The Poetical Books
From the Greek word Psalmos. Songs accompanied by musical instruments.
Psalm 1 and 2 have an inclusio
A concept that wraps the two together. Their form begins with a beatitude and ends with a beatitude. It indicates a life style that enjoys the LORD’s blessings.
They are programmatic for the Psalms.
Means kind, type or sort.
one of its hermeneutical principles:
The rhetorical critic sees significance in repetition.
Song of Songs
The books that best express our humanity.
Torah - Instruction, law
The Prophets (former) The Prophets (latter) (Matt 5:17 Jesus came not to abolish the Law and Prophets but to fulfill) (Lk 24:44)
The focus of the books.
Of the Law - The mighty saving acts in history that the world might know the LORD.
Of the Prophets - The LORD’s Law - Gospel sermons to Israel/Judah
Of the Poetic Books - The individual’s divinely inspired soul-baring before God. Divinely inspired practical instruction for the individual on how to live in this world god has created.
The Psalms are structured into 5 main sections or books which points out a relationship with Torah (The five)
Jews call the Psalms the Halla (sp?) or praise.
Tehillim means Praises. “The book of Praises”
It is also called the Psalter. This is another Greek expression to indicate “stringed instrument” associating the lyre with the book.
The first Psalm 90 was written by Moses. Sometime after the exodus 1446 B.C. 966 + 480 = 1446
The reference to King Solomon’s reign. Also Jephtha’s comment in Judges about the Israelites being in the land for 300 yrs. Judges 11:36 to 46.
David’s is writing 1025 to 970 BC
Time of Nehemiah after 430. The temple foundation was laid 516 BC.
Who were the writers?
David wrote around 73 of the Psalms
Moses wrote one (90)
Sons of Korah (11) and Asaph (12). In charge of temple worship.
Ethan (1) Ezrahite and did Ps 89
14 times a Historical occasion is mentioned
3, 7, 18, 30, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63, 142
Melody (e.g. see Ps 22
Function (e.g. see Ps 30) or (Songs of Ascents 120 to 134)
Books read at Jewish festivals.
Ultimately the Psalms move us to the voice of God. It does contain human emotion and questions but direct us to God. He reveals his care for us.
Organization. Hard to pin down. There is some order but the content is mixed. A lot of David’s work is up front. The first two are in a sense an intro.
One possibility is the dystny of the righteous. Reed Lesing says the two great themes of the Psalter is Torah and Messiah. A Lutheran perspective.
Longman sees the Psalter as God’s Prayer Book. The relationship between God and his covenant people. Encouragement to obey the Law. God as King has made agreements with his people. Things He would do for the people and things the people would do for Him. The people were to remember that God is their King. The vassal treaty. A Reformed perspective.
The subject of the psalmic beatitudes is the religious life, piety as enacted or enjoyed. The first beatitude prompts the reader to think of the entire book as instruction for life and commends a kind of conduct that uses the Psalter in that way.
Leland Ryken: Explicating a Psalm (example Ps 1)
The intellectual core of the poem
Topic: God’s Law (Torah). The way and destiny of the righteous versus the way and destiny of the wicked.
Theme:The blessings in strength and prosperity that come from meditating on God’s Law. The way of the righteous is to meditate on God’s Law and his destiny is to prosper all he does.
Occasion or situation underlying the poem:
Genre: Wisdom (Kingship and wisdom are based on content. Not form).
The structure of the poem: (development from beginning to end:
Depend on God. The source of life and blessing.
To recognize that God is in Control. Places self under the Lord’s authority. Looks to the Lord as source of life and blessing (as his refuge).
Faith. Understand what a life of faith looks like.
The destiny of the righteous is to dwell with the Lord. To be near God. The relationship itself is the greatest thing we can experience. Study the word “dwell” in the OT and you will see this.
One of the most common genres in the Book of Psalms.
1. Hymns of Praise
Parts: Call to worship. Reasons to praise. Further calls to worship
2. The Lament
The psalmist cries out in great distress because he has nowhere to turn but to God.
Three types of complaints: a. troubled by his own thoughts or actions. b. Complain about the actions of against him. c. Psalmist may be frustrated by God Himself.
a. Invocation and plea to God for help.
c. Confession of sin or assertion of innocence
d. Confidence in God’s response
f. Hymn or blessings or vow to praise or serve.
Note: The Imprecatory Psalms are part of the Laments. It has a curse section. The righteous call for God to bring vengeance on their enemies. Laments with a really pronounced curse section.
Psalm of Thanksgiving
II. Structual Elements: ITCAR
a. Declares his intention to praise God or with blessings
b. thank the Lord for answered prayer.
c. Calls on the rest of the congregation to join him in thanking the LORD.
d. An account is given of God’s salvation
e. Oten a restatemetn of the lament which was answered.
Psalm of Confidence
expression of trust in God’s goodness and power. Shows an intimate awareness of God’s presence and a consequent peacht.
Luther called the Penitential Psalms (the Pauline Psalms).
Psalms 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143. Longman
Bonhoeffer adds more. These can come under the genre of Psalm of Confidence.
Psalm of Remmemberance
The focus is on the mighty acts of God in history. It is a kind of hymn of praise with a special focus on the wonderful acts of God. When you focus on his acts it leads you to praise.
examples PS 105, 89, 136
they are Messianic in two senses.
in the broad sense every Psalm is Messianic because it anticipates the coming of the Messiah.
In the narrow sense they refer solely to Jesus.
2, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 45, 72, 89, 101, 118, 144. The Psalter itself has a messianic trajectory.
At times Creach treats faith as a work we must do. Faith, Trust are works we must do.
We must believe, but we can’t. How do we believe. By grace we have faith.
We praise God as an activity. We live as if the Lord rules the world now.
What are the characteristics of the righteous? They seek the LORD. They live under the LORD’s righteousness. They know HE reigns. They come to the LORD with a purified heart. The leper returns to thank the healer in gratitude.
Psalm 73 is very important to understanding Creach’s point of view. Aspah comes from the line of Levi. A doorkeeper in the house of God. To care for the temple. Only the sons of Aaron can do sacrifices. But he is from the line of Levi.
How come the wicked have shalom? He is tempted to complain. To murmur. Phil 2 don’t complain. Exodus, the complaining of the people. Eph 4:29.
1 Chron 25:1ff
The groups of singers who served with Psalms.
There were seers who had prophetic gifts.
Solomon also prayed during the dedication of the temple that there would be a time when the people would leave the Lord and be carried away to a foreign land. 1 Kings 8:46. The 8th chapter of 1 Kings has the temple dedication.
Thesis : The central subject of the Psalter is the destiny of the righteous.
Three present things that stand in for the presence of the LORD. Scripture (Bible, Word of God, Torah) this is where they meet God. When the temple was gone the people meet God in his Word.
Mount Zion. The temple place is where the people meet the Lord.
The King, who represents the Lord or is a mediator for the Lord.
The king represents God
roles: Representative, protector and suffer with the people.
Justice is the administration of what is right. Faithfulness means to be dependable or true. (Oswalt)
Steadfast love is paired with justice in Psalm 101
This is the principle characteristic of God.
Aspect of God’s character that is inclined toward Israel without Israel having done anything. Some think it is the functional equivalent in the OT to grace and love in the NT.
did a series called “The God who is there.” back in 2010. Video series.
There are only two paths. The path of holiness and unholiness.
Longman’s reading of Proverbs.
Different from logic. A wise person is one who navigates life well. Living with emotional intelligence. Wisdom is the skill of living.
Important terms according to Longman.
The Proverbs 1- 9 are addressed to a son or a young male. The ultimate encounter Woman Wisdom (sophia) or Dame Folly.
Path of life is the pervasive metaphor
The two women that the son meets are: Lady Wisdom or Dame Folly.
Woman Wisdom symbolizes God. Represents YHWH
Dame Folly symbolizes the gods of the nations.
Both of these ladies call from the highest places of a city. The call from a high place could be interpreted as a god or the God calling to the people. Proverbs 9:3. Also uses the image of a meal. The meal represents a relationship. An intimate relationship.
You must make a choice. Dine with wisdom or dine with folly. This is a matter of life and death.
Are proverbs always true or are they universally true.
What makes the Book of Proverbs as a choice between following the Lord or following an idol (devil). The latter part (chapter 10ff) has to be read through the lens of chapters 1 - 9. Otherwise 10ff could be interpreted as secular proverbs.
The Words of King Lemuel
Lemuel = dedicated to God. This is not Solomon and may be another. This person is dedicated to the Lord.
Pr 31:3 Solomon gave his rule away to the women of his life.
From the LXX: Ekklesiastes
Hebrew title: Qoheleth qahal - means to assemble or to collect.
Participle fem. sing. from verb meaning “to assemble, gather.”
Preacher comes from Solomon’s role as assembler.
Solomon 1 Kgs 8:55-61 calls the people together and then speaks to them.
Is Solomon. Bullock thinks someone other than Solomon wrote the book. Linguistic arguments for dating.
evidence for Solomon
The Jewish tradition attributes authorship to Solomon.
Bullock’s Position is that of Literary impersonation. He holds that someone else wrote the book.
We trust the canon handed down to us through the Church.
Ben Sirach (c. 190-BC) used the book as having accepted authority
Council of Jamnia (c. AD-90) accepted it as part of the canon. Scholars are not sure this council even took place. There was a rabbincal school there, and may have been a small meeting but there is just not enough evidence.
Traces of ECC in Romans 8:20 and James 4:14
Early Church Fathers used it. Hermas, Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen.
Christian D. Ginsburg thinks there are four segments followed by an epologue.
Purpose of Ecclesiastes
Perhaps upper - class youth were likely the audience.
Qoheleth is trying to give youth an approach to life. A middle course to life. With a goal of having the best of wealth and the best of wisdom.
Meaning of Ecclesiastes
Three ( 3 ) trademarks of Qoheleth’s thought:
the search for happiness and enduring substance. The transcience of life weighed against wisdom and pleasure.
divine sovereignty and providence.
God has predetermined our lives.
Allegory - when the author intends the features/ characters of his story to be understood symbolically. Not a historical reference.
Allegorizing - when the reader takes the features/ characters to be symbolic, though the author may not have intended it so
The Allegorical Method (Luther) understood this book to be about Christ and the Church.
The Typological Method
Typological: depends on the literal presentation of history to signify both that history and what it prefigures. Has a historical reference.
Allegory may use symbols to signify historical events or use symbols to signify something true but non-historical
Understood as the marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter or some other princess. Type: Their union typically represents (prefigures) the union of Christ and the Gentiles.
There is a prophetic intention.
To read the Song of Songs as an analogy. Not a fore shadowing of the marriage of Christ and the Church. It is not a type of Christ and the Church.
It is like Christ. It is like the Church. Lacks a prophetic element.
This can also be a model of all marriages. As well as the marriage between Christ and the Church.
The King chooses a woman who is undeserving. This is like Christ who chooses the church that is undeserving.
The Literal Method
Michael V. Fox “In The Song of Songs and the Ancient Egyptian Long Songs”
These are songs that were common at this time period. It is taking marriage and turning it and looking at its many facets like a gem.
Fox is an expert in the love poems of the Ancient Near East.
Abishag the Shunammite mentioned in 1 Kings
Your eyes are doves (1:15b)
Mitchell 656. The white feathers of the dove, its lively motion, its purity, gentleness, and innocence. The most likely guess is the glistening color of the dove and its quick movements.
Is one of the more important sections of Song of Songs.
Pastor Brent Olson thinks of it more as an allagory.
Mitchell points out that she wants to be the seal. She wants to bear his personal name and imprint. These rings, seals were carefully guarded and she wants him to carefully guard her.
A bullae is a seal impression. She did not want to be a bullae. The seal imprint but more. The actual seal.
The idea is that she wants an intimate relationship.
Death and the grave never give up. So she wants a realtionship that never gives up.
While in the previous chapters the “love” spoken of is more eros and here in this chapter it begins to sound like agape.
1 Rabbis in the Babylonian Talmud. They thought of Job as living during the time of the patriarchs.
The oral law explained and taught the written law.
The Mishna (finally written in AD 200)and the Gemara (finally written aournd AD 500). these are the oral teachings.
Time range for these teachings 400BC to 500AD is the range for the oral teaching. Going back to Ezra the priest.
It is a bit nebulous when people refer to the rabbis. There was a big range of who the rabbis are and what time period they were producing their teachings.
Author uses El and Eloah for God. This may date it.
Measurement of wealth in terms of cattle and flocks.
Job’s patriarchal role as priest.
The language of Job is very arachiac very old. 40% of the language in Job is not found elsewhere in Scripture. Pastor Brent Olson and Dr. Blossor think of it as the time of Abraham or a bit older.
There are a lot of theories about when and each theory has a host of scholars supporting their viewpoint.
Provenance (where it comes from) and authorship (who it comes from)
Bullock thinks it was written in Edom. Very Hebrew thinking in the book.
Dr. Blossor. Thinks the author is Job. The talk of snow may mean near Mt. Hermon.
Edom and Uz are somehow connected.
The Central Issue of Job
The suffering of the righteous
Why is there evil?
The Satan of the Prologue
Is the supernatural enemy of God.
In Greek he is the slander.
1 Chronicles 21:1
During the time of this book satan was known.
Some of the passages refer to a mythological beast.
Job is blameless and upright - perhaps a hendiadys describing Job’s religious faith in general. Two terms conveying one idea.
What does it mean to fear God? Job fears God. This will be on the test.
Job is a man of faith. 1:20 - 22.
The text is clear that God considered Job to be a righteous person. It’s really important to remember that Job is not suffering because of sin. Job 1:1, 2:3.
His point is that people love God because He blesses them. Job 1:9. There are material blessings that cause belief.
The righteous prosper; the wicked suffer.
The three friends: if you are suffering, then you are bing judged for your sin.
Solution: you must repent of your sin.
When you read Psalms and Proverbs this seems to be the conclusion. But Job offers a corrective to this simplistic conclusion.
What we learn from Job is that when suffering occurs we need to be really careful with what we say.
Norwegian congregations are passive agressive. They won’t tell you what they think.
A point that Bullock makes. Job is in a difficult situation. It is a negative context but there are statements of faith that Job makes that reveal that he still clings to faith in the Lord.
Diamonds are displayed best on black velvet. (NAC, Robert L. Alden)
But he knows the way that I atake;
when he has btried me, I shall come out as gold.
Bullock states that Job understood that God was doing the refinement.
But he is unchangeable, and who can turn him back? What he desires, that he does.
14 For he will complete what he appoints for me, and many such things are in his mind.
Job’s Wisdom Poem
28:12 - end of the chapter.
Bullock notes that Job has incredable insight into what is going on and where wisdom is found. He has walked with the Lord and has some understanding.
The God Speeches by the three friends.
(94) Bullock writes about the responses of the three friends. What they have to say is partly true. The three friends don’t answer get Job’s situation. They fall short of understanding here, but in many situations we do suffer from sin. There is an element of truth. They are partly right. Job is partly right. Both sinners and the righteous suffer.
The Lord does not explain in Job why the righteous suffer.
The problem with the three friends is truth miss applied.
Oldest copy of Hebrew Canon. Codex Leningrad - copied 1008 A.D.
The Jews actually think it is sacriligious to keep scrolls that are breaking down and deteriating. They will collect the old ones and eventually burn them. They make new copies and respectfully burn the old ones.
The Dead Sea Scrolls were around 200 A.D.
synecdoche (to reference the whole via a smaller portion)
Jesus is using Psalms in a manner that includes all the Writings.
Psalms mirror human emotions. The prayer book that has used by BC and AD followers of God. Laments are largely gone from our worship today.
Abraham - 2100 BC
Exodus - 1446 BC
Conquest under Joshua - 1406 BC
Saul anointed - 1050 BC
David - 1010 - 970 BC
Solomon - 970 - 930 BC
Temple completed - 966 BC
Samaria destroyed 722 BC
Jerusalem destroyed 587 BC
Asaph and sons of Korah
1 Ch 6:31 - 47
Put in charge of song in the house of the LORD.
2 Ch 5:1 Evidence of worship using the Psalms.
In Jewish tradition memory work was important.
The victor would uproot trees from conquered lands and take them home to plant in a special victory garden. We have been moved from satans garden and planted in the LORD’s garden.
Kingship (Royal) Psalms
Ps 2 for example
What is the destiny of the righteous?
To be with God
They understand that the Lord is King
They place themselves under the Lord’s authority
They serve the Lord as their King.
This is what faith looks like. It is how faith in OT terms was describe. The most basic activity of the righteous in the OT is praise.
Hymns of Praise
Exuberant praise of the Lord, rejoicing in God’s goodness, because the Psalmist is very conscious of God’s presence.
1 The Lord is the ruler of creation
2 The Lord is the ruler of history
Note Romans 12:19-21 The Apostle Paul speaks to this.
It refers to the “burning pangs of shame” that a person will feel when good is returned for evil, his shame producing remorse and contrition.
The enemy has to have a change of heart for this. The burning coals symbolized repentance.
Walter Brueggemann’s Categories
The first verse sets the theme. The Lord is present and a great help.
He is the Lord of creation. In the center of a great storm there is great peace.
Selah is understood to be a time to pause and reflect on what was said or read.
v 4. The river is located in the heavenly Jerusalem. It is in the heavenly Jerusalem. Its visible form is where the Word is rightly preached and the sacraments are rightly administered. God is present in the church.
The LORD is creator and He is in Zion.
Then there is a move to the LORD as the Lord of history.
verse 10 Be Still = Rawfaw = let drop. Relax. Know his peace. Implication of God being our Refuge is that we can be still and know that He is God.
Psalm 121 of ascents
Going up to the temple mound. Formal and informal processions. The pilgrim is going up the hill to the temple. He’s reminded that the temple is on the Temple Mound.
An important moment of confidence is at the crossing of the Red Sea. This is the first time that the people acknowledge him as the one who saves them. The praise of Moses divides the book of Exodus.
Ps 27 The eatting of his flesh could be the attack of words done in gossip.
More than anything else the righteous man wants to be with the LORD. The idea of dwelling with the LORD.
Psalm 32 is a penitential Psalm and it is the most quoted in the NT.
The most important thing is the the pardon of God. The pardon of god is the first and principla basis of the life of the people of God.
It speaks against legalism and cheap grace. David was wasting away from holding his sin in. It’s a call to repentance. Misery. Faith in action confesses sin to the Lord. It does not hide sin.
Gen 3:15 proto evangelion
The first hint of the gospel. OR The first statement of the whole of the Bible. All the following narratives are the fulfilling of this gospel.
The Lord promises to make Abraham’s name great. All the nations of the world will be blessed through Abraham. Give you land. Multiply you descendants. Those who bless you will be blessed.
2 Samuel 7
The Davidic covenant. Eternal son on the throne. Most often mentioned.
The new Covenant
Psalms of rememberance most often touch on David’s rule and the crossing of the Red Sea.
He is a bit single minded that they are just prayers. He does give us an interesting perspective on the Psalms.
Not all Psalms are prayers. Bonhoeffer sees even these as a call to prayer. More meditative.
Not all Psalms are prayed by David. Bonhoeffer sees all the Psalms as Davidic.
How can Christ pray the penitential Psalms. He takes on our sins.
“points out the use of Torah in Ps. 1:2 transforms the prayers of the Psalter from human words addressing Yahweh to Yahweh’s words spoken to people. Since we do not know how to pray (Rom 8:e26), God graciously gives us the words.”
Interpreting Messianic Psalms: Possibilities
Sensus plenior (fuller sense) No mere human could do what the Psalm states. It must refer to a future person.
Typology. OT person or event or thing serves as a lesser preview of a greater future person, event, or thing.
Paradigmatic. Interpretive principle where Jesus sets himself in the paradigm (model) that was original to one of the righteous OT Kinds. Jesus becomes one with these kings through shared experience.
Bonhoeffer. That Christ actually speaks through David.
The main feature of the righteous’ destiny is simply “to be near God”.
The main outcome of their right relationship with God is the relationship itself. Just to be near the Lord.
How do we know that the righteous are not those who are morally pure? Look at Psalm 32.
The righteous in the Psalms are those: who acknowledge the Lord as creator, king we would say soverian. They are dependent on the Lord. They seek refuge in Him. They are the Lord’s servants
They live by faith. Romans 1:17????
The Lord reigns. see him as a ruler and acknowledge his rule.
Delight in Torah
Seek refuge in him
Pray for protection. Ps 58
Righteous people have a different character than the wicked. They submit to his Word. They delight in the Word.
Psalm 84:5, 6, 7 (Psalm of Zion)
By meditating on being with God is enough to be blessed. The pilgrim is strengthened by thoughts of the Lord.
By meditating on Torah the pilgrim can have access to the Temple. Even after the destruction of the temple, there could be blessings via meditation on Torah.
But, the temple is the place where a sacrifice must take place. Currently the Jews do not have a place where they can make an atonement for sins.
One way to apply this in the church.
See yourself as suffering servant, and kings.
Wisdom literature regularly offers you a choice between two ways. There are only two choices, no other.
Wisdom literature show us absolute polarites.
Wisdom literature literature clarifies the polarity between holiness and unholiness, between righteousness and unrighteousness.
Wisdom Literature is also the third use of the law. It shows us what the righteous do. How they live. This type of literature can also become 1st use of the law.
Jesus’ use of wisdom lit
Matt 7:24 - 27
Matt 7:13 - 14
Why do we go to God’s Word as our chief source of wisdom? We recognize how unfathomably wise God Himself is.
What is a fool in the book of Proverbs. Longman
The fool is not teachable. Fools despise wisdom and instruction. The wise is teachable. The path of the righteous is understanding that there is a God. The path of the fool is the denying of God.
This side of the Fall there is a moral contagion that makes us blind to the obvious… It’s a mark of singular grace that we aren’t fools in this regard (D.A. Carson).
Motto of Proverbs
Proverbs 1:7 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.
Proverbs 9:10 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.
short sayings written in poetic form. expressing insight, observation or advice that is accepted as a general truth. This makes up the second half of Proverbs. Chapters 10 - 31.
What is novel about Proverbs is that there a relationship between the Proverb and YWHW.
The reader has a relationship with the Lord. The other ANE wisdom traditions do not have a connection between the reader and a god.
Longman then tries to connect Proverbs to Jesus. Jesus is wisdom. Colossians 2:3 “Christ, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom.”
Comparing Proverbs 8:22-36 to Colossians 1:15-17. Uses the same kind of imagery.
Wisdom is the agent of divine creation in Proverbs. IN Colossians Jesus is the agent. Longman pg 111. Either we will be intimate with the Lord or with the devil.
Chief structural device of Hebrew poetry.
Parallelism gives intensification.
also uses imagery and brevity.
the following verse is anti of the first.
If some scholars say that Solomon was unaware of heaven.
Look at Ecc 5:2. Solomon writes about God in heaven.
What is the clear message of the book?
Bullock says fear God and keep His commandments (12:13)
Then I saw the wicked buried. They used to go in and out of the holy place and were praised in the city where they had done such things. This also is vanity. 11 Because the sentence against an evil deed is not executed speedily, the heart of the children of man is fully set to do evil. 12 Though a sinner does evil a hundred times and prolongs his life, yet I know that it will be well with those who fear God, because they fear before him. 13 But it will snot be well with the wicked, neither will he prolong his days like ta shadow, because he does not fear before God.
The implicit search
Search for fulfillment, satisfaction, immortality.
Under the sun thinking
Thinking this earthly experience is all there is.
Above the sun thinking
Ecc 2:24 ff
3:1 Bullock p. 230-231
does not demand a historical reference. IT’s a fictional story. Not to read in a literal way. symbolic.
A historical story. Actually took place and points to a later event.
No prophectic aspect (such as typological method) but there is an element of history but not ment to be prophetic.
Solomon is depicted as a shepherd meticphorically.
Jesus presented as the rose of Sharon is problematic. THis is referencing the bride. Jesus is not the bride. the church is the bride. He is the bridegroom.
Abraham and Isaac are priest of the Lord. So if Job is acting as a priest this relates to this time period.
Purpose of the book is a theodocy.
A defense of
1 Chronicles 21:1
Satan was against Israel and incited David to number Israel.
There is an enemy that is present in the OT.
This text links devil to satan.
The word satan occurs 36 times in the NT.
The righteous do suffer. Don’t think that they don’t. We do live in a fallen world.
Job causes us to put the breaks on our underingstanding of blessings, and how we might preceive Psalms.
John 6:68 Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life, 69 and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.”
This is what I have held onto in the past. It was in the liturgy of the church I grew up in.
Look at ASV or Young’s Literal Translation to get a good understanding of this. The ESV does not handle the Hebrew the same way as the aboved mentioned text.
15 Behold, he will slay me; I have no hope: Nevertheless I will maintain my ways before him. ASV
Job 3:15 in the LXX Septuagent has a totally different reading.
However, Codex Lenningrad has a different reading. it reads I have hope “in him” in contrast “I have no hope” The variant is between “in” versus “no”
Job 19:25 But as for me I know that my Redeemer liveth, And at last he will stand up upon the earth: 26 And after my skin, even this body , is destroyed, Then without my flesh shall I see God;
27 Whom I, even I, shall see, on my side, And mine eyes shall behold, and not as a stranger. My heart is consumed within me. 28 If ye say, How we will persecute him! And that the root of the matter is found in me; 29 Be ye afraid of the sword: For wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword, That ye may know there is a judgment.
This is the high point statement of Job’s faith. Job 19:25ff.
When we read Scripture
We read it as literature
We read it as history
We ultimately get to Theology. It ends with the teachings about God.
Old testament faith
seeking refuge in the LORD
Recognize the Lord is in Control and He reigns. We are under him as his servants.
Talks a lot about the Davidic Covenant.
It seems that this covenant has been rejected. Thought to express the feeling of the people as they are in exile.
Placed here to express frustration of the people in exile to Babylon. 1 Kings 4:31 is where Ethan is mentioned.
One reason is the placement of Psalm 90. They place the Psalm of Moses here to cry out to the LORD on behalf of his people. Moses does cry out to God on behalf of his people. The Psalm 90 does connect to Ex 32 where Moses pleads on behalf of the people when the Lord is ready to destroy the Israelites for their disobedience. Moses intercedes on behalf of the people.
May have been written in Solomon’s day but used by the people in exile to Babylon.
Asaph was living in the time of David.
Ps 74 in verse 7
Possible prophetic. Made in a style of Asaph or written by a descend of Asaph.
A Psalm of Asaph
Another that seems to point to temple destruction. Possible prophetic.
seems post exile. The people were allowed to return and rebuild.
seems written during the second exile.
Sensus plenior (fuller sense) implicit projection
Typology—interpretive principle where the OT person or event or thing srves as a lesser preview of a greater future person, event, or thing.
Is a praise psalm.
To bless the Lord is a calling of self to worship the Lord.
Holiness - separateness, brightness; totally and uniquely morally majestic. Isa 6 the three holies. HE is unique.
Soul = my being is called to worship the Lord.
The word forgive is a unique Hebrew word used only by God
Steadfast Love = The Lord’s faithfulness to his covenant promises; His relentlessly pursuing love
mercy = deep inner feeling based on a natural bond; Isaiah uses it to describe the love a mom for her nursing. LOOK at this as compassion.
David represents the righteous who cry out to God.
David is also the defender of the righteous.
The fear of God (DA CArson)
Not a kind of cringing fear that a whipped dog has when you pick up a newspaper.
It is the fear that HE is Holy and Wise and perfectly just and we are not. This perfect being has every right to punish us and we look to him for his mercy. Fear of his holy, righteous and just nature. The fear of the Lord is like you fear and love your dad. Recognize his authority over us.
To Fear God (Allender and Longman)
To fear God is to know that a moment of existence without Him is hell. We can live in various degrees of distance from Him — each step away is a foot closer to the dark hollow of hell. We are to fear the loss of existence; we are to fear the loss of the very essence of humanness as we walk on the edge of rebellion.
Further, to fear God is to be stunned speechless that the weight of His fury and rejection crushed His Son, not us.”
Aslan (C.S. Lewis) is not safe but he is good.
Authorship and date of Proverbs
These seem to have had different sources.
Our hearts are restless until they find rest in the Lord.
The word vanity has a literal meaning “vapor” or “breath”
That which does not endure.
There is a negative wisdom that helps us see the positive good and wisdom of God. Solomon could be investigating all the negative wisdom of the world and this helps us see the wisdom of God.
Fear God and keep his commandments
Job may forshadow Jesus in his suffering. Yet he keeps faith. Jesus suffers greatly, yet he keeps faith in the Father.
The problem of updating comes up. Some scholars think that Psalms were updated later in history. There is a problem with this. In the book of Isaiah the whole book is about God predicting the future but if we go with updating in Isaiah then that position undermines the idea that God can predict the future. This is what the liberal scholars do. They undermine books with the updating point of view. What this means is that someone comes later and adds something to the book to make it fit history and this rules out God foreseeing future events.
Monseth directed students to Jesus. Note how Jesus treats the OT. He treats it as authentic and the actual Words of God. Scripture cannot be broken.
David is a type of Christ. This is who Jesus was/is
Have you noticed that most of the unhappiness in life comes about because you are listening to yourself rather than talking to yourself? Dr. Martin Lloyd Jones
Worrying comes from listening to your heart; peace comes from talking to your heart about who you are in Christ. Tim Keller.
The story of the Psalter
Intro: 1 - 2
Book 1: 3- 41. David is representative of the righteous who cray out to God because of their enemies.
Book 2: 42 - 72. Why do you cast me off?
Book 3: 73 - 89. Where is your steadfast love?
Book 4: 90 - 106. Israel suffers exile and defeat. Answer to Ps 90 is that YHWH reigns.
Book 5: 107 - 145. YHWH’s steadfast love to the righteous.
Conclusion: 146 - 150
Major topics of Proverbs
wealth vs. poverty
loving the right woman
wise words vs. foolish words
Ethical treatment of the poor, including animals
Creach on steadfast love. Loyal love.
To preach on Proverbs.
Figure out the topic and find all the proverbs that relate to it.
(Longman pg. 130)