• Organising and drafting your Dissertation

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  • #Basic organisation

    • Introduction What are you writing about
    • Body Content the readers need to know
    • Conclusion Restatement of the main point
  • #Sources

    • JOHNSON-SHEEHAN, R., TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION TODAY, PEARSON EDUCATION INC. 2005
    • University of North Carolina Writing Centre: Handouts. Available online at http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/
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  • Chronological Order

    Obsessed athletes must first look at their schedules for overtraining, then examine what their bodies are telling them. If fatigue is a factor, they should decrease activity and replace with some form of relaxation.

    Problems —> Needs —> Solution

    Injuries are high among obsessed athletes. Overtraining, for example, can lead to muscle fatigue and weakened connective tissues, increasing the likelihood of soft tissue damage.

  • Intro: 4 weak introductions

    1. Place holder introduction
    2. Dictionary introduction
    3. “Dawn of Man” introduction
    4. “Book report” introduction
  • Intro: 6 typical steps

    1. Define subject
    2. State purpose
    3. State Main Point
    4. Stress Importance of purpose
    5. Provide background information
    6. Forecast content
  • Intro: 4 Strategic tips

    1. Start by thinking about your conclusion (thesis)
    2. Write the introduction last
    3. Open with an attention grabber
    4. Appear confident
  • #Body: Content the readers need to know

  • Body: Break it into sections

    • Opening
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  • Body: Paragraph organisation

    • Narration Tell a story. Go chronologically, from start to finish. (See an example.)
    • Description Provide specific details about what something looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic. (See an example.)
  • Body: Paragraph organisation (cont’d)

    • Process Explain how something works, step by step. Perhaps follow a sequence—first, second, third. (See an example.)
    • Classification Separate into groups or explain the various parts of a topic. (See an example.)
    • Illustration Give examples and explain how those examples prove your point. (See the detailed example in the next section of this handout.)
  • Body: Paragraph steps

    1. Decide on controlling idea and write topic sentence
    2. Explain the controlling idea
    3. Give one or more examples
    4. Explain the examples and their relevance to controlling idea
    5. Tie up loose ends and transition to next paragraph
  • Body: Controlling ideas

    • Cause and effect
    • Compare and contrast
    • Better and worse
    • If … Then …
    • Either … Or….
    • Chronological order
    • Problem —> Needs —> Solution
  • #Conclusion: Restatement of the main point

  • Purpose of the conclusion

    • Provide a bridge from the dissertation to the reader’s world
    • Have the final say on the issues you have raised
      • Summarize your thoughts
      • demonstrate value of ideas
      • suggest a new perspective on the subject
    • Move beyond the limits of your topic to describe its implications
    • Express ideas you could not have expressed without the content from the body of the dissertation
  • Strategies to avoid

    • Beginning with “In conclusion”, “In summary” or similar
    • Stating the thesis for the first time
    • Introducing a new subtopic or idea
    • Restating the original thesis statement as though there had been no dissertation
    • Making sentimental appeals
    • Include new evidence that belongs in the body
  • Strategies for writing conclusion

    • Play “so what?” or “Why should anyone care?” with friend
    • Return to themes raised in introduction
      • Refer to words, concepts, images, scenarios used in intro
    • Synthesize, don’t summarize
    • Include a strong quote or insight from your research
    • Propose a use for the research results
  • Place holder

    • Several sentences that are vague and don’t really say much

      The internet has changed everything in our world today. Everyday, people around the globe log onto facebook and talk to their friends. They are not aware of how their information is stored or used.

  • Dictionary introduction

    • Uses a quote from a dictionary or encyclopedia
    • These are usually very general and not authoritative

      According to Wikipedia, the internet is a “global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide.”

  • Dawn of Man

    • Vague, probably true, but essentially meaningless introduction

      Since the beginning of the Internet, people have been networked.

  • Book Report

    • Specific and on-topic, but provides information that is of no interest.
    • Left-over from habits formed writing secondary school book reports

      Tim Berners-Lee wrote his history of the creation of the Web, “Weaving the Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor” , in 1999. It was published by HarperCollins in San Francisco.

  • 1. Define subject

    • State what the document is about
      • You can also state what the document is not about to avoid confusion

        “Team sports are a world-wide phenomenon, occurring throughout all age-groups, cultures, and socioeconomic levels. Many people, however, get overly engrossed in sports, to the detriment of their family and career.”

  • 2. State purpose

    • What your document is trying to achieve
      • Keep it to a single sentence

        This report instructs athletes how to gain the teamwork skills and health benefits of sports without also gaining an overwhelming obsession with them.

  • 3. State main point

    • The thesis statement, hypothesis or conclusion

      Maintaining balance in sports, family life, and career is the most important factor in keeping proper perspective.

  • 4. Stress importance of purpose

    • Give readers a reason to care about the subject

      Athletes and spectators who become overly engrossed in team sports can find themselves struggling to maintain relationships, falling behind in school or work, and experiencing numerous health problems.

  • 5. Provide background information

    • Known and/or non-controversial material

      In the U.S., the percentage of school-age children participating in sports has risen by almost 50% in the last two decades.

  • 6. Forecast content

    • Identify major topics

      This report explores the lifestyle difficulties sports-obsessed people face. It also examines two opposing case studies: the balanced athlete and the obsessed athlete. It then offers several methods for gaining proper perspective on sports activities.

  • Team sports are a world-wide phenomenon, occurring throughout all age-groups, cultures, and socioeconomic levels. Many people, however, get overly engrossed in sports, to the detriment of their family and career. This report instructs athletes how to gain the teamwork skills and health benefits of sports without also gaining an overwhelming obsession with them. Maintaining balance in sports, family life, and career is the most important factor in keeping proper perspective. Athletes and spectators who become overly engrossed in team sports can find themselves struggling to maintain relationships, falling behind in school or work, and experiencing numerous health problems. In the U.S., the percentage of school-age children participating in sports has risen by almost 50% in the last two decades. This report explores the lifestyle difficulties sports-obsessed people face. It also examines two opposing case studies: the balanced athlete and the obsessed athlete. It then offers several methods for gaining proper perspective on sports activities.

  • 1. Think about your conclusion

    • The dissertation is about your thesis topic and your introduction is a good place to make sure this happens.
    • Start by writing down your conclusion and the reasons why that conclusion is reasonable
      • Include the conclusion, the evidence, and the connection between the evidence and the conclusion
  • 2. Write the introduction last

    • You don’t always know what you are going to write until you have written it

      How do I know what I think until I see what I say?
      E.M. Forster

  • 3. Attention grabber

    • Intriguing example
    • Provocative quotation
    • Puzzling scenario
    • Unexpected or vivid anecdote
    • Rhetorical question (that you will answer)
  • 4. Appear Confident

    • Not this…

      In this dissertation I will argue that state-mandated journalistic ethics leads to tyrrany.

    • but this…

      State-mandated journalistic ethics can only lead to tyrrany.

  • Opening

    • Sentence or small paragraph identifying subject and purpose of section

      This section describes the various mental, emotional, and physical difficulties that may arise as a cause of sports-obsession.

  • Body

    • Support for the claim made in the opening
      • Data
      • Examples
      • Descriptions
      • Definitions
  • Conclusion

    • Restate opening claim
    • Look forward to next section

      After examining all of these factors, we then conclude that sports obsession is indeed detrimental. The question arises, how different are these difficulties from those of a balanced athlete?

  • Cause and Effect

    Overtraining can lead to muscle fatigue, mental dullness, and a higher frequency of injuries.

    Comparison and Contrast

    Both the balanced athlete and the obsessed have a deep love for their sport and its benefits. The balanced athlete, however, recognizes the importance of rest, whereas the obsessed athlete is driven by a compulsive need to continue training no matter the consequences.

  • Better and Worse

    Achieving balance offers athletes healthier bodies, a higher degree of mental sharpness, and a general sense of well-being. Continuing to train obsessively offers a future of injury, decreased performance, and an increasing sense of failure.

    Costs and Benefits

    In the long run, balanced athletes see fewer hospital and therapy bills, and tend to live longer, healthier lives.

  • If… Then…

    If an athlete creates balance, then he or she will experience increased performance.

    Either…Or (no middle ground)

    Athletes can choose to be balanced and healthy, or obsessed and increasingly injured and ill.

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They are not aware of how their information is stored or used."},{"_id":"379674cb3dbf3e183e000021","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3795f09001869c601b000024","content":"##Dictionary introduction\n* Uses a quote from a dictionary or encyclopedia\n* These are usually very general and not authoritative\n> According to Wikipedia, the internet is a \"global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide.\""},{"_id":"37967ca93dbf3e183e000022","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3795f09001869c601b000024","content":"##Dawn of Man\n* Vague, probably true, but essentially meaningless introduction\n>Since the beginning of the Internet, people have been networked."},{"_id":"379680093dbf3e183e000023","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3795f09001869c601b000024","content":"##Book Report\n* Specific and on-topic, but provides information that is of no interest. \n* Left-over from habits formed writing secondary school book reports\n>Tim Berners-Lee wrote his history of the creation of the Web, \"Weaving the Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor\" , in 1999. It was published by HarperCollins in San Francisco."},{"_id":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.625,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Intro: 6 typical steps\n1. Define subject\n2. State purpose\n3. State Main Point\n4. Stress Importance of purpose\n5. Provide background information\n7. Forecast content\n\n"},{"_id":"37958a5901869c601b00001b","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":"##1. Define subject\n* State what the document is about\n * You can also state what the document is __not__ about to avoid confusion\n>“Team sports are a world-wide phenomenon, occurring throughout all age-groups, cultures, and socioeconomic levels. Many people, however, get overly engrossed in sports, to the detriment of their family and career.”\n\n"},{"_id":"37958af801869c601b00001c","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":"##2. State purpose\n* What your document is trying to achieve\n * Keep it to a single sentence\n>This report instructs athletes how to gain the teamwork skills and health benefits of sports without also gaining an overwhelming obsession with them."},{"_id":"37958b9001869c601b00001d","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":"##3. State main point\n* The thesis statement, hypothesis or conclusion \n>Maintaining balance in sports, family life, and career is the most important factor in keeping proper perspective.\n"},{"_id":"37958beb01869c601b00001e","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":"##4. Stress importance of purpose\n* Give readers a reason to care about the subject\n>Athletes and spectators who become overly engrossed in team sports can find themselves struggling to maintain relationships, falling behind in school or work, and experiencing numerous health problems.\n\n"},{"_id":"37959a1601869c601b000020","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":"##5. Provide background information\n* Known and/or non-controversial material\n>In the U.S., the percentage of school-age children participating in sports has risen by almost 50% in the last two decades.\n"},{"_id":"37959a5001869c601b000021","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":6,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":"##6. Forecast content\n* Identify major topics\n>This report explores the lifestyle difficulties sports-obsessed people face. It also examines two opposing case studies: the balanced athlete and the obsessed athlete. It then offers several methods for gaining proper perspective on sports activities.\n"},{"_id":"3796fa603dbf3e183e00007b","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":7,"parentId":"37957fcc01869c601b000018","content":">Team sports are a world-wide phenomenon, occurring throughout all age-groups, cultures, and socioeconomic levels. Many people, however, get overly engrossed in sports, to the detriment of their family and career. This report instructs athletes how to gain the teamwork skills and health benefits of sports without also gaining an overwhelming obsession with them. Maintaining balance in sports, family life, and career is the most important factor in keeping proper perspective. Athletes and spectators who become overly engrossed in team sports can find themselves struggling to maintain relationships, falling behind in school or work, and experiencing numerous health problems. In the U.S., the percentage of school-age children participating in sports has risen by almost 50% in the last two decades. This report explores the lifestyle difficulties sports-obsessed people face. It also examines two opposing case studies: the balanced athlete and the obsessed athlete. It then offers several methods for gaining proper perspective on sports activities."},{"_id":"3795f7f301869c601b000025","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.75,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"## Intro: 4 Strategic tips\n1. Start by thinking about your conclusion (thesis)\n1. Write the introduction last\n1. Open with an attention grabber\n1. Appear confident"},{"_id":"3795fd3301869c601b000026","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3795f7f301869c601b000025","content":"## 1. Think about your conclusion\n* The dissertation is about your thesis topic and your introduction is a good place to make sure this happens. \n* Start by writing down your conclusion and the reasons why that conclusion is reasonable\n * Include the conclusion, the evidence, and the connection between the evidence and the conclusion\n"},{"_id":"3796080d01869c601b000027","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3795f7f301869c601b000025","content":"##2. Write the introduction last\n* You don't always know what you are going to write until you have written it\n>How do I know what I think until I see what I say?\n>_E.M. Forster_"},{"_id":"3796119801869c601b000028","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3795f7f301869c601b000025","content":"##3. Attention grabber\n* Intriguing example\n* Provocative quotation\n* Puzzling scenario\n* Unexpected or vivid anecdote\n* Rhetorical question (that you will answer)\n"},{"_id":"3796165401869c601b000029","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"3795f7f301869c601b000025","content":"##4. Appear Confident\n* Not this...\n>In this dissertation I will argue that state-mandated journalistic ethics leads to tyrrany.\n\n* but this...\n>State-mandated journalistic ethics can only lead to tyrrany."},{"_id":"37966c713dbf3e183e00001e","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.875,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"#Body: Content the readers need to know"},{"_id":"379622b801869c601b00002a","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.9375,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Body: Break it into sections\n* Opening\n* Body\n* Conclusion"},{"_id":"37962b1401869c601b00002b","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"379622b801869c601b00002a","content":"##Opening\n* Sentence or small paragraph identifying subject and purpose of section\n>This section describes the various mental, emotional, and physical difficulties that may arise as a cause of sports-obsession."},{"_id":"37962c3901869c601b00002c","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"379622b801869c601b00002a","content":"##Body\n* Support for the claim made in the opening\n * Data\n * Examples\n * Descriptions\n * Definitions"},{"_id":"37962d2d01869c601b00002d","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"379622b801869c601b00002a","content":"##Conclusion\n* Restate opening claim\n* Look forward to next section\n>After examining all of these factors, we then conclude that sports obsession is indeed detrimental. The question arises, how different are these difficulties from those of a balanced athlete?"},{"_id":"3796953a3dbf3e183e000025","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.96875,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Body: Paragraph organisation\n* __Narration__ Tell a story. Go chronologically, from start to finish. (See an example.)\n* __Description__ Provide specific details about what something looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic. (See an example.)\n\n\n"},{"_id":"3796aa6c3dbf3e183e000026","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.984375,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Body: Paragraph organisation (cont'd)\n* __Process__ Explain how something works, step by step. Perhaps follow a sequence—first, second, third. (See an example.)\n* __Classification__ Separate into groups or explain the various parts of a topic. (See an example.)\n* __Illustration__ Give examples and explain how those examples prove your point. (See the detailed example in the next section of this handout.)"},{"_id":"3796add23dbf3e183e000027","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1.9921875,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Body: Paragraph steps\n1. Decide on controlling idea and write topic sentence\n1. Explain the controlling idea\n1. Give one or more examples\n1. Explain the examples and their relevance to controlling idea\n1. Tie up loose ends and transition to next paragraph"},{"_id":"3795843601869c601b000019","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Body: Controlling ideas\n* Cause and effect\n* Compare and contrast\n* Better and worse\n* If ... Then ...\n* Either ... Or....\n* Chronological order\n* Problem --> Needs --> Solution\n"},{"_id":"379632c801869c601b00002e","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3795843601869c601b000019","content":"###Cause and Effect\n>Overtraining can lead to muscle fatigue, mental dullness, and a higher frequency of injuries.\n\n###Comparison and Contrast\n>Both the balanced athlete and the obsessed have a deep love for their sport and its benefits. The balanced athlete, however, recognizes the importance of rest, whereas the obsessed athlete is driven by a compulsive need to continue training no matter the consequences.\n"},{"_id":"379635c801869c601b00002f","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"3795843601869c601b000019","content":"###Better and Worse\n>Achieving balance offers athletes healthier bodies, a higher degree of mental sharpness, and a general sense of well-being. Continuing to train obsessively offers a future of injury, decreased performance, and an increasing sense of failure.\n\n###Costs and Benefits\n>In the long run, balanced athletes see fewer hospital and therapy bills, and tend to live longer, healthier lives."},{"_id":"3796393401869c601b000030","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"3795843601869c601b000019","content":"###If… Then...\n>If an athlete creates balance, then he or she will experience increased performance.\n\n###Either…Or (no middle ground)\n>Athletes can choose to be balanced and healthy, or obsessed and increasingly injured and ill.\n"},{"_id":"379584c301869c601b00001a","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"#Conclusion: Restatement of the main point"},{"_id":"3796baae3dbf3e183e000028","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Purpose of the conclusion\n* Provide a bridge from the dissertation to the reader's world\n* Have the final say on the issues you have raised\n * Summarize your thoughts\n * demonstrate value of ideas\n * suggest a new perspective on the subject\n* Move beyond the limits of your topic to describe its implications\n* Express ideas you could not have expressed without the content from the body of the dissertation\n"},{"_id":"3796caa93dbf3e183e00002a","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":8695862,"position":6,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"##Strategies to avoid\n* Beginning with \"In conclusion\", \"In summary\" or similar\n* Stating the thesis for the first time\n* Introducing a new subtopic or idea\n* Restating the original thesis statement as though there had been no dissertation\n* Making sentimental appeals\n* Include new evidence that belongs in the body"},{"_id":"4958538e7e18155c33000034","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":704054,"position":7,"parentId":"37957f1001869c601b000017","content":"![](https://www.dropbox.com/s/xshl06hudija2g5/Boston%20City%20Flow.jpg?dl=1)"},{"_id":"379934bd54658fd49000002b","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"#Sources\n* JOHNSON-SHEEHAN, R., TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION TODAY, PEARSON EDUCATION INC. 2005\n* University of North Carolina Writing Centre: Handouts. Available online at http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/"},{"_id":"4958515e7e18155c33000033","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":704051,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"<script type=\"text/javascript\" src=\"https://www.dropbox.com/static/api/2/dropins.js\" id=\"dropboxjs\" data-app-key=\"g8vslfgsfr3v7ty\"></script>\n<button onclick=\"getChooser()\">Image from Dropbox</button>\n\n<script>\ngetChooser = function(){\n Dropbox.choose({\n success: function(files) {\n alert(\"![](\"+files[0].link.replace('dl=0','dl=1')+\")\");\n }\n });\n}\n</script>"},{"_id":"3796c3023dbf3e183e000029","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":8695860,"position":1,"parentId":"4958515e7e18155c33000033","content":"##Strategies for writing conclusion\n* Play \"so what?\" or \"Why should anyone care?\" with friend\n* Return to themes raised in introduction\n * Refer to words, concepts, images, scenarios used in intro\n* Synthesize, don't summarize\n* Include a strong quote or insight from your research\n* Propose a use for the research results"},{"_id":"37963acd01869c601b000031","treeId":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","seq":8695861,"position":5,"parentId":null,"content":"###Chronological Order\n>Obsessed athletes must first look at their schedules for overtraining, then examine what their bodies are telling them. If fatigue is a factor, they should decrease activity and replace with some form of relaxation.\n\n###Problems --> Needs --> Solution\n>Injuries are high among obsessed athletes. Overtraining, for example, can lead to muscle fatigue and weakened connective tissues, increasing the likelihood of soft tissue damage."}],"tree":{"_id":"3617ad9272e988fc6100000d","name":"Organising and drafting","publicUrl":"organising"}}