• Fracking, Pipelines and LNG export in northwest BC

    In this document I collect some information about LNG/pipeline/fracking/indigeneous sovereignty issues specific to British Columbia’s northwest, focusing on the Unist’ot’en camp in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes District.

  • This document is composed in Markdown using Gingko, a web-based text editor that combines the functionality of hierarchical outlining and index cards. General information is to the left, specific information is to the right.

    Please feel free to edit the content to add comments or request clarification.

  • LNG in a nutshell

    Some stuff about what it is and what makes it different.

  • First Nations in the northwest

    The major topics are the nature of the land questoin and the split between the hereditary chiefs and the band councils. Also an overview of some of the major groups.

  • Good reporting on the issue

    This article covers the situation in my neck of the woods very well:

    http://commonsensecanadian.ca/first-nations-collision-course-lng/

  • General Resources on the issue

    This map gives a picture of what’s going on. (I view the organization that produced the map with suspicion.)

  • Recent Events

    Not at all completed.

  • Misc Topics

  • LNG and Fracking

  • “Natural gas” is the gaseous component of naturally occurring underground paleo-hydrocarbons (“fossil fuels”, though as you know their use goes far beyond fuel).

  • The pipelines to be constructed to support the LNG industry (“LNG pipelines”) are not special. They are basically ordinary gas pipelines.

  • “LNG” is liquid natural gas.

  • The liquefaction plants are where the gas is compressed, cooled, and loaded onto cryogenic transport ships.

  • What are the direct risks of fracking?

  • What are the risks of pipelines?

  • First Nations in the Northwest

  • Major First Nations

    There are several major First Nations in the region.

  • What’s the deal with the Indian Act in BC?

    If there were no treaties signed in BC, how was the reserve system forced in?

  • What’s the perceived problem with Band Councils?

    While it’s conceivable that there are some band councils that work well, based on my experience I’ve got a bias.

  • Delgamuukw

    Delgamuukw is the name of one of the Gitxsan chiefs who were a plaintiffs in a joint Gitxsan-Wet’suwet’en lawsuit against the colonial governement. In conversation, “Delgamuukw” now refers to the eventual court decision that “aboriginal title” in BC was never extinguished and continues to exist.

    • Recent Events

    • April: The Fort Nelson incident

    • April: The Moricetown forum on PTP

    • May: The province’s LNG industry love-in

    • Other Topics

    • Local Sources of Information

    • Jobs and poverty

    • Fracking in the Sacred Headwaters

      The “Sacred Headwaters” refers to the origin of the Skeena, Nass, and Stikine rivers. The region also goes by the name Klappan. The Tahltan seem well organized and unified; less band/hereditary split. Shell proposed to drill there. There was widely-organized resistance. Apparently we won that one. Then there was a big flap last year involving exploratory drilling for a coal mine. There’s one really well-spoken guy who I’m sure we’ll see more from eventually. There was a really powerful video.

    • LNG and Fracking

    • Natural Gas - its nature and sources

    • Natural gas is so named because it is a gas (as opposed to a solid or liquid) that occurs naturally; that is, it seeps out the ground. Natural gas is a mixture of mostly methane and some other assorted useful bullshit like propane (for the barbecue) and butane (for my lighters). Until we drained them dry, natural gas flowed freely from dedicated gas wells or wells associated with petroleum or coal production.

    • Fluid hydrocarbons (natural gas and petroleum) can be imagined as existing within a spongy foam like soap suds, in which some of the bubbles are big, but most of them are very small. The soapy water that forms the surfaces and barriers between bubbles is analogous to the rock matrix, and the air in the bubbles is analogous to the oil and gas.

    • The foam of can be classified by the size of bubbles. The small number of big bubbles are analogous to the easy-to-locate conventional oil and gas wells. The large number of small bubbles are analogous to the unconventional deposits of oil and gas.

      In addition to size, the foam can be classified as closed-cell or open-cell. Closed-cell foam is impermeable like styrofoam; open-cell foam is permeable like a kitchen sponge.

      Open-cell foam is analogous to the conventional oil and gas wells; the fluids flow easily through the high-permeability rock matrix of these wells.

      Closed-cell foam is analogous to the tight oil and gas. The fluid will not flow unless the matrix is made more permeable. To extract the gas in the cells, the foam must be crushed , breaking the cell walls and releasing the gas.

    • More on pipes

      It is not practical to transport liquid methane over long distances in pipes. The pipes would have to be much stronger to support the high pressure, and be heavily insulated to keep the contents cool.

    • Physical Behaviour of Natural Gas

      Unlike the familiar heavier hydrocarbons propane or butane, both of which can which be compressed to a liquid state at room temperature under achievable pressures, lighter natural gas (methane) can only be liquified at cryogenic temperatures.

      For comparison, Nitrogen can be liquid at atmospheric pressure; but must be held at low temperature. (This is the liquid nitrogen used to burn warts.) Propane, butane, and carbon dioxide can be liquid at room temperature, but must be held under pressure. Carbon dioxide can even be solid at atmospheric pressure, but must be cooled. Methane hydrates can be solid at high pressure and only slightly low temperature.

    • Liquefaction, not liquification.

    • Fugitive methane emissions contribute to global warming.

    • Other emissions are armful to local human and non-human animal life. Cancer, birth defects, etc.

    • Aquifer contamination

    • Local water use and irreparable contamination. Tailings ponds?

    • Earthquakes - A red herring IMO, as the magnitudes are insufficient to cause damage.

    • Land clearing

    • Habitat disruption.

    • First Nations in the Northwest

    • Major Groups

    • Wetsuwet’en

      As you know, the name is pronounced “Wit-SOOwitn.” If you hear a local pronounce it “WET soo WET-en,” then they’re probably ignorant and are to be viewed with suspicion.

      Wetsuweten territory generally spans between Hazleton (specifically Hagwilget) in the west and Burns Lake in the east along Highway 16.

      PTP is the pipeline of most immediate concern here.

    • Gitxsan

      Pronounced “Git-san.” Gitxsan territory is generally spread between Hazleton (specifically “Old Hazelton”, or Gitanmaax - the place where the Skeena and Bulkley rivers meet) and Kitwanga.

    • Nisga’a

      Pronounced “NISH-ga.” Nisga’a territory starts north of Terrace and covers the Nass river valley and inlet.

    • Haisla

      Pronounced “HAI-sla.” Centered around Kitimaat village, the reserve near the white town of Kitimat.

    • Tsimshian

      Pronounced “Tsim-shan.” Territory surrounds the Skeena river from the west boundary of Gitxsan territory all the way to the coast. Prince Rupert and Terrace are inside Tsimshian territory.

    • Others

      The Haida are a major First Nation from Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). In times past the Haida would capture slaves from many of the mainland tribes, particularly the coastal ones. This may be a touchy subject, even though intermarriage and emigration from the islands is common.

      The Tahltan are even more north than the Nisga’a. More about them elsewhere. They stopped Shell from fracking in their territory.

    • Indian Act

      Most of BC is “unceded.” There are few treaties in force except on Vancouver Island and in the lower mainland. There are two modern treaties, involving the Nisga’a in the north and Squamish in the south. Despite the absence of treaties, defined reserves exist nevertheless.

    • IIRC (according to a book written by an old white male anthropologist) First Nations in BC started living in denser communities as a consequence of the animal products trade, to be closer to trading posts. Settlements also sprang up around missionary churches.

    • A long and slow process of gradual encroachment by the white government resulted in the tiny reserves that exist today.

    • There’s a whole history about how the reserve lands acknowledged by the white government were once large, but then they gradually absconded away with the land bit by bit.

    • At one time within the 20th century, “Indian Agents” (as they were called) traveled up and down the province telling remote families that they had to go live in the existing communities. If they did, they’d get some cash and access to services; if they didn’t, they’d get nothing.

    • Band Councils

      • Nepotism
      • Poor voter turnout
      • Some families with strong ties to Indian Act system seek comeuppance over families holding power in hereditary system.
      • Practical need for band councils to play government games to get money means that practical focus on jobs and money means they favour development
    • Delgamuukw

      The case did not precisely define what the concept of aboriginal title actually means.

      Notably, the case set a precedent for accepting evidence passed down through oral tradition.

    • Local Resources

    • CFTK - Local television station. Their facebook page posts regular two-minute capsule summaries of local headlines. Resource extraction is usually the top story.

    • CFNR - Canadian First Nations Radio. The local classic rock station. Live coverage of notable local events. Local news. Good tunes.

    • Jobs and Poverty

    • When it comes to LNG, many band councils and local populations are favorable because of the promise of jobs and prosperity. With the decline of logging, large numbers of labourers are looking for employment. The options are oil & gas, and mining. Ecotourism is there, but tiny.

    • The actions of the band councils are understandable: The Indian Act systems means they are in the difficult position of constantly trying to acquire money for their communities. In a sense they are acting in the interest of the band members population. But it is in their short term interest only. Acting in this way is contrary to the collective effort to resist unsustainable and destructible resource extractions, and it is eroding the traditional systems that right now offer more sanity that the modern alternative.

    • Flaring Gas

      Because gasses are more difficult to handle than liquids, and consequently require more faith-based wealth tokens to motivate people to deal with it, most natural gas produced in the early days of oil extraction was wasted through flaring. Ironically, flaring the gas may be less harmful from a heat-trapping, climate-feedback-forcing point of view than just letting it vent.

    • The Foam Analogy

      Aside: This foam analogy extends all the way from the macro-scale of conventional oil production to the microscale of oil-shales or the tar sands, in which the size of the “bubbles” in the foam analogy is microscopic.

    • Major Groups

    • The Wet’suwet’en

      Wet’suwet’en society resembles the other coastal First Nations in this list in their practice of matrilineal clan system and feast system, but their language is similar to the interior groups to the East.

    • The Office of the Wet’suwet’en is the unified public face of the Wet’suwet’en hereditary chiefs. In reality, the hereditary system functions outside the clean boundaries of white expectations, so it’s difficult to say how unified they are.

    • On the band council side, things are still fractured between reserves. There are several independently-operating band councils, one of which is “The Wet’suwet’en First Nation,” formerly known as the Broman Lake Band.

    • Another noteworthy band council is the Burns Lake Band. There was a big flap in 2013 involving the police.

    • The Pacific Trails Pipeline

      The First Nations Limited Partnership (FNLP) is the business end of the project that’s interfacing with First Nations. They have made deals with band councils along the route. Apparently they’re close to striking a deal with some of the remaining some Wet’suwet’en band councils. The resolve of the hereditary leadership may be up in the air.

    • The Gitxsan

      Major communities in Gitxsan territory include the Hazeltons (of which there are three), Kispiox (KIS-pee-ox), Gitsegukla, and Kitwanga.

    • There split between the hereditary chiefs and the band councils is alive and well in Gitxsan territory.

    • The prefix “Git” or “Kit” means “people” in the coastal languages.

    • Hazelton is apparently the poorest municipality in the province. The oil and gas companies made a big donation to fund a new arena.

    • The Nisga’a

      The Nisga’a completed a treaty process with the BC government in 1999 or 2000 called the Nisga’a Final Agreement. The treaty converts the nebulously defined “aboriginal rights and title” into the more concrete rights and title defined in the Final Agreement.

      The Nisga’a Lisms Government (NLG) is an elected body recognized by the NIsga’a Final Agreement. They have some degree of self-government, and operate their own public services. They regulate things like fishing on the lands over which they have government-recognized jurisdiction.

      The NLG has an “open for business, with conditions” stance. I hear they were all about the Northwest Transmission Line.

      The proposed pipelines that cross Nisga’a territory are the Spectra Energy Pipeline and the TransCanada Prince Rupert Gas Transmission Project. Both pipelines may take to-be-determined routes to the coast, with possible export terminals in Kitsault (the privately-owned ghost town) in Prince Rupert. Both involve long underwater sections through the inlets.

      Spectra is in talks with the NLG to arrange training and jobs for Nisga’a people.

    • The Haisla

    • As Kitimaat Village falls outside the municipal boundaries of Kitimat, the Haisla were not allowed to vote in the recent Enbridge Northern Gateway non-binding plebiscite.

      I get the impression that things are pretty damn rough in Kitimaat village.
      Their band leadership recently signed profit-sharing deals with two proposed export terminals.

    • (Trivia: In addition to its proper meaning, a “kitimat” is a type of fishing lure in the category called “spoons” manufactured by the Gibbs company. They work pretty well. Ask somebody to show you how to use one.)

    • Also, because mandatory education laws applied to Indians, they had to send their kids to residential schools, and the Indian Agents would come and swoop them up.

    • Jobs and Poverty

    • The decline of logging is due to overharvesting and bug kill. With logging, the government took their cut through stumpage fees and other instruments, but apparently nothing went to the local community governments or band councils.

    • The “Wetsuweten First Nation” was formerly known as the Broman Lake Band, based out of the Palling Lake reserve with about 150 members, compared to the 2500 person size of the Wet’suwet’en as a whole.

      Their official website shows their pro-pipeline stance, which is really a pro-money stance.

      They are part of the Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council, composed of eastern First Nations band councils.

    • This map shows the location of Palling IR 1, between Decker Lake and Topley on highway 16. Note that the indicated boundary of the traditional territory overlaps the Unist’ot’en camp and the presumable center of their territory. This probably does not represent a heated dispute over territory; it’s common for territory to be shared. It could also be an artifact of the map-making process, which is notoriously difficult when it comes to indicating the extent of traditional territory.

    • The Broman Lake Band leadership commissioned this propaganda video, among others. The video was screened at a 17 April public forum on PTP in Moricetown that was held to convince the Moricetown band to sign on to the FNLP. Timestamp 11:05 shows what I thought was a test section or training facility somewhere, but now I think it may be a lit section of highway.

    • Kitwanga

      Kitwanga (pronounced Kit-wan-GA or Kit-WONG-ga, depending on one’s ethnicity and sympathies — even though its proper name is Gitwangak) is the home of the most important (and only) gas station between Hazelton and Terrace. If you pass it, it’s obligatory to stop and purchase the following items:

      • Fresh bannock bread
      • Salmon sandwich, on your choice of white or whole wheat bread.

      Both items are good, but the sandwich will MELT YOUR BRAIN.

    {"cards":[{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":3520376,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"# Fracking, Pipelines and LNG export in northwest BC\n\nIn this document I collect some information about LNG/pipeline/fracking/indigeneous sovereignty issues specific to British Columbia's northwest, focusing on the Unist'ot'en camp in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes District."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43915,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","content":"##LNG in a nutshell\nSome stuff about what it is and what makes it different."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5a","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43916,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"##LNG and Fracking"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5b","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43917,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5a","content":"##LNG and Fracking"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5c","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43918,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"\"Natural gas\" is the gaseous component of naturally occurring underground paleo-hydrocarbons (\"fossil fuels\", though as you know their use goes far beyond fuel)."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5d","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43919,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5c","content":"###Natural Gas - its nature and sources"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5e","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43920,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5c","content":"Natural gas is so named because it is a gas (as opposed to a solid or liquid) that occurs naturally; that is, it seeps out the ground. Natural gas is a mixture of mostly methane and some other assorted useful bullshit like propane (for the barbecue) and butane (for my lighters). Until we drained them dry, natural gas flowed freely from dedicated gas wells or wells associated with petroleum or coal production."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5f","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43921,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5e","content":"####Flaring Gas\n\nBecause gasses are more difficult to handle than liquids, and consequently require more faith-based wealth tokens to motivate people to deal with it, most natural gas produced in the early days of oil extraction was wasted through flaring. Ironically, flaring the gas may be less harmful from a heat-trapping, climate-feedback-forcing point of view than just letting it vent."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d60","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43922,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5c","content":"Fluid hydrocarbons (natural gas and petroleum) can be imagined as existing within a spongy foam like soap suds, in which some of the bubbles are big, but most of them are very small. The soapy water that forms the surfaces and barriers between bubbles is analogous to the rock matrix, and the air in the bubbles is analogous to the oil and gas.\n"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d61","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43923,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d60","content":"####The Foam Analogy\n\n![](http://www.colourbox.com/preview/1993056-88827-soap-foam-bubbles-on-the-glass.jpg)\n\nAside: This foam analogy extends all the way from the macro-scale of conventional oil production to the microscale of oil-shales or the tar sands, in which the size of the \"bubbles\" in the foam analogy is microscopic."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d62","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43924,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d5c","content":"\nThe foam of can be classified by the size of bubbles. The small number of big bubbles are analogous to the easy-to-locate conventional oil and gas wells. The large number of small bubbles are analogous to the unconventional deposits of oil and gas.\n\nIn addition to size, the foam can be classified as closed-cell or open-cell. Closed-cell foam is impermeable like styrofoam; open-cell foam is permeable like a kitchen sponge.\n\nOpen-cell foam is analogous to the conventional oil and gas wells; the fluids flow easily through the high-permeability rock matrix of these wells.\n\nClosed-cell foam is analogous to the tight oil and gas. The fluid will not flow unless the matrix is made more permeable. To extract the gas in the cells, the foam must be crushed , breaking the cell walls and releasing the gas."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d63","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43925,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"The pipelines to be constructed to support the LNG industry (\"LNG pipelines\") are not special. They are basically ordinary gas pipelines."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d64","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44032,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d63","content":"### More on pipes\nIt is not practical to transport liquid methane over long distances in pipes. The pipes would have to be much stronger to support the high pressure, and be heavily insulated to keep the contents cool."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d65","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43927,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"\"LNG\" is liquid natural gas. "},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d66","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44034,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d65","content":"###Physical Behaviour of Natural Gas\nUnlike the familiar heavier hydrocarbons propane or butane, both of which can which be compressed to a liquid state at room temperature under achievable pressures, lighter natural gas (methane) can only be liquified at cryogenic temperatures.\n\nFor comparison, Nitrogen can be liquid at atmospheric pressure; but must be held at low temperature. (This is the liquid nitrogen used to burn warts.) Propane, butane, and carbon dioxide can be liquid at room temperature, but must be held under pressure. Carbon dioxide can even be solid at atmospheric pressure, but must be cooled. Methane hydrates can be solid at high pressure and only slightly low temperature."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d67","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43929,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"The liquefaction plants are where the gas is compressed, cooled, and loaded onto cryogenic transport ships."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d68","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43930,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d67","content":"Liquefaction, not liquification."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6a","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43932,"position":6,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"###What are the direct risks of fracking?"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6b","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43933,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6a","content":"Fugitive methane emissions contribute to global warming."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6c","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43934,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6a","content":"Other emissions are armful to local human and non-human animal life. Cancer, birth defects, etc."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6d","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43935,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6a","content":"Aquifer contamination"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6e","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43936,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6a","content":"Local water use and irreparable contamination. Tailings ponds?"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6f","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43937,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d6a","content":"Earthquakes - A red herring IMO, as the magnitudes are insufficient to cause damage."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d70","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43938,"position":7,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d59","content":"###What are the risks of pipelines?"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d71","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43939,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d70","content":"Land clearing"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d72","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44044,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d70","content":"Habitat disruption."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d74","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43942,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","content":"##First Nations in the northwest\nThe major topics are the nature of the land questoin and the split between the hereditary chiefs and the band councils. Also an overview of some of the major groups."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d75","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43943,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d74","content":"##First Nations in the Northwest"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d76","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43944,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d75","content":"##First Nations in the Northwest"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43945,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d74","content":"###Major First Nations\nThere are several major First Nations in the region."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d79","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43947,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"##Major Groups\n"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7a","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43948,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d79","content":"###Major Groups"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":78089,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"###Wetsuwet'en\n\nAs you know, the name is pronounced \"Wit-SOOwitn.\" If you hear a local pronounce it \"WET soo WET-en,\" then they're probably ignorant and are to be viewed with suspicion.\n\nWetsuweten territory generally spans between Hazleton (specifically Hagwilget) in the west and Burns Lake in the east along Highway 16.\n\nPTP is the pipeline of most immediate concern here."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7c","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43950,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","content":"###The Wet'suwet'en\n\nWet'suwet'en society resembles the other coastal First Nations in this list in their practice of matrilineal clan system and feast system, but their language is similar to the interior groups to the East."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7d","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43951,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","content":"The [Office of the Wet'suwet'en](http://www.wetsuweten.com/) is the unified public face of the Wet'suwet'en hereditary chiefs. In reality, the hereditary system functions outside the clean boundaries of white expectations, so it's difficult to say how unified they are."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7e","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43952,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7d","content":""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7f","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43953,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7d","content":""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d80","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43954,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7d","content":"One interpretation of [this document](http://www.wetsuweten.com/files/Media_Release_-_December_17,_2013.pdf) is that the heredititary oppose \"all\" pipelines. [Recent events suggest this may not be the case.](http://www.wetsuweten.com/media-centre/news/all-clans-lng-proposed-field-work-review)"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d81","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43955,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7d","content":""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d82","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43956,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","content":"On the band council side, things are still fractured between reserves. There are several [independently-operating band councils](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wet%27suwet%27en#Today.27s_Wet.27suwet.27en_First_Nations), one of which is \"The Wet'suwet'en First Nation,\" [formerly known as the Broman Lake Band](http://www.wetsuweten.com/communities/browman-lake).\n"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d83","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43957,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d82","content":"\nThe \"Wetsuweten First Nation\" was formerly known as the Broman Lake Band, based out of the Palling Lake reserve with about 150 members, compared to the 2500 person size of the Wet'suwet'en as a whole.\n\nTheir [official website](http://wetsuwetenfirstnation.ca/) shows their pro-pipeline stance, which is really a pro-money stance.\n\n[They are part of the Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council,](http://www.carriersekani.ca/member-nations/wetsuweten-first-nation/) composed of eastern First Nations band councils."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d84","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43958,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d82","content":" [This map](http://www.carriersekani.ca/images/docs/wetsuweten/Wetsuweten_First_Nation.pdf) shows the location of Palling IR 1, between Decker Lake and Topley on highway 16. Note that the indicated boundary of the traditional territory overlaps the Unist'ot'en camp and the presumable center of their territory. This probably does not represent a heated dispute over territory; it's common for territory to be shared. It could also be an artifact of the map-making process, which is notoriously difficult when it comes to indicating the extent of traditional territory.\n\n\n"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d85","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43959,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d82","content":"[Relations between the Unist'ot'en and the Broman Lake Band leadership is strained.](https://www.facebook.com/unistoten/photos/a.391841194223465.91188.391471340927117/629868967087352/?type=1)\n\n[People have noticed.](http://www.straight.com/news/621226/wetsuweten-people-disagree-about-pacific-trail-pipelines-project)"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d86","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43960,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d82","content":"The Broman Lake Band leadership commissioned this [propaganda video,](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5MaE6tP3V1c) among others. The video was screened at a 17 April public forum on PTP in Moricetown that was held to convince the Moricetown band to sign on to the FNLP. Timestamp 11:05 shows what I thought was a test section or training facility somewhere, but now I think it may be a lit section of highway."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d87","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43961,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d82","content":""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d88","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43962,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","content":"Another noteworthy band council is the Burns Lake Band. [There was a big flap in 2013 involving the police.](http://vancouver.mediacoop.ca/newsrelease/17034)"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d89","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43963,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","content":""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8a","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43964,"position":6,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d7b","content":"###The Pacific Trails Pipeline\n\nThe First Nations Limited Partnership (FNLP) is the business end of the project that's interfacing with First Nations. They have made deals with band councils along the route. Apparently they're close to striking a deal with some of the remaining some Wet'suwet'en band councils. [The resolve of the hereditary leadership may be up in the air.](http://thepeak.ca/news/wetsuweten-to-hold-meeting-on-lng/)"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8b","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":78104,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8a","content":"The FNLP is composed (mostly?) of on-reserve band councils."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8c","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43966,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8a","content":"http://nationtalk.ca/story/fifteen-first-nations-reaffirm-support-for-the-pacific-trail-pipeline-and-support-to-moricetown-and-wetsuweten-decision-making-on-natural-gas-pipelines/\n\n\"Currently the Moricetown Indian Band is the only elected First Nation Band along the proposed PTP route [...] that is not a member of FNLP. There is currently an opportunity for Moricetown to join the FNLP.\""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8d","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44115,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"###Gitxsan\nPronounced \"Git-san.\" Gitxsan territory is generally spread between Hazleton (specifically \"Old Hazelton\", or Gitanmaax - the place where the Skeena and Bulkley rivers meet) and Kitwanga."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8e","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43968,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8d","content":"###The Gitxsan\nMajor communities in Gitxsan territory include the Hazeltons (of which there are three), Kispiox (KIS-pee-ox), Gitsegukla, and Kitwanga."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8f","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":78107,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8e","content":"#### Kitwanga\nKitwanga (pronounced Kit-wan-GA or Kit-WONG-ga, depending on one's ethnicity and sympathies -- even though its proper name is Gitwangak) is the home of the most important (and only) gas station between Hazelton and Terrace. If you pass it, it's obligatory to stop and purchase the following items:\n\n* Fresh bannock bread\n* Salmon sandwich, on your choice of white or whole wheat bread.\n\nBoth items are good, but the sandwich will MELT YOUR BRAIN."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d90","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43970,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8d","content":"There split between the hereditary chiefs and the band councils is alive and well in Gitxsan territory."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d91","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44095,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8d","content":"The prefix \"Git\" or \"Kit\" means \"people\" in the coastal languages."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d92","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43972,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d8d","content":"Hazelton is apparently the poorest municipality in the province. The oil and gas companies made a big donation to fund a new arena."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d93","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43973,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"###Nisga'a\n\nPronounced \"NISH-ga.\" Nisga'a territory starts north of Terrace and covers the Nass river valley and inlet."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d94","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44108,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d93","content":"###The Nisga'a\n\nThe Nisga'a completed a treaty process with the BC government in 1999 or 2000 called the Nisga'a Final Agreement. The treaty converts the nebulously defined \"aboriginal rights and title\" into the more concrete rights and title defined in the Final Agreement.\n\nThe Nisga'a Lisms Government (NLG) is an elected body recognized by the NIsga'a Final Agreement. They have some degree of self-government, and operate their own public services. They regulate things like fishing on the lands over which they have government-recognized jurisdiction.\n\nThe NLG has an \"open for business, with conditions\" stance. I hear they were all about the Northwest Transmission Line.\n\nThe proposed pipelines that cross Nisga'a territory are the Spectra Energy Pipeline and the TransCanada Prince Rupert Gas Transmission Project. Both pipelines may take to-be-determined routes to the coast, with possible export terminals in Kitsault (the privately-owned ghost town) in Prince Rupert. Both involve long underwater sections through the inlets.\n\nSpectra is in talks with the NLG to arrange training and jobs for Nisga'a people."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d96","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43976,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d94","content":"####The Nisga'a Final Agreement\nThe Union of BC Indian Chiefs published an easy-to-read overview of the text of the Nisga'a Final Agreement.\n\nhttp://www.ubcic.bc.ca/files/PDF/nisgaaagreementplain.pdf"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d97","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43977,"position":6,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"###Haisla\nPronounced \"HAI-sla.\" Centered around Kitimaat village, the reserve near the white town of Kitimat."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d98","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43978,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d97","content":"###The Haisla"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d99","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44111,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d97","content":"As Kitimaat Village falls outside the municipal boundaries of Kitimat, the Haisla were not allowed to vote in the recent Enbridge Northern Gateway non-binding plebiscite.\n\nI get the impression that things are pretty damn rough in Kitimaat village. \nTheir band leadership recently signed profit-sharing deals with two proposed export terminals."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9a","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44114,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d97","content":" (Trivia: In addition to its proper meaning, a \"kitimat\" is a type of fishing lure in the category called \"spoons\" manufactured by the Gibbs company. They work pretty well. Ask somebody to show you how to use one.)"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9b","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44063,"position":7,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"###Tsimshian\n\nPronounced \"Tsim-shan.\" Territory surrounds the Skeena river from the west boundary of Gitxsan territory all the way to the coast. Prince Rupert and Terrace are inside Tsimshian territory."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9c","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44066,"position":8,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d77","content":"###Others\nThe Haida are a major First Nation from Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). In times past the Haida would capture slaves from many of the mainland tribes, particularly the coastal ones. This may be a touchy subject, even though intermarriage and emigration from the islands is common.\n\nThe Tahltan are even more north than the Nisga'a. More about them elsewhere. They stopped Shell from fracking in their territory."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9e","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43984,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d74","content":"###What's the deal with the Indian Act in BC?\nIf there were no treaties signed in BC, how was the reserve system forced in?"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da0","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43986,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9e","content":"###Indian Act\n\nMost of BC is \"unceded.\" There are few treaties in force except on Vancouver Island and in the lower mainland. There are two modern treaties, involving the Nisga'a in the north and Squamish in the south. Despite the absence of treaties, defined reserves exist nevertheless.\n"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da1","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43987,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9e","content":"IIRC (according to a book written by an old white male anthropologist) First Nations in BC started living in denser communities as a consequence of the animal products trade, to be closer to trading posts. Settlements also sprang up around missionary churches."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da2","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43988,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da1","content":"http://www.ubcic.bc.ca/Resources/ourhomesare/teachers/files/Background%20on%20Indian%20Reserves%20in%20British%20Columbia.pdf"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da3","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43989,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9e","content":"\nA long and slow process of gradual encroachment by the white government resulted in the tiny reserves that exist today. "},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da4","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43990,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9e","content":"There's a whole history about how the reserve lands acknowledged by the white government were once large, but then they gradually absconded away with the land bit by bit."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da5","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43991,"position":6,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d9e","content":"\nAt one time within the 20th century, \"Indian Agents\" (as they were called) traveled up and down the province telling remote families that they had to go live in the existing communities. If they did, they'd get some cash and access to services; if they didn't, they'd get nothing."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da6","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43992,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da5","content":" Also, because mandatory education laws applied to Indians, they had to send their kids to residential schools, and the Indian Agents would come and swoop them up."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da7","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43993,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d74","content":"###What's the perceived problem with Band Councils?\n\nWhile it's conceivable that there are some band councils that work well, based on my experience I've got a bias."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da8","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43994,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da7","content":"###Band Councils\n* Nepotism\n* Poor voter turnout\n* Some families with strong ties to Indian Act system seek comeuppance over families holding power in hereditary system.\n* Practical need for band councils to play government games to get money means that practical focus on jobs and money means they favour development"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da9","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43995,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d74","content":"###Delgamuukw\n\nDelgamuukw is the name of one of the Gitxsan chiefs who were a plaintiffs in a joint Gitxsan-Wet'suwet'en lawsuit against the colonial governement. In conversation, \"Delgamuukw\" now refers to the eventual court decision that \"aboriginal title\" in BC was never extinguished and continues to exist."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577daa","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43996,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577da9","content":"###[Delgamuukw](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delgamuukw_v._British_Columbia)\n\nThe case did not precisely define what the concept of aboriginal title actually means.\n\nNotably, the case set a precedent for accepting evidence passed down through oral tradition."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dab","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43997,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","content":"##Good reporting on the issue\n\nThis article covers the situation in my neck of the woods very well:\n\nhttp://commonsensecanadian.ca/first-nations-collision-course-lng/"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dad","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":43999,"position":5,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","content":"##General Resources on the issue\n[This map gives a picture of what's going on.](http://fnlngstrategy.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/LNG-Summit-Map-11x17-Oct-2013.pdf) (I view the organization that produced the map with suspicion.)"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dae","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44000,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dad","content":"##General Resources"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db0","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44002,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dad","content":"This site has some well organized information about the proposed projects.\n\nhttp://bclnginfo.com/proposed-projects\n"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db1","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44003,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dad","content":"This site has a large amount of overview information\n\nhttp://nomorepipelines.ca/"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db2","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44004,"position":6,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","content":"##Recent Events\nNot at all completed."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db3","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44005,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db2","content":"##Recent Events"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db4","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44006,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db2","content":"April: The Fort Nelson incident"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db5","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44007,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db2","content":"April: The Moricetown forum on PTP"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db6","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44077,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db2","content":"May: The province's LNG industry love-in"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db7","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44009,"position":7,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d58","content":"##Misc Topics"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db8","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44010,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db7","content":"##Other Topics"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db9","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44011,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db7","content":"###Local Sources of Information"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dba","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44012,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db9","content":"###Local Resources"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbb","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44013,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db9","content":"CFTK - Local television station. [Their facebook page](https://www.facebook.com/pages/CFTK-TV/230113003717168) posts regular two-minute capsule summaries of local headlines. Resource extraction is usually the top story."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbc","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44014,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db9","content":"CFNR - [Canadian First Nations Radio.](http://cfnrfm.ca/) The local classic rock station. Live coverage of notable local events. Local news. Good tunes."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbd","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44015,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db7","content":"###Jobs and poverty"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbe","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44016,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbd","content":"###Jobs and Poverty"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbf","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44017,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbe","content":"Jobs and Poverty"},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc0","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44018,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbd","content":"When it comes to LNG, many band councils and local populations are favorable because of the promise of jobs and prosperity. With the decline of logging, large numbers of labourers are looking for employment. The options are oil & gas, and mining. Ecotourism is there, but tiny."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc1","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44019,"position":1,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc0","content":""},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc2","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44020,"position":2,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc0","content":"The decline of logging is due to overharvesting and bug kill. With logging, the government took their cut through stumpage fees and other instruments, but apparently nothing went to the local community governments or band councils."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc3","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44021,"position":3,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dbd","content":"The actions of the band councils are understandable: The Indian Act systems means they are in the difficult position of constantly trying to acquire money for their communities. In a sense they are acting in the interest of the band members population. But it is in their short term interest only. Acting in this way is contrary to the collective effort to resist unsustainable and destructible resource extractions, and it is eroding the traditional systems that right now offer more sanity that the modern alternative."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc4","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":44079,"position":4,"parentId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577db7","content":"###Fracking in the Sacred Headwaters\n\nThe \"Sacred Headwaters\" refers to the origin of the Skeena, Nass, and Stikine rivers. The region also goes by the name Klappan. The Tahltan seem well organized and unified; less band/hereditary split. Shell proposed to drill there. There was widely-organized resistance. Apparently we won that one. Then there was a big flap last year involving exploratory drilling for a coal mine. There's one really well-spoken guy who I'm sure we'll see more from eventually. There was a really powerful video."},{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577dc5","treeId":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","seq":77833,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"This document is composed in Markdown using Gingko, a web-based text editor that combines the functionality of hierarchical outlining and index cards. General information is to the left, specific information is to the right.\n\nPlease feel free to edit the content to add comments or request clarification."}],"tree":{"_id":"5383ef7977c4ec6b04577d57","name":"LNG 1","publicUrl":"lng-1"}}