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  • Lutherans in America

  • The Church’s Infancy
    1650 to 1790

  • The Early National Period
    1790 - 1840

  • The Second Great Awakening

  • The Formation of the General Synod

  • Following the Frontier
    1840 - 1875

  • The War Between The States

  • Lutheranism in the Post-War Era

  • Coming of Age
    1875 to 1900

  • Facing the Twentieth Century
    1900 - 1930

  • The New Shape of Lutheranism
    1930 -

  • Developments in American Lutheranism

  • ELCA Merger

  • LCMS in the 80’s and beyond.

  • Lutheran Identity in the 21st Century.

  • This course is a survey of the establishment and development of American Lutheranism, with a goal of better understanding the present through the prism of the past.

  • There are two major church bodies: ELCA and LCMS.
    There are three medium sizes: WELS, LCMC and NALC.
    45 other ones, the largest of which is AFLC.

    In the USA there are 7 to 7.5 million Lutherans today. The peak was in the late 1960s at 9 million.

    Giving to the largest church bodies is seriously down. One thought is that it costs more to operate local congregations today.

    In the 1960s there was a change that occurred. The following of a business patten. Consolidation and merger and uniformity were considered important.

    numbers based on baptized members.

  • Mark Granquist: If renewal or revitalization comes, it will come from the congregations, not the national offices.

  • Lutheranism in America ( A reverse of the order in Europe )
    Began with Pietism
    Then entered a time of intense interest in doctrine
    Maybe will focus more on the Reformation

  • First Lutherans in North America. The Jens Munk Expedition in 1619 - 1620. The first Lutheran pastor visited the America. Chaplain Rasmus Jensen. Trapped in the ice on Hudson Bay during winter.

  • Frederick Lutheran Church founded by Danish settlers. St Thomas, Virgin Islands.

  • 1743 British Guiana / Guyana
    Ebenezer Church founded by Dutch Lutherans. White settlers and descendants.

  • New Netherlands / New York / New Sweden
    Dutch Lutherans came first to the New England area.

  • Lutherans in New Netherlands
    First congregation: St. Matthew’s (1648 - 49) The West Indian Company only allowed the Reformed Church . The Lutherans had a difficult time. Appealed for the right to worship according to the Augsburg Confession. They needed a pastor who spoke Dutch.

    First Pastor: Johan Ernst Gutwasser (1657) Dutched Reformed church protested. Was forced to leave June 19, 1659. He was barred from preaching and deported.

    1664 The British defeat the Dutch and rename the colony. It is now called New York. Freedom of worship granted to Lutherans and they were allowed their first pastor Jacob Fabritius (1669). Sort of a rough person (pg 11). Stayed on for two years and moved south. He was Salichian from the Cezc and Poland area.

    The Palatine Germans were from Southwest Germany. Experienced around 100 years of war. Winter of 1708 was very brutal. Then the French came and ordered the Lutherans out. Spring of 1709 around 7,000 Palatine Germans fled. Maybe 32,000 refugees in London. Most were sent to America. New York and the Carolinas. They were promised land around 80 miles up the Hudson River. Many left for Pennsylvania and NJ.

  • New Sweden
    New South Company founded - 1633. Peter Minuit appointed as director. Settlers landed in 1637 to Swedish ships arrived and tried to settle. Finns and Swedes. In the Delaware area. Full religious freedom. The Dutch did not like this. Sweden was sending over criminals. The Finns on the Delaware. First Pastor: Reorus Torkillus did services for 4 yrs and then died during an epidemic. First church built in 1646. They used log cabins and introduced this style of house. A pastor named John Campanius Holm was the first missionary to the Indians. The Dutch conquered the colony in 1665.

  • John Campanius Holm was the best known of the Swedish pastors. Worked well with the Native Americans.

  • Nicholas Collan 1770 arrived. Last Swedish pastor. When the Revolution came the Swedish Archbishop recalled all pastors. This act moved the congregations toward the Anglican Church. This also reflects a shift in language usage from Swedish to English.

  • At this point in history there is no German country. They were a grouping of principalities. So there was no government sending of people to the new world.

  • Justus Falckner (1672 - 1723)
    Of German heritage, ordained by Swedish and served the Dutch.
    Pastor, evangelizer, writer, composer, “a man of excellent gifts, of fine acquirements, of lovely temper and of fervent disportion.”

    Perhaps the first Lutheran ordained in America. He was called to serve at least 6 congregations scattered over 240 miles from Albany to Philadelphia. He traveled 1200 miles a year. Africans, Native Americans, Swedes, Dutch and Germans made up the congregations.

  • Berkenmeyer came at 38 yrs of age from Germany to attend to the congregation. He was not pietist. From the orthodox branch of Lutheranism. 1720’s is the time period. Most pastors spoke Dutch but the language shift was toward English.

  • The Salzburg Lutherans. In Austria. Expelled by the archbishop 1731-32. The people did salt mining. The RC archbishop forced them out because they were Lutheran. About 20,000 people left. Even having to leave children behind. 1734 the first group arrived in Georgia. England was looking for immigrants to settle in Georgia. There were around 200 to 300 people in the group that settled in Georgia. They accepted and used slavery. They were pro-revolution and the British came in and destroyed their settlement. They were known to have started an orphanage.

  • Pennsylvania

    The king of England owed the Penn family a great deal of money but at the request of William Penn (1644-1718) the debt was paid off with a land grant.

  • New Associations

    South Carolina (1787) synod
    North Carolina (1791) synod
    New York (1792 ) ministerium
    Virginia Synod

    Pennsylvania Ministerium was reorganized in 1792

  • Crisis Years

    • Rationalism
      After the Revolutionary War there was a lack of pastors and shepherding work of pastors. A time of apostasy.

    A time of theological struggle. Many changed to universalism. Many congregations went with a unitarian churches. The Halle college was in decline as they had higher critical professors entering. Much distrust of European pastors.

    • The Quitman Case
      Missionary to Dutch Guyana (Suranam)
      Quitman prepared a new catechism, hymn, etc. and introduces rationalism into the Lutheran Churches. The English churches tended to follow him but the German churches tended to stay away from His thinking.

    *The Language Debate
    German was regarded as the bulwark to good doctrine.

    *Union Churches
    Beginning of union churches. Two different congregations sharing the building. Lack of clergy. Lack of resources. Share resources but not worshiping together. Originally 400 but has declined to around 40 churches remain. These did not last and there was concern about how this would affect doctrine.

    *Franklin College
    A college started by Lutheran and Reformed leaders. Now know as Franklin and Marshal.

    The NY Ministerium changed to English 1806

  • The Second Great Awakening

  • Millions of new members came into exiting denominations. Also formed new denominations. Many rejecting of denominations and then went on to form new denominations.

    Many reform movements started. To root out the evils of society.

    The movement was done on the frontier via large revial camp meetings. One of the first events were sacramental events for the purpose of communion. The areas were largely unchurched. Mostly English speaking unchurched people came and were converted. The women were important. One reform desired was the abolition of slavery, and temperance.

    Pro-revival Lutherans were in the majority at first. Many revivals occured within Lutheran churches. Recorded in a magizine called the Lutheran Observer.

    The revival was mostly in the English speaking areas. Within the English speaking Lutheran congregations there was revival.

    There was a lot of good coming out of this event. There were also some odd expressions occurring. The Lutherans wanted the revival services to be orderly.

  • At the same time the 300th Anniversary of the Reformation (1817)

    Another revival occured. Pg 151 in our text book The Lutherans in North America
    Cooperative Celebrations in America
    New Edition of the Augsburg Confession (1819)
    Luther’s Works (1826) People started reading Luther again.
    These events led to the Confession Revival.

    An event in Germany the Prussian Union was enforced on the Lutherans and Reformed. All pastors had to agree to both confessions. The military would enforce this. It created a lot of resentment and the new immigrants to America (mid 19th century and beyond) brought this with this resentment with them.

  • Westward Expansion.
    1803 the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
    War of 1812 finalized this.

    Florida Purchase (1819)
    IMproved Transportation
    Indian Territories Claimed
    Increased Immigration. A huge new wave came. In six years the numbers were double of that which occured in the previous 30 years. Moving Frontier. It was ever moving westward. The established churches formed home mission work.

    The confessional revival also caused many Lutherans to want to immigrate to escape the Prussian Union.

  • There were creation of several smaller synods as growth occured. This was more of a regional synod.

    1820 there was a plan to form a general synod. The idea of a Gneral Synod was endorsed by Pennsylvania Ministerium, Ohio Synod, North Carolina Synod. The General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America (1820)

    There was opposition to this move.
    The David Henkel affair. Accused of several things and refused ordination by the General Synod. He ended up forming the Tennessee Synod (1820). They subscribed to the Augusburg Confession.

    The Ohio Synod rescinded its decision to join the General Synod.
    Maryland - Virginia Synod voted to join.
    Pennsylvania Ministerium withdrew (1823)
    In 1825 PA Ministerium Divides. Some join the General Synod.

    Rev. Samuel Simon Schmucker (1799 - 1873) Came to the forefront to help establish the General Synod. The father of Gettysburg Seminary. He was the first professor at the seminary. The seminary helped unify the General Synod.

    Schumucker Controversy - representative of American Lutheranism but American Lutheranism was changing. His book “Elements of Popular Theology” was used in teaching in the seminary. He was part of the Evangelical Alliance (1846). To Prussian Lutherans this union was offensive. Also, The Definite Platform (1855). Many of his teachings were challenged and he called for a revision to the Augsburg Confession. He wanted to Americanize Lutheranism. He wanted to see changes to the Lutheran Church to cause it to fit the American context.

  • Growth of the General Synod
    Hartwick Synod (1839)
    Evangelical Synod of the West (1840)
    English Synod of Ohio (1849)
    Several others joined to help the General Synod grow.

  • A time of Lutheran missions.
    John Christian Frederick Heyer 1793 to 1873. The first American Lutheran missionary. A home mission pastor and Sunday school teacher. 1841 Heyer was appointed to go to India. He was 48 at the time. Later joined in India by Walter Gunn. Heyer was German born. Gunn was an American born Lutheran. Did fine work there. Gunn died early on. Heyer organized a Lutheran Synod in India. Lost all his savings in the panic of 1857. In his 60’s he became a missionary in Pigs Eye, MN. He helped found the MN Synod. His last and final ministry was house father for the seminary in PN.

  • Inner Missions
    William Passavant 1821 - 1894. Did a lot of social ministry type of work. He helped found hospitals. When he saw a need he tried to meet it. There was no government care. He opened orphaniages, hospitals, libraries, etc. to bless them.

    He is the father of the Deaconess Movement in America. The Deaconess movement began in Germany. It was a way for women to serve the church full-time in Germany. Passavant contacted the sisters in Germany. They came to Philidelphia first. Then several other Lutheran hospitals. Elizabeth Fedde was one of the first deaconess of America. She has an autobiography.

  • New Waves of Immigrants
    confusion and chaos in Europe
    economic crisis in Europe
    Helped spur on the immigrants to go to America with the hope of a better life.

  • Claus Harms
    1778 0 1855
    Leader of the Confessional Revival in Germany. Popular preacher. Not for eloquence but for content of the message. He was known to have a shepherd’s heart. He wrote and attacked reason. He was opposed to the Prussian Union. He was a great influence on the seminarians of his day. He wrote his own 95 thesis against the church of his day. In 1849 he was forced to retire from ministry due to blindness.

  • German Lutheran Immigration
    Prussia: Johannes A. Grabau. A leader in the USA. He helped form the Buffalo Synod.
    Saxony: Martin Stephan
    Friedrich C.D. Wyneken from Hanover
    Wilhelm Lohe (Loehe)

  • Friedrich C. D. Wyneken. 1810 - 1876
    Study in Halle. No parish openings for him. He was awakened at Halle. He became a student of the Scriptures. He read pietistic mission reports and decided to immigrate to America. He joined a mission society and worked on the frontier. Based in Ft. Wayne, IN during this time. 1841 book The Distress of the German Lutheran in America. In the process he is becoming more confessional. He tried to provide training for missionary pastors that were serving in America. Father of the Seminary in Ft. Wayne. Becoming uneasy with his denomination at this point. Took a call to Baltimore. He also helps start the Missouri Synod. He was the second president of that synod.

    J. K. Wilhelm Loehe. 1808 - 1872
    Born in Bavaria. His father died when he was 8. Was a pastor in Germany. Relations with his church body were strained. He wanted to be pure Lutheran and the church body was moving toward union with the Reformed. Encouraged the mission work among Lutherans in America. Raised funds to send Lutheran pastors to be sent to America. He was a strong supporter of Lutheran missions. He formed the first deaconess home. Two hospitals.

    Loehe was a Chilias or milinilist.

  • 1860 South Caroline seceded. (1860) followed by ten other states.
    Election of Abraham Lincoln (1860)
    “Most wicked, Unjustifiable, unnatural, inhuman, oppressive” (presidential report to the General Synod, May 1862)
    Dr. John Bachman, southern Lutheran apologist writes a defense of slavery.

    1863 - General Synod divides. General Synod of the Confederate States of America and later after the war became the United Synod of the South (1886).

    Walther and Slavery. He did not think that Scriptures prohibited slavery. He favored states rights. Favored obedience to the government. He would say that slavery was an evil but not a sin. He was mostly silent towards the end of the war.

  • Missouri Synod (1847)
    Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther
    Concordia Seminary - St Louis (1839)
    Newspaper - Der Lutheraner

  • Lutheranism in the Post-War Era

    Iowa Synod (1854)
    Disagreement with Missouri Lutherans and a new synod was started. Loehe was part of the start of the Iowa Synod and Wartburg Seminary, Dubuque (1853) Differences with Missouri Synod: 1. Chiliasm (a negative term about melinialism) 2. Church and Ministry. Walther wanted ministry through the congregation and Loehe wanted it through the pastors. Walther was more congregational and Loehe was not. 3. Confessional Subscription. Iowa was accused Iowa of being more subjective regarding confessional subscription. However both held to the entire book of Concord.

  • Wisconsin Synod (1850) John Bading helped move the Wisconsin Synod toward a more confessional stance. Northwestern College/Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary (1863-65, 1878)

    Minnesota Synod (1860)
    Michigan Synod (1860)

    The above three federated in 1892 and merged in 1917.

  • The Division of the General Synod. This was a major event.

    Pennsylvania Synod reservation. 1853. they would retain complete control of their synod. In 1864 the Franckean Synod was admitted to the General Synod. Pennsylvania Ministerium withdraws. The Pen Ministerium was started in Philadelphia Seminary (1864).

    The General Council. The four points that the council responded to the Missouri Synod.

    1. Chiliasm 2. Secret Societies. 3. Pulpit Fellowship. 4. Altar Fellowship.

    Akron Declaration (Galesburg Rule): Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran pastors, Lutheran altars for Lutheran communicats.

  • 1872 The Synodical Conference
    Solely a consulting body, not a central organization, united by doctrine and practice.

    Missouri
    Ohio Synod
    Wisconsin Synod
    Minnesota Synod
    Illinois Synod
    Norwegian Synod

  • Swedish and Norwegian Lutherans

    The Synod of Northern Illinois - 1851
    They wanted the Swedes to have influence and they did not. 1860 Swedish prof went to Chicago. Established their own group which was a majority Swedish.
    Scandinavian Augustana Synod - 1860. The established their own seminary: Augustana Seminary. Moved their seminary from Chicago to Paxton, IL. Now they want a Norwegian to representative. The ethnic issue arose again. Rev. August Weenaas was the Norwegian professor. There were ethic issues between Swedes and Norwegians. The Swedes and Norwegians worked together from 1860 to 1870.

    Out of the split came two groups:

    Norwegian - Danish Augustana Synod
    and
    Norwegian - Danish Conference.

  • Danish Lutherans

    Smallest group.

    Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America - 1872 to 1874
    Split: Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of North America.
    Danish Lutheran Church Association of America - 1884
    Danish Evangelical

  • Theological Conflict in the 1880’s
    Doctrine of predestination is not central to Lutheranism. The Predestination Controversy. Lutheran position is that what is hidden to us should not be a starting point of our theology. Our doctrine must start on what has been revealed.

    C.F.W. Walther - 1877 meeting held for LCMS. A meeting among the Western churches. Frederich A. Schmidt a student of Walther and a coleague. Schmidt taught at the Norwegian seminary. Schmidt challenged Walther’s teaching on election. He thought that Walther implied double predestination. Intuito Fide, was the issue. God elects those who He foresees coming to faith.

  • Norwegian Church Union

    Wanted union but found it extremely difficult to do so. Issues over justification.

    United Norwegian Lutheran Church 1890
    made up of: Anti-Missourian Brotherhood, The Conference (sevrdrup, strong focus on catechsim as enough for documents), Norwegian-Danish Augustana.

    Houme was an important leader for the UNLC.

    Union was going well. 788 congregations in union. Then a controversy. Augsburg Controversy arose. Augsburg seminary would continue. The union leaders wanted to stop Augsburg College which was connected with the seminary. The official college would be St. Olaf College.

    Sevrdrup and Offtedal were concerned about the program at St. Olaf College. 1893. Both men resigned from the the Norwegian Union. There was a split and Sevrdrup and Offtedal defend Augsburg.

    The Friends of Augsburg was the group of congregations and congregants who supported Augsburg Seminary.

    Lutheran Free Church - 1897 was supportive of Augsburg. There was a great revival in this time period. There was growth at this time. REcord breaking enrollment.

    Church of the Lutheran Brethren - 1900. Born during the 90’s revival. Did a lot of work in Africa. Chad.

  • Finnish Lutherans
    UP of MI
    Logging camps across the USA
    Mines in MN
    Steel mills in PN

    Came late to the USA. Came because of economic reasons. They were divided into the Red Finish and Church Finnish. Late 1800’s emigrated. Clung to their Finnish language for a long time. The Red Finnish they were hostile towards the church.

    Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church / Suomi Synod - 1890 This group represented the state church in Finland. J.K. Nikander (Nee’ kan der)

    Largely Pietistic. Hancock, MI they established a college. Then a seminary. Now called Finlandia University.

    Finnish National Evangelical Lutheran
    More congregational in nature. In 1964 they joined LCMS. 1898

    Laestadian Movement in America
    Emphasis on the Power of the Keys. The priesthood of all believers. Kautokeino Rebellion. Came to America in the late 1800’s. Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Congregation - 1873. More emotional.

    Laestadians

    Old Apostolics (Firstborn) Stress simple lifestyle.
    New Awakenists - never large in number. Circumcision of the heart. Similar to pentecostal. Very legalistic.
    Independent Apostolic Lutherans - worship is emotional. Don’t believe in music. Extra-biblical. Focus on Spirit revealing truth not so much of a focus on Scripture.
    First Apostolic Lutheran Church - 1922
    After a split
    Apostolic Lutheran Mission - 1972
    Laestadian Lutheran Church - 1972 - 73
    http://extoots.blogspot.com/ A site for those leaving the legalistic Laestadian movement.

    Apostolic Lutheran Church of America (Federation) - 1928

    Grace Apostles Lutheran Church - 2004

  • Other Ethnic Lutherans

    The Icelandic Synod - 1885 (Mountain, ND very small group) 1942 became part of another Lutheran group.

    The Slovak Synods

    • Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church - 1902
      Joined the LCMS in 1971
    • Slovak Zion Synod - 1919 part of the ELCA.

    Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant Church - 1885 (Were at first Lutheran but left.)

  • Americans starting to feel connected to the rest of the world. WWI occurs during this time period. League of Nations begins.

  • Lutherans and World War I

    One of the most significant watersheds in American Lutheran History (1915 - 1920)
    The Quadricentennial of the Reformation.
    April 6, 1917 Declaration of War with Germany. On the year of the Quadricentennial. German Lutherans suffered oppression during this time. German Lutheran Schools were seen in a negative light.
    In general Lutherans were supportive of the American position in the war.
    National Lutheran Council - 1918 a group of Lutheran synods organized to help minister during war time.

  • Era of Lutheran Mergers

    The Norwegian Lutheran Church in America 1917

    * United Norwegian Lutheran Church (1650 congregations)(formerly the anti-missourian)
    * Hauge Synod (373 congregations)
    * Norwegian Synod (986 congregations)

    Opgj0/r document. O with a slash through it.
    Two ways of conversion were accepted by the group. In tuito fide and another. Pantopotin’s catechism taught in tuito fide.

    Merged their three seminaries in St. Paul, MN.

    (In 1946 renamed The Evangelical Lutheran Church)

    1st president-Hans G. Stub
    2nd president-Johan A. Aasgaard
    3rd president-Fredrik A. Schiotz led the ELC into another merger.


    Those who disagreed formed The Evangelical Lutheran Synod in 1918. ELS was closer to LCMS in doctrine.

  • The United Lutheran Church in America
    made up of

    General Synod
    General Council
    United Synod of the South

    After 50 years apart they merged. November 11/16/1918. Then became the largest Lutheran group.

    Two presidents. Frederick Knubel and Franklin Clark Fry.

    Franklin Clark Fry born in 1900. Son of Rev. and Mrs. Franklin F. Fry. Time magazine 1958 on the cover of Time magazine.

    First parish was in Yonkers, NY (4 yrs) and then Akron, OH (15 yrs) 1929 to 1944.

    Lutheran Church America (LCA) Fry was conservative. Leader in many Lutheran group. Created a very centralized polity.

    Elected president of ULCA in 1944. Dr. Fry was their first president. Liberalism was creeping in and he was not active in stopping it.

  • American Lutheran Church

    August 10, 1930
    Merger of:

    The Ohio Synod
    The Iowa Synod (believed in open questions. Chillist in their eschatology)
    The Buffalo Synod
    The Texas Synod (?) or it was part of the Iowa Synod.
    All were conservative and had a German background. Drawn to LCMS. NOT interested in ULCA. LCMS did not extend a warm welcome to this group.

  • The American Lutheran Conference

    Noteable event. Among the more conservative Lutherans there was a felt need for unity/fellowship that transcended nationalistic and ethnic lines. Oct. 29-31, 1930

    Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church
    American Lutheran Church
    Augustana Synod
    Lutheran Free Church
    United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church.

    Doctrinal basis known as Minneapolis Theses. Inspired and inerrant Word of God.

    2,465,000 baptized members. The combined conference was quite larger. The Conference dissolved in 1954.

  • Theological Drift

    Influence of post WWI crisis theology.

    Chicago Theses (1919)
    morphs into the
    Washington Declaration (1920) did not use words like inerrancy. Verbal Inspiration and Inerrancy challenged.

    LCMS puts out The Brief Statement (1932) A statement on inspiration and inerrancy.

    Two strains emerge. A confessional one and an ecumenical strain.

  • Lutheran Union after World War II

    “old Lutherans” versus “Neo-Lutherans”
    “overture on Lutheran Unity (1943)

    American Lutheran Conference dissolved (1954)
    —- Service Book and Hymnal (1958) ELC, Soumi, Luther Free, United Synod produced this hymnal

    The American Lutheran Church (1960)
    The Lutheran Church in America (1962)
    Lutheran Free Church joins TALC (1963)
    Association of Free Lutheran Congregations

    The mood of the 20th century was church union.

  • Lutheran Council in the United States of America 1967.

    This was a conference for Lutherans
    Members:
    Lutheran Church in America
    The American Lutheran Church.

    Still a strong desire to unite all Lutherans. This was a federation.
    Lutheran Church Missouri Synod
    Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Chruches

  • The Battle of Missouri

    A firm adherance to Biblical inerrancy. Through their history. A growing inborn legalism.

    A leader in the Synodical Conference and then breaking off were the Orthodox Lutheran , ELS, WS and finally in 1967 the conference came to an end.

    The statement of the 44
    Resulted in a long battle.

    In the 60’s there was a new group of professors at Concordia St. Louis. Not holding to traditional views of Biblical inerrancy. Martin Sharlaman wrote essays in ‘61 and ‘62 intended for exploritory discussion. At the 1962 conventioned he appologized for what he had written. Sharlaman was a prof at Concordia St. Louis.

    Troubles in the Synodical Conference conflicts. The Orthodox Lutheran Conference organized in 1951 in Southern MN. Paul Kretzmann was the leader of this orthodox group.

    In 1955 the Evangelical Lutheran Synod withdraw from the conference. Then the Wisconsin Synod withdrew in 1961. By waiting unitl 1961 there was suspection in the Wisconsin Synod. The split off was the Church of the Lutheran Confession (1960).

    The issues were occurring at the seminary at Concordia St. Louis. Oliver Harms was president of the seminary in 1962. Harms tended to defend the seminary faculty. A new president elected at the seminary (Dr. John Tietjen). A new president of the synod (J.A.O. Preus).

    Lutheran News/Christian News - 1962

    1969 Convention. Wanted a more conservative president.
    J.A.O. Preus elected president of LCMS. Pulpit and altar fellowship with ALC. Preus had to do this for fellowship. The investigation begins at Concordia St. Louis Seminary. John H. Tietjen is president of the Seminary.

    There was a division between the systematic profs and the rest of the faculty.

    New Orleans Convention - 1973 Oswald Hoffman was supposted to run for LCMS president. But at the last minute withdrew. He did not want to get into the fight. J.A.O. Preus was re-elcted.

    Concordia Seminary split. Seminex (called themselves the moderates). 1/3 of the faculty traveled to visit churches to gain support.

    Martin H. Scharlemann became the president of the seminary in St. Louis. Feb 19 there was a student walkout. 90% of the faculty and 85% of the students left.

    This led to the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (1976) 200 some odd congregations and around 100,000 baptized members.

    Lessons Learned from the Inerrancy Struggle

    1. Theologians who reject the inerrancy of Holy Scripture usually try to hide their position from pastors and laity.
  • Church of the LUtheran Confession

    Illinois Lutheran Conference (1974)

    Lutheran Conference of Confessional Fellowship (1983)

    Reformation Lutheran Conference (2000)

    Association of Confessional Lutheran Churches (2007)

  • Lutheran groups that fought for inerrancy:

    Word Alone / Lutherans Alert.
    They started Faith Seminary/ Conservative Lutheran Association.

    They started Faith Seminary which is with the Conservative Lutheran Association.

    Women’s Ordination - 1970. Women reading scripture lessons and elected to church councils. Some synods were open to ordination of women.

    Changes in American culture were driving changes in many of the churches.

    Liturgical Renewal. Some changes presented as new and improved.

  • Lutheran Charismatic Renewal

    Pastor Larry Christenson, Trinity Lutheran Chruch, San Pedro, CA

    Pastor Morris Vaagenes, North Heights Lutheran Church, Roseville, MN

    Lutheran Conferences on the HOly Spirit

    Renewal in Missouri (RIM) - 1987

  • The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 1988.
    The Symenex group that broke off from the LCMS. Made up by The American Lutheran Church. The Asspciation of Evangelical Lutheran Chruches (symenex) and The Lutheran Chruch in America.

    They did not say that they were merging three churches. They were creating a new church body.

    There were around 5000 congregations.

    Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

    1978 Call to union by the AELC
    1980 Conventions
    James Crumley, David Preus, William Kohn
    1982 Conventions

    The three church bodies became one on January 1, 1988.

  • First Wave of ELCA Departures

    737 congregations from 1988 to 2008 (around 654,000 members.)
    The American Association of Lutheran Churches (1987)

    Division within AALC led to: Lutheran Ministerium and Synod - USA (1995)
    Again a split within the ministerium became Evangelical Lutheran Conference and Ministerium (1999)

    Call to Common Mission (1999) CCM
    They created Word Alone.
    Word Alone Network (2000)

    Over the issue of CCM created LCMC. They wanted non-episcapal ordination. This led to Lutheran Congregations in MIssion for Christ (2001)

    The Augsburg Lutheran Churches
    From out of the LCMC. Began as a non-geographic grouping. More confessional than LCMC.

  • Second Wave of Departures

    Lutheran CORE (2005)
    Leaving the ELCA over the ELCA’s decision to ordain homosexuals.

    2009 ELCA Churchwide Assembly voted to permit congregations to call pastors “in publicly accountable, lifelong, monogamous, same-gender relationships. This leads to the forming of the NALC (North American Lutheran Church (2010).

    LCMC represents the ALC
    The NALC represents the former ELC. 954 congregations took first votes to leave.

    2014
    LCMC - 830 congregations
    NALC - 374 congregations

    Since 1988 the ELCA has lost around 1,000 congregations and around 800,000 members.

    Institute of Lutheran Theology
    This is their training program. Brookings SD. They have modular classes.

  • Back in the 70’s all the news coverage over seminex.

    The seminaries were trying to produce more conservative pastors. A return to more orthodox reformed thinking.

    Al Barry was elected synod president. Elected by 12 votes.

    Kieshnick later elected by 12 votes as synod president. He was more moderate.

    Matt Harrison. Next elected. More conservative. More centralized now.

    Augustana Ministerium within the LCMS. Intended to move Missiouri to a more conservative standing.

    The Association of Confessing Lutheran Congregations. A confessional movement.

  • Sexual issues and authority of the Word are issues.

    ELCA losing Lutheran distintives. Following secular society.

  • The emmergance of the business model is significant. 1960s.

  • Lutheran settlement in Florida 1565. French Huegernots. The Spanish who were in St. Augustine wiped out the French settlement. It was a French Reformed Protestant settlement. Not Lutheran.

  • Redemptioners were indentured laborers. They had sold themselves into servanthood for a number of years to pay for their passage.

  • William Penn
    Friends (Quaker)
    Son of a famous British admiral
    Received a large land grant from King Charles II.
    Open to all Christian faiths.

  • Zinzindorf made a trip to the Americas to help evaluation the needs and start churches.

  • Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711 - 1787)
    Called by three congregations in the Americas. From an impoverished background. Kind hearted. From the German state of Hanover. King George was king over England and the State of Hanover. Arrived in Pennsylvania 1742 from Halle, Germany. He had call papers and recommendation from the chaplin of the King of England. Wrote Halle Reports. Influenced by pietism.
    Ecclesia Plantanda was his motto
    Called to New Hanover, Philadelphia, and the Trappe. In each of the churches he opened a school. Making missionary journeys and planting churches.

    Spoke and worked in three languages. English and German. The third unknown.

  • Pennsylvania Ministerium August 26, 1748
    The first Lutheran organization in the Americas. Muhlenberg helped to start this. The training of pastors was done by personal mentoring. How will ordination take place was discussed.

    1. To provide a common defense against non-Lutheran influence
    2. To consult with one another concerning the best establishment of each congregation.
    3. To provide a common liturgy.
      At first there were only ten congregations present by 1771 there were seventy some odd congregations participating.

    1786 their first published worship book.

  • The First School of Theology: Hartwick Seminary 1797 funded by a legacy from John Christopher Hartwick.

    Hartwick Seminary has changed into Hartwick College. This is in New York.

  • During this time period there was the creation of several new synods.

    The first Lutheran pastor in Ohio. John Stauch 1762 - 1845. Indintured to a wagon maker. Learning to make wagons. From a pietistic background. Library: Bible, hymnal, catechism, starkes commentary, an explination of the catechism.

  • Schumucker was a controversial person. He seemed to reject the Augsburg Confession and this drew a lot of heat from Lutherans.

    He seemed to align better with Puritan thinking. He rejected baptismal regeneration. He seems to be a polar opposite to confessional Lutheran.

  • The Frankean Synod
    Withdrew from Hartwick Synod - 1837. Promoted revivalism. Total abstinence, abolition, Sabbath observance, pacifism, perfectionism. Even though they were Lutheran they were drawn to the holiness movement. They did not agree with Augsburg Confession

  • The Stephan Affair. Martin Stephan.
    Born in Moravia. Left an orphan at an early age. Befriended by pietist so that he could continue his education. Considered to be a strict confessional Lutheran. In the eyes of his followers he was the champion of Lutheran Confessionalism.

    Openly talked about his troubled marriage. Highly thought of by the people in Saxony. Opposed to the Prussian union. Speaking out in Saxony. Arrested for having meetings against union between Lutherans and Reformed. Arrested and suspended from his congregation. 300 people left with him from Saxony. 612 people departed in November. They arrived in St. Louis. He left his family behind in Germany. His personality tended to rub others the wrong way. Helped start the Lutheran work in Perry County. 1839. Accused of having affairs with some of the women. He was removed from office. C. F. W. Walther was sent to inform him of Stephan’s dismissal. Excommunicated by his members.

  • Dr. John Bachman, southern Lutheran apologist. From upstate New York. May have been of Swiss origin. Spent a great deal of time outdoors. Was into the study of natural history. Taught natural history in schools and also was a pastor. Stayed at his church for 56 years. He was in Charleston. Half of the congregation was black. At least 40% was black. He evangelized the slaves and baptized them. He continued his naturalist studies and became a close friend to John James Audubon. Together they put together books on North American mammals. He helped found the synod, seminary and Newberry College in South Carolina.

    Wrote a book about about Master and Slave were the same species. This was radical in the 1800’s. He provided a scientific reason agains slavery. But he supported slavery as a means to evangelize the slaves. He was a states rights supporter. He fled Charleston. Beaten by Union soldiers. He was 80. He later died and is buried in Charleston, SC.

  • In 1860 the General Synod held 2/3 of all Lutherans in America.

    The Pennsylvania Synod held reservation
    Admission of the Franckean Synod (1864) They did not agree with Augsburg Confession but still was allowed to join.
    pennsylvania Ministerium withdraws
    Philadelphia Seminary (1864)
    Division - 1866
    General Council (1867)

    Some say it was a polity issue. Some did not want a central power. Some did. Second there were some confessional currents occurring.

    • The Augustana Synod also played a part in the formation in the Evangelical Free Church coming out of Sweden.

    • Norwegian - Danish Augustana Synod
      Augustana College/Academy in Canton, South Dakota. For a while it was a boarding high school

    • What was the difference between the conference and synod.
      The conference was less structured, less liturgical
      The synod was a bit more Americanized.

      The Norwegian - Danish Conference set up a seminary in Minneapolis by Weenaas and this is where Georg Sverdrup and Sven Oftedal took over the leadership of the seminary.

    • American Evangelical Lutheran Church. The “Happy Danes” N.F.S. Grundtvig Tradition. Danish culture was influencial. Promoted Danish culture. Grand View College in Iowa.

    • Laestadian Central TEachings

      The Bible is the Word of God (emphasis on oral proclamation).
      The means of Grace is primarily the Word.
      Opposed to 3rd use of the Law, yet struggles with legalism.
      The Gospel, with “Lamb of God” as a common theme.
      Justification by Faith, distinguishing between living faith and dead faith.
      The New Birth (not related to Baptism)
      Childhood Christians. All children are born with faith. Sort of a universalism.
      Confession and Absolution with laying on of hands (a means of grace) Unconditional Absolution.
      The Kingdom of God = the congregation.
      Sanctification - strict moral code (danger of legalism).
      Priesthood of all believers (Lack of trust of seminary trained pastors.)

      Only 1/4 of the Finnish immigrants to the USA joined a church.

    • ————LCMS group
      -
      -
      ————ULCA
      -
      -
      -
      —————The American Lutheran Conference

      Three main groupings. The mood of the time was that bigger was better.

    • Augustana Seminary, Rock Island, IL
      Falls to the liberal movement. There was a shift. Old conservative professors let go and new liberal ones brought in from the East and Europe. Occurred in the early 1930s.

    • Augsburg Seminary
      1930s. Issue over the new president. Dr. Christensen and he opened the door to more liberal teachings.

    • Luther Seminary
      President T.F. Gulicson. served until 1956. A strong confessional. Presided over the conflict between Herman Preus and George Oss.

    • J. Michael Reu 1869 - 1943
      Iowa Synod. After his death people downplayed his stance on inerrancy.

    • Lessons learned from the Inerrancy Struggle

      Theologian who reject the inerrancy of Holy Scripture usually try to hide their position from pastors and laity.

      Repristinalogy. Orthodox.

      Neo-Lutheranism began showing up in 1930’s to 1940’s. By the 50’s they were a louder voice. While the church administrators were trying to uphold old Lutheranism the colleges and seminaries were being influenced by Historical Critical method.

      After WWII many America Lutherans were getting higher education in Eastern America, England, Germany and Scandanaivian.

      The Neo-Lutherans saw theology as dynamic.

      KE Kristauferson. ALC professor. Saw those holding to inerrancy as living in heresy.

      Official statements proclaiming inerrancy are valueless when theologians are allowed to ignore them.
      When theologians reject inerrancy, soon other biblical teachings are under attack.

    • Muhlenberg supported the crown (1775 - 1783)
      His sons supported the war.

    • A son of HM Muhlenberg

      John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (1746 - 1807) preaching from Ecc 3:8. Strong support for the Revoluntionary War. The Brandy Wine battle.

      Frederic Muhlenberg left the pulpit to serve in politics.

    • Charles Porterfield Krauth (1823 to 1883)
      Study in German language of the Conservative Reformers.

      A good friend of Walther. Yet not connected to Missouri Synod.

    • John Hanson was the first president under the continental congress. (1715 - 1783)
      First president of congress in session.

    {"cards":[{"_id":"483debb293c098125200004c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":573221,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"Lutherans in America"},{"_id":"48481d7c93c098125200007c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":573212,"position":1,"parentId":"483debb293c098125200004c","content":"This course is a survey of the establishment and development of American Lutheranism, with a goal of better understanding the present through the prism of the past. "},{"_id":"4848202293c098125200007d","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":573290,"position":2,"parentId":"483debb293c098125200004c","content":"There are two major church bodies: ELCA and LCMS.\nThere are three medium sizes: WELS, LCMC and NALC.\n45 other ones, the largest of which is AFLC.\n\nIn the USA there are 7 to 7.5 million Lutherans today. The peak was in the late 1960s at 9 million. \n\nGiving to the largest church bodies is seriously down. One thought is that it costs more to operate local congregations today. \n\nIn the 1960s there was a change that occurred. The following of a business patten. Consolidation and merger and uniformity were considered important. \n\nnumbers based on baptized members."},{"_id":"4848369193c098125200007e","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":573336,"position":1,"parentId":"4848202293c098125200007d","content":"The emmergance of the business model is significant. 1960s. "},{"_id":"4848458e93c098125200007f","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":573451,"position":3,"parentId":"483debb293c098125200004c","content":"Mark Granquist: If renewal or revitalization comes, it will come from the congregations, not the national offices. "},{"_id":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604562,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"The Church's Infancy\n1650 to 1790"},{"_id":"48889fa5a9a0ab2f3300002f","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604564,"position":1,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"Lutheranism in America ( A reverse of the order in Europe )\nBegan with Pietism\nThen entered a time of intense interest in doctrine\nMaybe will focus more on the Reformation"},{"_id":"4888a681a9a0ab2f33000030","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604571,"position":1,"parentId":"48889fa5a9a0ab2f3300002f","content":"Lutheran settlement in Florida 1565. French Huegernots. The Spanish who were in St. Augustine wiped out the French settlement. It was a French Reformed Protestant settlement. Not Lutheran. "},{"_id":"4888ac02a9a0ab2f33000031","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":817210,"position":2,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"First Lutherans in North America. The Jens Munk Expedition in 1619 - 1620. The first Lutheran pastor visited the America. Chaplain Rasmus Jensen. Trapped in the ice on Hudson Bay during winter. "},{"_id":"4888b47ba9a0ab2f33000032","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604580,"position":3,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"Frederick Lutheran Church founded by Danish settlers. St Thomas, Virgin Islands. "},{"_id":"4888b798a9a0ab2f33000033","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604582,"position":4,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"1743 British Guiana / Guyana\nEbenezer Church founded by Dutch Lutherans. White settlers and descendants. "},{"_id":"4888bba1a9a0ab2f33000034","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604583,"position":5,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":""},{"_id":"4888bba8a9a0ab2f33000035","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":817216,"position":6,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"New Netherlands / New York / New Sweden\nDutch Lutherans came first to the New England area. "},{"_id":"4888c2faa9a0ab2f33000036","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":604641,"position":7,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"Lutherans in New Netherlands\nFirst congregation: St. Matthew's (1648 - 49) The West Indian Company only allowed the Reformed Church . The Lutherans had a difficult time. Appealed for the right to worship according to the Augsburg Confession. They needed a pastor who spoke Dutch. \n\nFirst Pastor: Johan Ernst Gutwasser (1657) Dutched Reformed church protested. Was forced to leave **June 19, 1659.** He was barred from preaching and deported. \n\n**1664** The British defeat the Dutch and rename the colony. It is now called New York. Freedom of worship granted to Lutherans and they were allowed their first pastor Jacob Fabritius (1669). Sort of a rough person (pg 11). Stayed on for two years and moved south. He was Salichian from the Cezc and Poland area. \n\nThe Palatine Germans were from Southwest Germany. Experienced around 100 years of war. Winter of 1708 was very brutal. Then the French came and ordered the Lutherans out. Spring of 1709 around 7,000 Palatine Germans fled. Maybe 32,000 refugees in London. Most were sent to America. New York and the Carolinas. They were promised land around 80 miles up the Hudson River. Many left for Pennsylvania and NJ. "},{"_id":"4888f22ba9a0ab2f33000039","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":817225,"position":7.25,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"New Sweden\nNew South Company founded - 1633. Peter Minuit appointed as director. Settlers landed in **1637** to Swedish ships arrived and tried to settle. Finns and Swedes. In the Delaware area. Full religious freedom. The Dutch did not like this. Sweden was sending over criminals. The Finns on the Delaware. First Pastor: Reorus Torkillus did services for 4 yrs and then died during an epidemic. First church built in **1646**. They used log cabins and introduced this style of house. A pastor named John Campanius Holm was the first missionary to the Indians. The Dutch conquered the colony in **1665**. "},{"_id":"48a42afdae11cf0acd000067","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616592,"position":7.375,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"John Campanius Holm was the best known of the Swedish pastors. Worked well with the Native Americans. \n"},{"_id":"48a44ebcae11cf0acd000068","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616639,"position":7.4375,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"Nicholas Collan 1770 arrived. Last Swedish pastor. When the Revolution came the Swedish Archbishop recalled all pastors. This act moved the congregations toward the Anglican Church. This also reflects a shift in language usage from Swedish to English. "},{"_id":"48a45560ae11cf0acd000069","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616658,"position":7.46875,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"At this point in history there is no **German** country. They were a grouping of principalities. So there was no government sending of people to the new world. "},{"_id":"48a458f2ae11cf0acd00006a","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616652,"position":1,"parentId":"48a45560ae11cf0acd000069","content":"Redemptioners were indentured laborers. They had sold themselves into servanthood for a number of years to pay for their passage. "},{"_id":"48a45f33ae11cf0acd00006b","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616734,"position":9,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"Justus Falckner (1672 - 1723)\nOf German heritage, ordained by Swedish and served the Dutch.\nPastor, evangelizer, writer, composer, \"a man of excellent gifts, of fine acquirements, of lovely temper and of fervent disportion.\"\n\nPerhaps the first Lutheran ordained in America. He was called to serve at least 6 congregations scattered over 240 miles from Albany to Philadelphia. He traveled 1200 miles a year. Africans, Native Americans, Swedes, Dutch and Germans made up the congregations. "},{"_id":"48a4719bae11cf0acd00006c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616748,"position":10,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"Berkenmeyer came at 38 yrs of age from **Germany** to attend to the congregation. He was not pietist. From the orthodox branch of Lutheranism. 1720's is the time period. Most pastors spoke Dutch but the language shift was toward English. "},{"_id":"48a47ae5ae11cf0acd00006d","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616792,"position":11,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"The Salzburg Lutherans. In **Austria**. Expelled by the archbishop 1731-32. The people did salt mining. The RC archbishop forced them out because they were Lutheran. About 20,000 people left. Even having to leave children behind. 1734 the first group arrived in Georgia. England was looking for immigrants to settle in Georgia. There were around 200 to 300 people in the group that settled in Georgia. They accepted and used slavery. They were pro-revolution and the British came in and destroyed their settlement. They were known to have started an orphanage. "},{"_id":"48a49424ae11cf0acd00006e","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":616793,"position":12,"parentId":"48889eaaa9a0ab2f3300002e","content":"**Pennsylvania**\n\nThe king of England owed the Penn family a great deal of money but at the request of William Penn (1644-1718) the debt was paid off with a land grant. "},{"_id":"48e4e47bf75f22804f000050","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646783,"position":1,"parentId":"48a49424ae11cf0acd00006e","content":"William Penn\nFriends (Quaker)\nSon of a famous British admiral\nReceived a large land grant from King Charles II. \nOpen to all Christian faiths. "},{"_id":"48e4eecff75f22804f000052","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646793,"position":1.5,"parentId":"48a49424ae11cf0acd00006e","content":"Zinzindorf made a trip to the Americas to help evaluation the needs and start churches. "},{"_id":"48e4e835f75f22804f000051","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646944,"position":2,"parentId":"48a49424ae11cf0acd00006e","content":"Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711 - 1787)\nCalled by three congregations in the Americas. From an impoverished background. Kind hearted. From the German state of Hanover. King George was king over England and the State of Hanover. Arrived in Pennsylvania 1742 from Halle, Germany. He had call papers and recommendation from the chaplin of the King of England. Wrote Halle Reports. Influenced by pietism. \n*Ecclesia Plantanda* was his motto\nCalled to New Hanover, Philadelphia, and the Trappe. In each of the churches he opened a school. Making missionary journeys and planting churches. \n\nSpoke and worked in three languages. English and German. The third unknown. "},{"_id":"48e5402ff75f22804f000055","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646948,"position":1,"parentId":"48e4e835f75f22804f000051","content":"Muhlenberg supported the crown (1775 - 1783) \nHis sons supported the war. \n"},{"_id":"48e54ad1f75f22804f000057","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646953,"position":1,"parentId":"48e5402ff75f22804f000055","content":"John Hanson was the first president under the continental congress. (1715 - 1783)\nFirst president of congress in session. \n\n"},{"_id":"48e542cef75f22804f000056","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646952,"position":2,"parentId":"48e4e835f75f22804f000051","content":"A son of HM Muhlenberg\n\nJohn Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (1746 - 1807) preaching from Ecc 3:8. Strong support for the Revoluntionary War. The Brandy Wine battle.\n\nFrederic Muhlenberg left the pulpit to serve in politics. "},{"_id":"48e52448f75f22804f000053","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646942,"position":3,"parentId":"48a49424ae11cf0acd00006e","content":"Pennsylvania Ministerium August 26, 1748\nThe first Lutheran organization in the Americas. Muhlenberg helped to start this. The training of pastors was done by personal mentoring. How will ordination take place was discussed. \n1. To provide a common defense against non-Lutheran influence\n2. To consult with one another concerning the best establishment of each congregation.\n3. To provide a common liturgy. \nAt first there were only ten congregations present by 1771 there were seventy some odd congregations participating. \n\n1786 their first published worship book. "},{"_id":"48e53fccf75f22804f000054","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":646945,"position":4,"parentId":"48a49424ae11cf0acd00006e","content":""},{"_id":"49006b0432048150da00008d","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":661633,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"The Early National Period\n1790 - 1840"},{"_id":"49006c3632048150da00008e","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":661710,"position":1,"parentId":"49006b0432048150da00008d","content":"New Associations\n\nSouth Carolina (1787) synod\nNorth Carolina (1791) synod\nNew York (1792 ) ministerium\nVirginia Synod\n\nPennsylvania Ministerium was reorganized in 1792\n\n"},{"_id":"490081bd32048150da00008f","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":661734,"position":1,"parentId":"49006c3632048150da00008e","content":"The First School of Theology: Hartwick Seminary 1797 funded by a legacy from John Christopher Hartwick. \n\nHartwick Seminary has changed into Hartwick College. This is in New York. "},{"_id":"490090cc32048150da000090","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":662045,"position":2,"parentId":"49006b0432048150da00008d","content":"Crisis Years\n\n* Rationalism\nAfter the Revolutionary War there was a lack of pastors and shepherding work of pastors. A time of apostasy.\n\nA time of theological struggle. Many changed to universalism. Many congregations went with a unitarian churches. The Halle college was in decline as they had higher critical professors entering. Much distrust of European pastors. \n\n* The Quitman Case\nMissionary to Dutch Guyana (Suranam) \nQuitman prepared a new catechism, hymn, etc. and introduces rationalism into the Lutheran Churches. The English churches tended to follow him but the German churches tended to stay away from His thinking. \n\n*The Language Debate\nGerman was regarded as the bulwark to good doctrine.\n\n*Union Churches\nBeginning of union churches. Two different congregations sharing the building. Lack of clergy. Lack of resources. Share resources but not worshiping together. Originally 400 but has declined to around 40 churches remain. These did not last and there was concern about how this would affect doctrine. \n\n*Franklin College\nA college started by Lutheran and Reformed leaders. Now know as Franklin and Marshal. \n\nThe NY Ministerium changed to English 1806\n\n"},{"_id":"4900df4032048150da000091","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":662106,"position":3,"parentId":"49006b0432048150da00008d","content":"The Second Great Awakening"},{"_id":"49412a8c3383af158f000060","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":689236,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"The Second Great Awakening"},{"_id":"49412c073383af158f000061","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":689430,"position":1,"parentId":"49412a8c3383af158f000060","content":"Millions of new members came into exiting denominations. Also formed new denominations. Many rejecting of denominations and then went on to form new denominations. \n\nMany reform movements started. To root out the evils of society. \n\nThe movement was done on the frontier via large revial camp meetings. One of the first events were sacramental events for the purpose of communion. The areas were largely unchurched. Mostly English speaking unchurched people came and were converted. The women were important. One reform desired was the abolition of slavery, and temperance. \n\nPro-revival Lutherans were in the majority at first. Many revivals occured within Lutheran churches. Recorded in a magizine called the Lutheran Observer. \n\nThe revival was mostly in the English speaking areas. Within the English speaking Lutheran congregations there was revival. \n\nThere was a lot of good coming out of this event. There were also some odd expressions occurring. The Lutherans wanted the revival services to be orderly. \n\n"},{"_id":"4941569f3383af158f000062","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":689484,"position":2,"parentId":"49412a8c3383af158f000060","content":"At the same time the 300th Anniversary of the Reformation (1817)\n\nAnother revival occured. Pg 151 in our text book **The Lutherans in North America**\nCooperative Celebrations in America\nNew Edition of the Augsburg Confession (1819)\nLuther's Works (1826) People started reading Luther again. \nThese events led to the Confession Revival. \n\nAn event in Germany the Prussian Union was enforced on the Lutherans and Reformed. All pastors had to agree to both confessions. The military would enforce this. It created a lot of resentment and the new immigrants to America (mid 19th century and beyond) brought this with this resentment with them. "},{"_id":"49416d1d3383af158f000063","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":689533,"position":3,"parentId":"49412a8c3383af158f000060","content":"Westward Expansion.\n1803 the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States. \nWar of 1812 finalized this.\n\nFlorida Purchase (1819)\nIMproved Transportation\nIndian Territories Claimed\nIncreased Immigration. A huge new wave came. In six years the numbers were double of that which occured in the previous 30 years. Moving Frontier. It was ever moving westward. The established churches formed home mission work. \n\nThe confessional revival also caused many Lutherans to want to immigrate to escape the Prussian Union. \n"},{"_id":"495cbcbf71df42be4d00006a","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":707131,"position":1,"parentId":"49416d1d3383af158f000063","content":"During this time period there was the creation of several new synods. \n\nThe first Lutheran pastor in Ohio. John Stauch 1762 - 1845. Indintured to a wagon maker. Learning to make wagons. From a pietistic background. Library: Bible, hymnal, catechism, starkes commentary, an explination of the catechism."},{"_id":"495cd2d471df42be4d00006b","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":826741,"position":5,"parentId":null,"content":"The Formation of the General Synod\n"},{"_id":"495cd7d471df42be4d00006c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734606,"position":1,"parentId":"495cd2d471df42be4d00006b","content":"There were creation of several smaller synods as growth occured. This was more of a regional synod.\n\n1820 there was a plan to form a general synod. The idea of a Gneral Synod was endorsed by Pennsylvania Ministerium, Ohio Synod, North Carolina Synod. The General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America (1820)\n\nThere was opposition to this move. \nThe David Henkel affair. Accused of several things and refused ordination by the General Synod. He ended up forming the Tennessee Synod (1820). They subscribed to the Augusburg Confession. \n\nThe Ohio Synod rescinded its decision to join the General Synod.\nMaryland - Virginia Synod voted to join.\nPennsylvania Ministerium withdrew (1823)\nIn 1825 PA Ministerium Divides. Some join the General Synod. \n\nRev. Samuel Simon Schmucker (1799 - 1873) Came to the forefront to help establish the General Synod. The father of Gettysburg Seminary. He was the first professor at the seminary. The seminary helped unify the General Synod.\n\nSchumucker Controversy - representative of American Lutheranism but American Lutheranism was changing. His book \"Elements of Popular Theology\" was used in teaching in the seminary. He was part of the Evangelical Alliance (1846). To Prussian Lutherans this union was offensive. Also, The Definite Platform (1855). Many of his teachings were challenged and he called for a revision to the Augsburg Confession. He wanted to Americanize Lutheranism. He wanted to see changes to the Lutheran Church to cause it to fit the American context. \n "},{"_id":"499d7cc0bfba97e9f100006b","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734605,"position":1,"parentId":"495cd7d471df42be4d00006c","content":"Schumucker was a controversial person. He seemed to reject the Augsburg Confession and this drew a lot of heat from Lutherans. \n\nHe seemed to align better with Puritan thinking. He rejected baptismal regeneration. He seems to be a polar opposite to confessional Lutheran."},{"_id":"499d8834bfba97e9f100006c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734612,"position":2,"parentId":"495cd7d471df42be4d00006c","content":"The Frankean Synod \nWithdrew from Hartwick Synod - 1837. Promoted revivalism. Total abstinence, abolition, Sabbath observance, pacifism, perfectionism. Even though they were Lutheran they were drawn to the holiness movement. They did not agree with Augsburg Confession"},{"_id":"495d0e0771df42be4d00006d","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1336699,"position":2,"parentId":"495cd2d471df42be4d00006b","content":"Growth of the General Synod\nHartwick Synod (1839)\nEvangelical Synod of the West (1840)\nEnglish Synod of Ohio (1849)\nSeveral others joined to help the General Synod grow. \n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":817063,"position":6,"parentId":null,"content":"Following the Frontier\n1840 - 1875"},{"_id":"499d91d0bfba97e9f100006e","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734651,"position":1,"parentId":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","content":"A time of Lutheran missions. \n**John Christian Frederick Heyer** 1793 to 1873. The first American Lutheran missionary. A home mission pastor and Sunday school teacher. 1841 Heyer was appointed to go to India. He was 48 at the time. Later joined in India by Walter Gunn. Heyer was German born. Gunn was an American born Lutheran. Did fine work there. Gunn died early on. Heyer organized a Lutheran Synod in India. Lost all his savings in the panic of 1857. In his 60's he became a missionary in Pigs Eye, MN. He helped found the MN Synod. His last and final ministry was house father for the seminary in PN. "},{"_id":"499daf79bfba97e9f100006f","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734817,"position":2,"parentId":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","content":"Inner Missions\nWilliam Passavant 1821 - 1894. Did a lot of social ministry type of work. He helped found hospitals. When he saw a need he tried to meet it. There was no government care. He opened orphaniages, hospitals, libraries, etc. to bless them. \n\nHe is the father of the Deaconess Movement in America. The Deaconess movement began in Germany. It was a way for women to serve the church full-time in Germany. Passavant contacted the sisters in Germany. They came to Philidelphia first. Then several other Lutheran hospitals. **Elizabeth Fedde ** was one of the first deaconess of America. She has an autobiography. "},{"_id":"499dd01dbfba97e9f1000070","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734822,"position":3,"parentId":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","content":"New Waves of Immigrants\nconfusion and chaos in Europe\neconomic crisis in Europe \nHelped spur on the immigrants to go to America with the hope of a better life."},{"_id":"499dd2cfbfba97e9f1000071","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734878,"position":4,"parentId":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","content":"Claus Harms\n1778 0 1855\nLeader of the Confessional Revival in Germany. Popular preacher. Not for eloquence but for content of the message. He was known to have a shepherd's heart. He wrote and attacked reason. He was opposed to the Prussian Union. He was a great influence on the seminarians of his day. He wrote his own 95 thesis against the church of his day. In 1849 he was forced to retire from ministry due to blindness. "},{"_id":"499ddb6cbfba97e9f1000072","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":734884,"position":5,"parentId":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","content":"German Lutheran Immigration\nPrussia: Johannes A. Grabau. A leader in the USA. He helped form the Buffalo Synod. \nSaxony: Martin Stephan\nFriedrich C.D. Wyneken from Hanover\nWilhelm Lohe (Loehe)"},{"_id":"499de006bfba97e9f1000073","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":748647,"position":1,"parentId":"499ddb6cbfba97e9f1000072","content":"**The Stephan Affair. Martin Stephan. **\nBorn in Moravia. Left an orphan at an early age. Befriended by pietist so that he could continue his education. Considered to be a strict confessional Lutheran. In the eyes of his followers he was the champion of Lutheran Confessionalism. \n\nOpenly talked about his troubled marriage. Highly thought of by the people in Saxony. Opposed to the Prussian union. Speaking out in Saxony. Arrested for having meetings against union between Lutherans and Reformed. Arrested and suspended from his congregation. 300 people left with him from Saxony. 612 people departed in November. They arrived in St. Louis. He left his family behind in Germany. His personality tended to rub others the wrong way. Helped start the Lutheran work in Perry County. 1839. Accused of having affairs with some of the women. He was removed from office. C. F. W. Walther was sent to inform him of Stephan's dismissal. Excommunicated by his members. \n"},{"_id":"49b91f887c099818ad000093","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":748889,"position":6,"parentId":"499d90babfba97e9f100006d","content":"**Friedrich C. D. Wyneken. 1810 - 1876**\nStudy in Halle. No parish openings for him. He was awakened at Halle. He became a student of the Scriptures. He read pietistic mission reports and decided to immigrate to America. He joined a mission society and worked on the frontier. Based in Ft. Wayne, IN during this time. 1841 book *The Distress of the German Lutheran in America. * In the process he is becoming more confessional. He tried to provide training for missionary pastors that were serving in America. Father of the Seminary in Ft. Wayne. Becoming uneasy with his denomination at this point. Took a call to Baltimore. He also helps start the Missouri Synod. He was the second president of that synod. \n\n\n**J. K. Wilhelm Loehe. 1808 - 1872**\nBorn in Bavaria. His father died when he was 8. Was a pastor in Germany. Relations with his church body were strained. He wanted to be pure Lutheran and the church body was moving toward union with the Reformed. Encouraged the mission work among Lutherans in America. Raised funds to send Lutheran pastors to be sent to America. He was a strong supporter of Lutheran missions. He formed the first deaconess home. Two hospitals. \n\nLoehe was a Chilias or milinilist. "},{"_id":"49b96bfb7c099818ad000094","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":748892,"position":7,"parentId":null,"content":"The War Between The States"},{"_id":"49b96c737c099818ad000095","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":779397,"position":1,"parentId":"49b96bfb7c099818ad000094","content":">1860 South Caroline seceded. (1860) followed by ten other states. \n>Election of Abraham Lincoln (1860)\n\"Most wicked, Unjustifiable, unnatural, inhuman, oppressive\" (presidential report to the General Synod, May 1862)\n>Dr. John Bachman, southern Lutheran apologist writes a defense of slavery.\n\n\n1863 - General Synod divides. General Synod of the Confederate States of America and later after the war became the United Synod of the South (1886). \n\nWalther and Slavery. He did not think that Scriptures prohibited slavery. He favored states rights. Favored obedience to the government. He would say that slavery was an evil but not a sin. He was mostly silent towards the end of the war. "},{"_id":"49f9bd5aa4e851876800007b","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":779360,"position":1,"parentId":"49b96c737c099818ad000095","content":"Dr. John Bachman, southern Lutheran apologist. From upstate New York. May have been of Swiss origin. Spent a great deal of time outdoors. Was into the study of natural history. Taught natural history in schools and also was a pastor. Stayed at his church for 56 years. He was in Charleston. Half of the congregation was black. At least 40% was black. He evangelized the slaves and baptized them. He continued his naturalist studies and became a close friend to John James Audubon. Together they put together books on North American mammals. He helped found the synod, seminary and Newberry College in South Carolina. \n\nWrote a book about about Master and Slave were the same species. This was radical in the 1800's. He provided a scientific reason agains slavery. But he supported slavery as a means to evangelize the slaves. He was a states rights supporter. He fled Charleston. Beaten by Union soldiers. He was 80. He later died and is buried in Charleston, SC. \n"},{"_id":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":779404,"position":8,"parentId":null,"content":"Lutheranism in the Post-War Era"},{"_id":"49f9f852a4e851876800007d","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":779420,"position":1,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"Missouri Synod (1847)\nCarl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther\nConcordia Seminary - St Louis (1839)\nNewspaper - Der Lutheraner"},{"_id":"49f9fc41a4e851876800007e","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":779444,"position":2,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"Lutheranism in the Post-War Era\n\nIowa Synod (1854)\nDisagreement with Missouri Lutherans and a new synod was started. Loehe was part of the start of the Iowa Synod and Wartburg Seminary, Dubuque (1853) Differences with Missouri Synod: 1. Chiliasm (a negative term about melinialism) 2. Church and Ministry. Walther wanted ministry through the congregation and Loehe wanted it through the pastors. Walther was more congregational and Loehe was not. 3. Confessional Subscription. Iowa was accused Iowa of being more subjective regarding confessional subscription. However both held to the entire book of Concord.\n"},{"_id":"49fa0e81a4e851876800007f","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":779488,"position":3,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"Wisconsin Synod (1850) John Bading helped move the Wisconsin Synod toward a more confessional stance. Northwestern College/Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary (1863-65, 1878)\n\nMinnesota Synod (1860)\nMichigan Synod (1860)\n\nThe above three federated in 1892 and merged in 1917. \n"},{"_id":"49fa1a60a4e8518768000080","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":791596,"position":4,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"The Division of the General Synod. This was a major event. \n\nPennsylvania Synod reservation. 1853. they would retain complete control of their synod. In 1864 the Franckean Synod was admitted to the General Synod. Pennsylvania Ministerium withdraws. The Pen Ministerium was started in Philadelphia Seminary (1864). \n\n\nThe General Council. The four points that the council responded to the Missouri Synod.\n1. Chiliasm 2. Secret Societies. 3. Pulpit Fellowship. 4. Altar Fellowship.\n\n>Akron Declaration (Galesburg Rule): Lutheran pulpits for Lutheran pastors, Lutheran altars for Lutheran communicats. \n"},{"_id":"4a1548d954b3ad74410000f4","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":791477,"position":1,"parentId":"49fa1a60a4e8518768000080","content":"In 1860 the General Synod held 2/3 of all Lutherans in America.\n\n>The Pennsylvania Synod held reservation\n>Admission of the Franckean Synod (1864) They did not agree with Augsburg Confession but still was allowed to join. \n>pennsylvania Ministerium withdraws\n >Philadelphia Seminary (1864)\n > Division - 1866\n >General Council (1867)\n\nSome say it was a polity issue. Some did not want a central power. Some did. Second there were some confessional currents occurring. \n"},{"_id":"4a15683954b3ad74410000f5","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1037167,"position":1,"parentId":"4a1548d954b3ad74410000f4","content":"Charles Porterfield Krauth (1823 to 1883)\nStudy in German language of the Conservative Reformers. \n\nA good friend of Walther. Yet not connected to Missouri Synod. "},{"_id":"4a15aae354b3ad74410000f6","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":791622,"position":5,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"1872 The Synodical Conference\nSolely a consulting body, not a central organization, united by doctrine and practice.\n >Missouri\n >Ohio Synod\n >Wisconsin Synod\n >Minnesota Synod\n >Illinois Synod\n >Norwegian Synod"},{"_id":"4acdd7f0317df702bb0000c0","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":864306,"position":6,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"**Swedish and Norwegian Lutherans**\n\n> The Synod of Northern Illinois - 1851\nThey wanted the Swedes to have influence and they did not. 1860 Swedish prof went to Chicago. Established their own group which was a majority Swedish. \n> Scandinavian Augustana Synod - 1860. The established their own seminary: Augustana Seminary. Moved their seminary from Chicago to Paxton, IL. Now they want a Norwegian to representative. The ethnic issue arose again. **Rev. August Weenaas** was the Norwegian professor. There were ethic issues between Swedes and Norwegians. The Swedes and Norwegians worked together from 1860 to 1870.\n\nOut of the split came two groups: \n> Norwegian - Danish Augustana Synod \nand \n> Norwegian - Danish Conference. "},{"_id":"4ace2869317df702bb0000c1","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1336910,"position":1,"parentId":"4acdd7f0317df702bb0000c0","content":"The Augustana Synod also played a part in the formation in the Evangelical Free Church coming out of Sweden. \n\n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"4ace3246317df702bb0000c2","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":864338,"position":2,"parentId":"4acdd7f0317df702bb0000c0","content":"Norwegian - Danish Augustana Synod\nAugustana College/Academy in Canton, South Dakota. For a while it was a boarding high school\n"},{"_id":"4ace35f1317df702bb0000c3","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":864350,"position":3,"parentId":"4acdd7f0317df702bb0000c0","content":"What was the difference between the conference and synod.\nThe conference was less structured, less liturgical\nThe synod was a bit more Americanized. \n\nThe Norwegian - Danish Conference set up a seminary in Minneapolis by Weenaas and this is where Georg Sverdrup and Sven Oftedal took over the leadership of the seminary. "},{"_id":"4ace40f4317df702bb0000c4","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":864367,"position":7,"parentId":"49f9f507a4e851876800007c","content":"Danish Lutherans\n\nSmallest group. \n\n> Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America - 1872 to 1874\n Split: Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of North America. \n> Danish Lutheran Church Association of America - 1884\n> Danish Evangelical"},{"_id":"4ace4845317df702bb0000c5","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":866209,"position":1,"parentId":"4ace40f4317df702bb0000c4","content":"American Evangelical Lutheran Church. The \"Happy Danes\" N.F.S. Grundtvig Tradition. Danish culture was influencial. Promoted Danish culture. Grand View College in Iowa. "},{"_id":"4b0eafb3036d9879e700006b","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":897172,"position":9,"parentId":null,"content":"Coming of Age\n1875 to 1900"},{"_id":"4b0eb0b6036d9879e700006c","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":897645,"position":1,"parentId":"4b0eafb3036d9879e700006b","content":"**Theological Conflict in the 1880's\n**\nDoctrine of predestination is not central to Lutheranism. The Predestination Controversy. Lutheran position is that what is hidden to us should not be a starting point of our theology. Our doctrine must start on what has been revealed. \n\nC.F.W. Walther - 1877 meeting held for LCMS. A meeting among the Western churches. Frederich A. Schmidt a student of Walther and a coleague. Schmidt taught at the Norwegian seminary. Schmidt challenged Walther's teaching on election. He thought that Walther implied double predestination. Intuito Fide, was the issue. God elects those who He foresees coming to faith. "},{"_id":"4b2a2666dc06d3ca620000b0","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":942666,"position":2,"parentId":"4b0eafb3036d9879e700006b","content":"**Norwegian** Church Union\n\nWanted union but found it extremely difficult to do so. Issues over justification. \n\nUnited Norwegian Lutheran Church 1890\nmade up of: Anti-Missourian Brotherhood, The Conference (sevrdrup, strong focus on catechsim as enough for documents), Norwegian-Danish Augustana.\n\nHoume was an important leader for the UNLC.\n\nUnion was going well. 788 congregations in union. Then a controversy. Augsburg Controversy arose. Augsburg seminary would continue. The union leaders wanted to stop Augsburg College which was connected with the seminary. The official college would be St. Olaf College.\n\nSevrdrup and Offtedal were concerned about the program at St. Olaf College. 1893. Both men resigned from the the Norwegian Union. There was a split and Sevrdrup and Offtedal defend Augsburg. \n\nThe Friends of Augsburg was the group of congregations and congregants who supported Augsburg Seminary. \n\nLutheran Free Church - 1897 was supportive of Augsburg. There was a great revival in this time period. There was growth at this time. REcord breaking enrollment. \n\nChurch of the Lutheran Brethren - 1900. Born during the 90's revival. Did a lot of work in Africa. Chad. \n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"4b6b73fa7a7272e7820000b6","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":942877,"position":3,"parentId":"4b0eafb3036d9879e700006b","content":"**Finnish Lutherans**\nUP of MI\nLogging camps across the USA\nMines in MN\nSteel mills in PN\n\nCame late to the USA. Came because of economic reasons. They were divided into the Red Finish and Church Finnish. Late 1800's emigrated. Clung to their Finnish language for a long time. The Red Finnish they were hostile towards the church.\n\nFinnish Evangelical Lutheran Church / Suomi Synod - 1890 This group represented the state church in Finland. J.K. Nikander (Nee' kan der)\n\nLargely Pietistic. Hancock, MI they established a college. Then a seminary. Now called Finlandia University. \n\n**Finnish National Evangelical Lutheran** \nMore congregational in nature. In 1964 they joined LCMS. 1898\n\n**Laestadian Movement in America**\nEmphasis on the Power of the Keys. The priesthood of all believers. Kautokeino Rebellion. Came to America in the late 1800's. Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Congregation - 1873. More emotional. \n\n**Laestadians**\n> Old Apostolics (Firstborn) Stress simple lifestyle. \n > New Awakenists - never large in number. Circumcision of the heart. Similar to pentecostal. Very legalistic.\n> Independent Apostolic Lutherans - worship is emotional. Don't believe in music. Extra-biblical. Focus on Spirit revealing truth not so much of a focus on Scripture. \n> First Apostolic Lutheran Church - 1922\n After a split\n > Apostolic Lutheran Mission - 1972\n > Laestadian Lutheran Church - 1972 - 73\nhttp://extoots.blogspot.com/ A site for those leaving the legalistic Laestadian movement. \n\n> Apostolic Lutheran Church of America (Federation) - 1928\n\n> Grace Apostles Lutheran Church - 2004\n "},{"_id":"4b870bf8ffb541ac0a0000bd","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":958667,"position":1,"parentId":"4b6b73fa7a7272e7820000b6","content":"**Laestadian Central TEachings**\n> The Bible is the Word of God (emphasis on oral proclamation). \n> The means of Grace is primarily the Word.\n> Opposed to 3rd use of the Law, yet struggles with legalism.\n> The Gospel, with \"Lamb of God\" as a common theme.\n> Justification by Faith, distinguishing between living faith and dead faith. \n> The New Birth (not related to Baptism)\n> Childhood Christians. All children are born with faith. Sort of a universalism. \n> Confession and Absolution with laying on of hands (a means of grace) Unconditional Absolution.\n> The Kingdom of God = the congregation.\n> Sanctification - strict moral code (danger of legalism).\n> Priesthood of all believers (Lack of trust of seminary trained pastors.)\n\nOnly 1/4 of the Finnish immigrants to the USA joined a church. \n"},{"_id":"4b873d14ffb541ac0a0000be","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":958731,"position":4,"parentId":"4b0eafb3036d9879e700006b","content":"Other Ethnic Lutherans\n\n> The Icelandic Synod - 1885 (Mountain, ND very small group) 1942 became part of another Lutheran group. \n\n> The Slovak Synods\n* Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church - 1902\nJoined the LCMS in 1971\n* Slovak Zion Synod - 1919 part of the ELCA.\n\n>Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant Church - 1885 (Were at first Lutheran but left.)\n\n"},{"_id":"4b8753ecffb541ac0a0000bf","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":988201,"position":10,"parentId":null,"content":"Facing the Twentieth Century\n1900 - 1930"},{"_id":"4b8754ecffb541ac0a0000c0","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":958736,"position":1,"parentId":"4b8753ecffb541ac0a0000bf","content":"Americans starting to feel connected to the rest of the world. WWI occurs during this time period. League of Nations begins. "},{"_id":"4b875746ffb541ac0a0000c1","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":988228,"position":2,"parentId":"4b8753ecffb541ac0a0000bf","content":"Lutherans and World War I\n\n> One of the most significant watersheds in American Lutheran History (1915 - 1920)\n> The Quadricentennial of the Reformation. \n> April 6, 1917 Declaration of War with Germany. On the year of the Quadricentennial. German Lutherans suffered oppression during this time. German Lutheran Schools were seen in a negative light. \n> In general Lutherans were supportive of the American position in the war. \n> National Lutheran Council - 1918 a group of Lutheran synods organized to help minister during war time. "},{"_id":"4bc7d90ce54fbd43f6000067","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":988288,"position":3,"parentId":"4b8753ecffb541ac0a0000bf","content":"**Era of Lutheran Mergers**\n\n> The Norwegian Lutheran Church in America 1917\n\n * United Norwegian Lutheran Church (1650 congregations)(formerly the anti-missourian)\n * Hauge Synod (373 congregations)\n * Norwegian Synod (986 congregations)\n\nOpgj0/r document. O with a slash through it. \nTwo ways of conversion were accepted by the group. In tuito fide and another. Pantopotin's catechism taught in tuito fide. \n\nMerged their three seminaries in St. Paul, MN. \n\n(In 1946 renamed The Evangelical Lutheran Church)\n\n1st president-Hans G. Stub\n2nd president-Johan A. Aasgaard\n3rd president-Fredrik A. Schiotz led the ELC into another merger. \n______________________________________________\n\n\n**Those who disagreed formed The Evangelical Lutheran Synod in 1918.** ELS was closer to LCMS in doctrine. \n\n\n"},{"_id":"4bc80d72e54fbd43f6000068","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001534,"position":4,"parentId":"4b8753ecffb541ac0a0000bf","content":"**The United Lutheran Church in America** \nmade up of \n> General Synod\n> General Council\n> United Synod of the South\n\n\nAfter 50 years apart they merged. November 11/16/1918. Then became the largest Lutheran group.\n\nTwo presidents. Frederick Knubel and Franklin Clark Fry. \n----------------------------------------------\nFranklin Clark Fry born in 1900. Son of Rev. and Mrs. Franklin F. Fry. Time magazine 1958 on the cover of Time magazine. \n\nFirst parish was in Yonkers, NY (4 yrs) and then Akron, OH (15 yrs) 1929 to 1944. \n\nLutheran Church America (LCA) Fry was conservative. Leader in many Lutheran group. Created a very centralized polity. \n\nElected president of ULCA in 1944. Dr. Fry was their first president. Liberalism was creeping in and he was not active in stopping it. \n"},{"_id":"4be3504ab3834972a50000d2","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001482,"position":5,"parentId":"4b8753ecffb541ac0a0000bf","content":""},{"_id":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001535,"position":11,"parentId":null,"content":"The New Shape of Lutheranism\n1930 - "},{"_id":"4be36381b3834972a50000d4","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001593,"position":1,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"**American Lutheran Church**\n\nAugust 10, 1930\nMerger of:\n> The Ohio Synod\n> The Iowa Synod (believed in open questions. Chillist in their eschatology)\n> The Buffalo Synod\n> The Texas Synod (?) or it was part of the Iowa Synod. \nAll were conservative and had a German background. Drawn to LCMS. NOT interested in ULCA. LCMS did not extend a warm welcome to this group. "},{"_id":"4be375dbb3834972a50000d5","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001733,"position":2,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"**The American Lutheran Conference**\n\nNoteable event. Among the more conservative Lutherans there was a felt need for unity/fellowship that transcended nationalistic and ethnic lines. Oct. 29-31, 1930\n\n> Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church\n> American Lutheran Church\n> Augustana Synod\n> Lutheran Free Church\n> United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church. \n\nDoctrinal basis known as Minneapolis Theses. Inspired and inerrant Word of God. \n\n2,465,000 baptized members. The combined conference was quite larger. The Conference dissolved in 1954. "},{"_id":"4be3805fb3834972a50000d6","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001728,"position":1,"parentId":"4be375dbb3834972a50000d5","content":"--------LCMS group\n-\n-\n--------ULCA\n-\n-\n-\n----------The American Lutheran Conference\n\n\nThree main groupings. The mood of the time was that bigger was better. "},{"_id":"4be39116b3834972a50000d7","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001734,"position":2,"parentId":"4be375dbb3834972a50000d5","content":""},{"_id":"4be3917eb3834972a50000d8","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001774,"position":3,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"**Theological Drift**\n\nInfluence of post WWI crisis theology. \n\n> Chicago Theses (1919)\nmorphs into the \n> Washington Declaration (1920) did not use words like inerrancy. Verbal Inspiration and Inerrancy challenged. \n\n> LCMS puts out The Brief Statement (1932) A statement on inspiration and inerrancy. \n\nTwo strains emerge. A confessional one and an ecumenical strain. "},{"_id":"4be39d86b3834972a50000d9","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001808,"position":1,"parentId":"4be3917eb3834972a50000d8","content":"Augustana Seminary, Rock Island, IL\nFalls to the liberal movement. There was a shift. Old conservative professors let go and new liberal ones brought in from the East and Europe. Occurred in the early 1930s. "},{"_id":"4be3a440b3834972a50000da","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1001829,"position":2,"parentId":"4be3917eb3834972a50000d8","content":"Augsburg Seminary\n1930s. Issue over the new president. Dr. Christensen and he opened the door to more liberal teachings. "},{"_id":"4be3ab88b3834972a50000db","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1037110,"position":3,"parentId":"4be3917eb3834972a50000d8","content":"Luther Seminary\nPresident T.F. Gulicson. served until 1956. A strong confessional. Presided over the conflict between Herman Preus and George Oss. "},{"_id":"4c2447379987acef480000dc","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1037193,"position":4,"parentId":"4be3917eb3834972a50000d8","content":"J. Michael Reu 1869 - 1943\nIowa Synod. After his death people downplayed his stance on inerrancy. "},{"_id":"4c2450a99987acef480000dd","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1037308,"position":4,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"Lutheran Union after World War II\n\n> \"old Lutherans\" versus \"Neo-Lutherans\"\n\"overture on Lutheran Unity (1943)\n\n> American Lutheran Conference dissolved (1954)\n--- Service Book and Hymnal (1958) ELC, Soumi, Luther Free, United Synod produced this hymnal\n\n> The American Lutheran Church (1960)\n> The Lutheran Church in America (1962)\n> Lutheran Free Church joins TALC (1963)\n> Association of Free Lutheran Congregations\n\nThe mood of the 20th century was church union. "},{"_id":"4c805d2d2a7138b8b50000e4","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1113746,"position":5,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"Lutheran Council in the United States of America 1967.\n\nThis was a conference for Lutherans\nMembers:\nLutheran Church in America\nThe American Lutheran Church.\n\nStill a strong desire to unite all Lutherans. This was a federation. \nLutheran Church Missouri Synod\nSynod of Evangelical Lutheran Chruches"},{"_id":"4c8062982a7138b8b50000e5","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1126129,"position":6,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"**The Battle of Missouri**\n\nA firm adherance to Biblical inerrancy. Through their history. A growing inborn legalism. \n\nA leader in the Synodical Conference and then breaking off were the Orthodox Lutheran , ELS, WS and finally in 1967 the conference came to an end.\n\nThe statement of the 44\nResulted in a long battle. \n\nIn the 60's there was a new group of professors at Concordia St. Louis. Not holding to traditional views of Biblical inerrancy. Martin Sharlaman wrote essays in '61 and '62 intended for exploritory discussion. At the 1962 conventioned he appologized for what he had written. Sharlaman was a prof at Concordia St. Louis. \n\nTroubles in the Synodical Conference conflicts. The Orthodox Lutheran Conference organized in 1951 in Southern MN. Paul Kretzmann was the leader of this orthodox group. \n\nIn 1955 the Evangelical Lutheran Synod withdraw from the conference. Then the Wisconsin Synod withdrew in 1961. By waiting unitl 1961 there was suspection in the Wisconsin Synod. The split off was the Church of the Lutheran Confession (1960). \n\n\nThe issues were occurring at the seminary at Concordia St. Louis. Oliver Harms was president of the seminary in 1962. Harms tended to defend the seminary faculty. A new president elected at the seminary (Dr. John Tietjen). A new president of the synod (J.A.O. Preus).\n\nLutheran News/Christian News - 1962\n> 1969 Convention. Wanted a more conservative president. \n>J.A.O. Preus elected president of LCMS. Pulpit and altar fellowship with ALC. Preus had to do this for fellowship. The investigation begins at Concordia St. Louis Seminary. John H. Tietjen is president of the Seminary. \n\nThere was a division between the systematic profs and the rest of the faculty. \n\n> New Orleans Convention - 1973 Oswald Hoffman was supposted to run for LCMS president. But at the last minute withdrew. He did not want to get into the fight. J.A.O. Preus was re-elcted. \n\nConcordia Seminary split. Seminex (called themselves the moderates). 1/3 of the faculty traveled to visit churches to gain support. \n\nMartin H. Scharlemann became the president of the seminary in St. Louis. Feb 19 there was a student walkout. 90% of the faculty and 85% of the students left. \n\nThis led to the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (1976) 200 some odd congregations and around 100,000 baptized members. \n\nLessons Learned from the Inerrancy Struggle\n1. Theologians who reject the inerrancy of Holy Scripture usually try to hide their position from pastors and laity. \n2. \n\n\n"},{"_id":"4c9bd89536621d36880000a8","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1134612,"position":1,"parentId":"4c8062982a7138b8b50000e5","content":"Lessons learned from the Inerrancy Struggle\n\n> Theologian who reject the inerrancy of Holy Scripture usually try to hide their position from pastors and laity. \n\nRepristinalogy. Orthodox.\n\nNeo-Lutheranism began showing up in 1930's to 1940's. By the 50's they were a louder voice. While the church administrators were trying to uphold old Lutheranism the colleges and seminaries were being influenced by Historical Critical method. \n\nAfter WWII many America Lutherans were getting higher education in Eastern America, England, Germany and Scandanaivian. \n\nThe Neo-Lutherans saw theology as dynamic. \n\nKE Kristauferson. ALC professor. Saw those holding to inerrancy as living in heresy. \n\n> Official statements proclaiming inerrancy are valueless when theologians are allowed to ignore them. \n> When theologians reject inerrancy, soon other biblical teachings are under attack. "},{"_id":"4c8ea3857dc39fc2d7000084","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1125887,"position":7,"parentId":"4be362efb3834972a50000d3","content":"Church of the LUtheran Confession\n\nIllinois Lutheran Conference (1974)\n\nLutheran Conference of Confessional Fellowship (1983)\n\n\nReformation Lutheran Conference (2000)\n\nAssociation of Confessional Lutheran Churches (2007)"},{"_id":"4c9c2a6136621d36880000a9","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1182336,"position":12,"parentId":null,"content":"Developments in American Lutheranism"},{"_id":"4c9c2b2436621d36880000aa","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1165638,"position":1,"parentId":"4c9c2a6136621d36880000a9","content":"**Lutheran groups that fought for inerrancy**:\n\nWord Alone / Lutherans Alert. \nThey started Faith Seminary/ Conservative Lutheran Association. \n\nThey started Faith Seminary which is with the Conservative Lutheran Association. \n\nWomen's Ordination - 1970. Women reading scripture lessons and elected to church councils. Some synods were open to ordination of women. \n\nChanges in American culture were driving changes in many of the churches. \n\nLiturgical Renewal. Some changes presented as new and improved. "},{"_id":"4cdc9f36239a348fff000073","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1182346,"position":2,"parentId":"4c9c2a6136621d36880000a9","content":"**Lutheran Charismatic Renewal**\n\nPastor Larry Christenson, Trinity Lutheran Chruch, San Pedro, CA\n\nPastor Morris Vaagenes, North Heights Lutheran Church, Roseville, MN\n\nLutheran Conferences on the HOly Spirit\n\nRenewal in Missouri (RIM) - 1987\n\n\n"},{"_id":"4cf824f8ca63165b5e00013a","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1336203,"position":3,"parentId":"4c9c2a6136621d36880000a9","content":"**The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 1988.\n**\nThe Symenex group that broke off from the LCMS. Made up by The American Lutheran Church. The Asspciation of Evangelical Lutheran Chruches (symenex) and The Lutheran Chruch in America. \n\nThey did not say that they were merging three churches. They were creating a new church body. \n\nThere were around 5000 congregations. \n\nEvangelical Lutheran Church in America\n> 1978 Call to union by the AELC\n> 1980 Conventions\n> James Crumley, David Preus, William Kohn\n> 1982 Conventions\n\nThe three church bodies became one on January 1, 1988. \n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"4d38de631bf0a25f720000f1","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1241497,"position":13,"parentId":null,"content":"ELCA Merger"},{"_id":"4d38ee9a1bf0a25f720000f2","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1264604,"position":1,"parentId":"4d38de631bf0a25f720000f1","content":"First Wave of ELCA Departures\n\n> 737 congregations from 1988 to 2008 (around 654,000 members.)\n> The American Association of Lutheran Churches (1987)\n> > Division within AALC led to: Lutheran Ministerium and Synod - USA (1995)\n> > Again a split within the ministerium became Evangelical Lutheran Conference and Ministerium (1999)\n\n> Call to Common Mission (1999) CCM\nThey created Word Alone.\n> Word Alone Network (2000)\n\nOver the issue of CCM created LCMC. They wanted non-episcapal ordination. This led to Lutheran Congregations in MIssion for Christ (2001)\n\n\n**The Augsburg Lutheran Churches**\nFrom out of the LCMC. Began as a non-geographic grouping. More confessional than LCMC. "},{"_id":"4d54876658ebc115f0000149","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1266708,"position":2,"parentId":"4d38de631bf0a25f720000f1","content":"Second Wave of Departures\n\nLutheran CORE (2005)\nLeaving the ELCA over the ELCA's decision to ordain homosexuals. \n\n2009 ELCA Churchwide Assembly voted to permit congregations to call pastors \"in publicly accountable, lifelong, monogamous, same-gender relationships. This leads to the forming of the NALC (North American Lutheran Church (2010).\n\nLCMC represents the ALC\nThe NALC represents the former ELC. 954 congregations took first votes to leave. \n\n2014\nLCMC - 830 congregations \nNALC - 374 congregations\n\nSince 1988 the ELCA has lost around 1,000 congregations and around 800,000 members. \n\nInstitute of Lutheran Theology\nThis is their training program. Brookings SD. They have modular classes. "},{"_id":"4d9548640c076961050000ae","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1310308,"position":14,"parentId":null,"content":"LCMS in the 80's and beyond."},{"_id":"4d95494e0c076961050000af","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1310332,"position":1,"parentId":"4d9548640c076961050000ae","content":"Back in the 70's all the news coverage over seminex. \n\nThe seminaries were trying to produce more conservative pastors. A return to more orthodox reformed thinking. \n\nAl Barry was elected synod president. Elected by 12 votes. \n\nKieshnick later elected by 12 votes as synod president. He was more moderate. \n\nMatt Harrison. Next elected. More conservative. More centralized now. \n\n> Augustana Ministerium within the LCMS. Intended to move Missiouri to a more conservative standing. \n\n> The Association of Confessing Lutheran Congregations. A confessional movement. \n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"4d95660b0c076961050000b0","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1310334,"position":15,"parentId":null,"content":"Lutheran Identity in the 21st Century. "},{"_id":"4d95671b0c076961050000b1","treeId":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","seq":1310545,"position":1,"parentId":"4d95660b0c076961050000b0","content":"Sexual issues and authority of the Word are issues. \n\nELCA losing Lutheran distintives. Following secular society. \n\n"}],"tree":{"_id":"483dea7d93c0981252000049","name":"Lutheranism in America - PK","publicUrl":"lutheranism-in-america-pk"}}