constitutional or not
    • Why did it occur?
      • case presented opportunity for John Marshall’s strong belief in establishing the power of the Supreme Court for judicial review
    • What was its impact?
      • est. power of Supreme Court for judicial review
      • enhanced system of checks & balances: the Supreme Court checks the Congress/legislative branch (more power to Supreme Court) and thus the judicial branch
      • revealed divisions between Federalists & Republicans—>strengthen federal government
    • Does it represent Federalist ideas?
      • Yes b/c Federalist John Marshall pushed for the establishment of judicial review in the Supreme Court, which would therefore give more power to the central federal gov’t
    • What was it?
      • the acquisition by the US of French territory (Louisiana)—obtained for $15 million
    • Why did it occur?
      • Napoleon regained territory from Spain (1800) Napoleon sold territory to US to cut French losses in Britain
    • What was its impact?
      • separated US from the rest of the world
        • pattern of positive results from US staying out of European affairs
      • territory became haven for free blacks
      • Lewis & Clark Expedition to explore region beyond Mississippi River
    • Causes of War:
      • British policy of intercepting US ships trading w/ France
      • British impressments of American sailors
      • problems w/ Indians on the frontier
      • a group of Congressmen from the South & West who strongly pushed for war (speeches/pushes for war)
    • Effects of War:
      • Increased prestige of the US
      • Generated a new spirit of patriotism among Americans
      • fostered national unity
      • greatly weakened the Federalist party
      • negative: Republicans realized they needed a stronger military presence in order to strengthen the government
    • Who were they?
      • a group of Republican Congressmen who demanded that the US declare war against Britain, invade British Canada, and expel the Spanish from Florida
    • Henry Clay: the British are forcing the US sailors to join British navy, attacked Chesapeake (Clay saw as attack on US & do things that a free nation should have the ability to do), interfered w/ American trade
    • OUTCOME: War Hawks got what they wanted in the War of 1812
    • What was it?
      • peace treaty between Britain and US
    • Why did it occur?
      • result of War of 1812: to make peace between US and Britain
    • What was its impact?
      • Battle of New Orleans (January 1815): led by Andrew Jackson, it took place a few weeks after the treaty had been signed
      • US wins battle; decisive battle: many Americans believe that the battle won the war
{"cards":[{"_id":"52841893750a70e402000103","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"#Chapter 7-The Federalist Era:\n##George Washington (President: 1789-1797) and John Adams (President: 1797-1801)"},{"_id":"52841893750a70e402000104","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":0.125,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Federalists/Hamiltonians"},{"_id":"39294994a35029edb700000b","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000104","content":"###Who were the Federalists?\n* those in favor Alexander Hamilton's economic policies:\n * in favor of strong central government w/ power centered in the executive branch, a national bank & assumption of state debts\n * promoted Constitution & wanted to establish capitalism\n * Jefferson (wanted states' rights to be stronger) vs. Hamilton (wanted stronger national gov't)"},{"_id":"52841893750a70e402000105","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":0.1875,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"###Reports on Public Credit (1790-1791)"},{"_id":"39294882a35029edb700000a","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000105","content":"*What was it?*\n* **1st report:**\n * *Why did it emerge?* $79 million debt of state & federal gov'ts from War loans of France, Spain, & Holland\n * *What was it?*\n * proposed funding the national debt at face value w/ war bonds\n * required the federal gov't to assume or take over the states' debts\n* OUTCOME: **Debt Assumption Bill **(1791-1801)\n * *Why did it occur?* drafted to help Hamilton/other Federalists pass/legalize Hamilton's FIRST Report on Public Credit\n* goal to encourage wealthy people to invest by giving them interest-bearing bonds-->angers farmers/soldiers who lost money & could not benefit from the bill\n* *controversy:* farmers & soldiers needing money already sold their gov't bonds-->lost money \n* **2nd report: **\n * proposed a liquor tax, a national bank & national mint, & the Report on Manufacturers\n* OUTCOME: reports succeeded in:\n * debt assumption (created a budget)\n * system of tariffs (taxes)-->imports (Europe)\n * federal gov't assumption of state debts\n * deflated war bonds-->exchange for new (national) interest-bearing bonds\n* benefitted northerners, not southerners b/c southern states paid off debts faster\n * Compromise: relocation of capital in Washington (closer to south) in return for enough southern votes for debt assumption plan"},{"_id":"52841893750a70e402000106","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":0.25,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"###Reports on Manufacturers"},{"_id":"39309e90a35029edb700000e","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000106","content":"*What was it?*\n* extensive gov't aid program to stimulate industry\n* development in manufacturing/infrastructure\n * reduce dependency on imported goods\n * greater use of machinery\n * development of roads, canals, seaways\n* Hamilton's federal tariff proposals: to make American products more competitive w/ foreign manufacturers\n* Outcome: transportation of goods"},{"_id":"3929408aa35029edb7000009","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"###National Bank"},{"_id":"3930b802a35029edb700000f","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3929408aa35029edb7000009","content":"Goals:\n* manage money supply/regulate financial activity\n* depository: provide loans to federal gov't\n* create unified currency (national mint)"},{"_id":"3930c3cea35029edb7000010","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Jay's Treaty (1794)"},{"_id":"3930fed2a35029edb7000011","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3930c3cea35029edb7000010","content":"*What was it?*\n* A treaty that Chief Justice John Jay negotiated w/ British officials\n* US Goals:\n * Get British troops out of forts on Great Lakes\n * Secure reparations of lost US shippers\n * Compensation for Southern Slaves taken by British\n * Legalize American trade w/ British West Indies \n* *Why did it occur/emerge?*\n * tension b/t US and Britain\n * US wanted to stay neutral in French revolution--maintain concept of neutrality\n* *What was its impact?*\n * US agrees to not to bring war supplies into neutral territories (British ports etc.) \n * No French privateers in US ports \n * British don't have to compensate for slaves \n * US pays war debt to British merchants \n * Britain promises to evacuate the northwestern forts by 1796 \n * Britain reimburses US for seizing cargo in 1793-1794\n * Grant US merchants trading rights with British West Indies \n* OVERALL OUTCOME:\n * Public divides: Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Federalists\n * Republicans want to support French b/c the French deserve same rights that Americans have\n * South vs. North\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * Yes b/c it shows that the US does not support the French Revolution"},{"_id":"39312946a35029edb7000012","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Whiskey Rebellion (1794)"},{"_id":"39312a29a35029edb7000013","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39312946a35029edb7000012","content":"* *What was it?*\n * mob of 500 farmers outraged at liquor tax burned down tax collector's house\n * Washington brought 13,000 troops to intimidate “whiskey boys” & arrested them/ burned their distillery \n* *Why did it occur/emerge?*\n * people drank liquor more than water (it was easily made), & many farmers sold/used it\n* *What was its impact?*\n * gov't looks stronger/more forceful; more sympathy for \"whiskey boys\"\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * No, the rebellion was anti-federalist b/c it was against federalist taxes\n * the whiskey tax itself was federalist b/c it enforces taxes from the central gov't"},{"_id":"3931cc62eb8c60af67000011","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Pinckney's Treaty (1795)"},{"_id":"3931cd98eb8c60af67000012","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3931cc62eb8c60af67000011","content":"* *What was it?*\n * Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney to stop fighting between Indians and colonists\n * Won Americans' right to ship goods across the Mississippi River\n * Transport goods into New Orleans\n * Promise from each to refrain from attacking each other\n * Westerners liked it because it expanded the crop market \n* *Why did it occur/emerge?*\n * White Settlers burned Indian villages to try to expand their territory\n * Spain (who has Indian allies) enter into treaty negotiations w/ colonists \n* *What was its impact?*\n * expanded crop market/ land\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * Yes, b/c its trying to expand trade to benefit its entire nation; national gov't decision b/c they are trying to benefit nation as a whole, not specific states"},{"_id":"3936a7d2eb8c60af67000013","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Primary Source: Washington's *Farewell Address* (1796)"},{"_id":"3936aaf7eb8c60af67000014","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3936a7d2eb8c60af67000013","content":"* *What was the historical significance of this document?*\n * Washington wanted to unite politically to build a stronger nation\n * foreign relations: major emphasis on *neutrality*, not isolationism\n * believes in keeping the trade doors open, but having as little political connection as possible: not to deepen foreign relations\n * basically saying that \"if we remain neutral, we may have the respect of other nations\"\n * does not want to extend/expand foreign alliances; \"steer clear of permanent Alliances\""},{"_id":"3936c7c5eb8c60af67000016","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##XYZ Affair (1797)"},{"_id":"3936c87deb8c60af67000017","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3936c7c5eb8c60af67000016","content":"* *What was it?*\n * 3 French officials (to whom Washington referred to as \"X, Y, Z\") tried to bribe US diplomats to pay $250,000 in exchange for peace on seas\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * the French saw Jay's Treaty as a violation of existing French-US Alliance; French began seizing US ships/refusing ambassadors, edging towards war\n * Adams decided to meet with French minister to discuss peace; XYZ officials showed up instead\n* *What was its impact?*\n * French became seen as threat to US\n * French = anti-federalists\n * Alien & Sedition Acts\n* *Does it represent Federalist principles?*\n * No, because the French were seen as Anti-Federalist & as a threat to the US as a result\n-->not a principle of maintaining neutrality for US"},{"_id":"3936ecd6eb8c60af67000018","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)"},{"_id":"3936edcaeb8c60af67000019","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3936ecd6eb8c60af67000018","content":"* *What were they?*\n * series of laws passed by Federalist Congress to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners (**French & Irish**=Anti-Federalists/ Republicans; seen as possible threat)\n * power to deport foreigners \n * residency requirement for immigrants to gain citizenship increased from 5 to 14 years\n * **Sedition Act:** prohibited public opposition to the government (limited free speech/freedom of press)\n* *Why did they occur/emerge?*\n * to limit freedoms/rights of foreigners\n* *What was their impact?* \n* Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions\n* *Does it represent Federalist principles?*\n * Yes, because it was designed to punish Republicans (a.k.a. French/Irish)"},{"_id":"39371030eb8c60af6700001a","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":9,"parentId":"52841893750a70e402000103","content":"##Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)"},{"_id":"3937119eeb8c60af6700001b","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39371030eb8c60af6700001a","content":"* *What were they?*\n * resolutions written by Jefferson and Madison that argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution\n * nulled/voided Alien & Sedition Acts\n * argued that states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws & decide when Congress had exceeded its powers\n * even called upon other states to help w/ repeal\n* *Why did they occur/emerge?*\n * Republicans in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts\n* *What was their impact?*\n * weakened Federalist party\n* *Does it represent Federalist principles?*\n * NO because Jefferson and Madison (Anti-federalists) were AGAINST the Federalist party and the power of the central gov't/Congress to decide if laws were constitutional or not; they wanted to give more power to the states to limit the power of the Congress"},{"_id":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"#Chapter 8-The Early Republic: Republicans/Anti-Federalists:\n##Thomas Jefferson (President: 1801-1809) and James Madison (President: 1809-1817)"},{"_id":"39374ac2eb8c60af6700001e","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"##Republicans/Anti-Federalists/Jeffersonians"},{"_id":"39375e8f36fe908cf200001d","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39374ac2eb8c60af6700001e","content":"* *Who were they/what were their beliefs?*\n * believed in decentralized government\n * vision of freedom/independence\n * believed in states' rights over rights of federal government\n * agricultural economy (Jefferson)\n * reducing taxes not raising taxes"},{"_id":"3937688c36fe908cf200001e","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"###\"Revolution of 1800\""},{"_id":"3937695136fe908cf200001f","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3937688c36fe908cf200001e","content":"* *What was it?*\n * Jefferson used term to metaphorically describe shift in power from Pres. Adams/Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans (from Federalist Regime to Republicanism)\n * represented common interests of Americans\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * debates between Adams and Jefferson after Adams' term\n* *What was its impact?*\n * proved to other nations that Republicanism began by the revolutionary seed of independence could not only thrive, but succeed\n * reformed/transformed the government\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas/principles?*\n * No, but it showed the acceptance of Republicanism by the Federalists; it transformed the gov't to a Democratic Republic"},{"_id":"393787ea36fe908cf2000020","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"###\"wise and frugal\" government: from Jefferson's first Inaugural Address (1801)"},{"_id":"39378c6386b7bc2889000021","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"393787ea36fe908cf2000020","content":"* *What did Jefferson mean?*\n * Jefferson meant that the gov't should live within means/reduce spending/debt\n* *What policies did he implement?*\n * reduced military spending (doesn't want the military putting down Anti-federalists)\n * repealed whiskey tax\n * outlawed importation of African slaves (1808)\n * sparks smuggling of slaves\n * start to kidnap blacks from north\n* *How did his policies represent Republican ideals?*\n * wanted to strengthen state militias and weaken federal military\n* *What was the significance of his policies?*\n * gradually abolishing slavery\n * strengthens Republican party and appeal to larger segment of country/the people-->different way of seeing things from the federalists (reform)"},{"_id":"3937aa3586b7bc2889000022","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"##Primary Source: *Marbury vs. Madison* case (1803)\n###& the establishment of \"Judicial Review\" in the Supreme Court"},{"_id":"3937ea8e86b7bc2889000023","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3937aa3586b7bc2889000022","content":"* *What was it?*\n * first case that the Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional\n * **Case**: Federalist William Marbury's commission letter, signed by Pres. Adams, was undelivered by secretary of state John Marshall to finalize appt.; when Jefferson took office, new secretary of state James Madison was ordered not to deliver Marbury's commission papers\n * Marbury sued at Supreme Court for Madison to deliver commission\n * **Chief Justice John Marshall **(Federalist):\n * thought Marbury deserved his commission\n * believed Supreme Court should assume right of **judicial review**\n * **\"Judicial Review\":** the ability for the Supreme Court to determine whether laws are constitutional or not\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * case presented opportunity for John Marshall's strong belief in establishing the power of the Supreme Court for judicial review\n* *What was its impact?*\n * est. power of Supreme Court for judicial review\n * enhanced system of checks & balances: the Supreme Court checks the Congress/legislative branch (more power to Supreme Court) and thus the judicial branch\n * revealed divisions between Federalists & Republicans-->strengthen federal government\n* *Does it represent Federalist ideas?*\n * Yes b/c Federalist John Marshall pushed for the establishment of judicial review in the Supreme Court, which would therefore give more power to the central federal gov't"},{"_id":"39383fd986b7bc2889000024","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"##Louisiana Purchase (1803)"},{"_id":"3938408f86b7bc2889000025","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39383fd986b7bc2889000024","content":"* *What was it?*\n * the acquisition by the US of French territory (Louisiana)--obtained for $15 million\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * Napoleon regained territory from Spain (1800) Napoleon sold territory to US to cut French losses in Britain\n* *What was its impact?*\n * separated US from the rest of the world\n * pattern of positive results from US staying out of European affairs\n * territory became haven for free blacks\n * Lewis & Clark Expedition to explore region beyond Mississippi River"},{"_id":"39387f8f86b7bc2889000026","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"##War of 1812"},{"_id":"3938804886b7bc2889000027","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39387f8f86b7bc2889000026","content":"* **Causes of War:**\n * British policy of intercepting US ships trading w/ France\n * British impressments of American sailors\n * problems w/ Indians on the frontier\n * a group of Congressmen from the South & West who strongly pushed for war (speeches/pushes for war)\n* **Effects of War:**\n * Increased prestige of the US\n * Generated a new spirit of patriotism among Americans\n * fostered national unity\n * greatly weakened the Federalist party\n * negative: Republicans realized they needed a stronger military presence in order to strengthen the government"},{"_id":"39389a6f86b7bc2889000028","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"###\"War Hawks\""},{"_id":"39389ad486b7bc2889000029","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"39389a6f86b7bc2889000028","content":"* *Who were they?*\n * a group of Republican Congressmen who demanded that the US declare war against Britain, invade British Canada, and expel the Spanish from Florida\n* Henry Clay: the British are forcing the US sailors to join British navy, attacked *Chesapeake* (Clay saw as attack on US & do things that a free nation should have the ability to do), interfered w/ American trade\n* OUTCOME: War Hawks got what they wanted in the War of 1812"},{"_id":"3938a57d86b7bc288900002a","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":8,"parentId":"39374694eb8c60af6700001d","content":"###Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)"},{"_id":"3938a67486b7bc288900002b","treeId":"52841893750a70e402000102","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3938a57d86b7bc288900002a","content":"* *What was it?*\n * peace treaty between Britain and US\n* *Why did it occur?*\n * result of War of 1812: to make peace between US and Britain\n* *What was its impact?*\n * Battle of New Orleans (January 1815): led by Andrew Jackson, it took place a few weeks after the treaty had been signed\n * US wins battle; decisive battle: many Americans believe that the battle won the war"}],"tree":{"_id":"52841893750a70e402000102","name":"History Study Guide","publicUrl":"history-study-guide"}}