Leaving book/writing open
Even leaving Qur’an open is okay!
Do rulings of the shari’ah apply to non-muslims
Yes, they do. [evidence from Qur’an]
Apologizing to someone without mentioning why
Yes, you should apologize only
Women leadership - Qaradhawi
Sheikh Yusuf alQaradawi, one of the foremost jurists of women’s issues, states the following. Please read it whole, it clarifies misunderstandings and destroys sexism:
Among the proofs used by those scholars to prohibit women from being parliamentary candidates or members is the hadith narrated by Al-Bukhari and others on the authority of Abu Bakrah. The hadith states that when the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was informed that the Persians had crowned the daughter of the emperor as their ruler after his death, he said, “A people ruled by a woman will never prosper.” As for this hadith as a legal proof, we have to clarify some points:
First, should the hadith be generalized or restricted to the occasion on which it was said—that is, that the “people” meant in the hadith are the Persians whose hereditary rule forced them to crown a woman as their ruler although there could be much better qualified men among them to assume power? Although most jurisprudents view that the text should be generalized, not restricted to the occasion on which it was said, this opinion is not unanimously agreed upon. For example, it is narrated that Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar and other Companions stressed the significance of considering the occasions of revelation. Otherwise, there might be misconception and misinterpretation like that which troubled a Kharijite sect called Al-Hururiyah and their likes, when they generalized the Qur’anic verses about the polytheists and applied them to the believers. (See Ash-Shatibi’s research on this in Al-Muwafaqat.) This shows that the occasion of the revelation of a certain verse, or the occasion on which a certain hadith was said, should be considered to fully understand the text, and that the generalization of the text should not be taken for granted.
This is confirmed with regard to the hadith in question, for if it is generalized, it contradicts the apparent meaning of some Qur’anic verses. To illustrate, the Qur’an narrates the story of a woman who led her people perfectly, ruled them justly, and managed their affairs so wisely that she spared them engagement in a hopeless war in which their men would be killed, their belongings would be looted, and they would get nothing. That woman was Balqis, queen of Sheba, whose story with Prophet Sulayman was mentioned in the Qur’an in Surat An-Naml (Surah 27), and who finally said, as stated in the Qur’an, (My Lord! Lo! I have wronged myself, and I surrender with Solomon unto Allah, the Lord of the Worlds) (An-Naml 27:44).
Another confirmation that the hadith in question should not be generalized is the real fact witnessed today, namely that a lot of women have been much better and more useful for their nations than many men, and that some of those women are more efficient with regard to political and administrative ability than many of today’s Arab and Muslim leaders, who are mere males rather than “men.”
Second, Muslim scholars unanimously agree that it is impermissible for a woman to assume greater imamate or ultimate caliphate, the kind of rule and leadership referred to in the hadith in question and on the occasion on which it was said. In addition, the phrase “ruled by a woman” or “owned by a woman” as in other versions, refers to the case when a woman becomes a queen or head of state and everything is at her disposal and nothing is done without her command. The people in this case are literally “ruled” or “owned” by a woman, as the reins of power have come to her hands and everything has come to be at her beck and call. Yet scholars differ when it comes to positions other than caliph, president, head of state, and the like. Thus, a woman can be a minister, a judge, a treasurer, a supervisor, and so on. To illustrate, Umar ibn Al-Khattab appointed a woman called Ash-Shifa bint Abdullah Al-Adawiyah to observe and supervise the market, which position was a kind of general leadership.
Third, within democratic systems, when the community charges a person with a public position such as prime minister, this does not mean that he/she is given full authority as regards its affairs. In other words, a person in this case is not an ultimate ruler whose wish is a command or whose demand is unquestionable. Rather, he/she could be the head of a political party opposed by another party, and he/she could simply lose the following election, as happened to Indira Gandhi, former Indian prime minister, who had nothing in her party but her own vote in the elections. Thus, if a person in such a post is opposed by the majority, his/her opinion becomes just like that of a layman.
Allah Almighty knows best.
Drinking from another’s vessel
Allowed, preferred to not put mouth so no saliva to put off other person
Working at supermarket that sells pork and alcohol
Permissible, detest it in heart. Can’t own the supermarket
Drinking using both hands
Permissible, but right hand should be primary
What to do if distracted during it
Praying salah during khutbah
Ikhtilaf — Hanafi no
Congregational Du’a after each sala
Permisible, has basis too. Matters of diferences of opinion must be dealt with wisdom
Joining salah in ruku’
counts as having done rak’ah
Knees or hands first to sujood
Either opinion is okay
Standing of 2 people in jama, is Perfectly in line, follower to the right
Bend Elbow outwards during rukoo
Back and head should be straight, and arms neither in or out in particular, balance.