• What is #racism?

    1) A belief that all individuals within a racial or ethnic group possess distinct negative characteristics, abilities, or qualities that make them inferior to another race or ethnicity.

    2) Discrimination or prejudice based on race.

    The building blocks of racism are:

    • stereotypes (how you think)
    • prejudice (how you feel)
    • discrimination (how you act)
  • What is a #stereotype?

    An over-generalized belief about a particular category of people

  • What is #prejudice?

    Allowing a stretotype to affect

  • What is #discrimination?

  • Why we love to hate

  • FAQ

  • Indigenous Australians

  • African Americans

  • Jews in Europe

  • Discrimination de jure

  • Discrimination de facto

  • Anti-discrimination laws

  • Positive discrimination (affirmative action)

  • Positive and Negative Rights

  • Equal outcomes (Equity)

    Closing the gap through the reallocation of resources so to as to ensure:

    MINIMALIST POSITION
    a universal basic standard for:

    • health
    • education
    • social welfare

    MAXIMALIST POSITION
    ensure that all outcomes are equalised on the basis of race, sex and sexual orientation .

  • Equal opprtunity (Substantaive equality)

    Removing any barriers limiting opportunities to some on the basis of sex, race, religion and sexual orientation.

    • at the workplace
    • in government
    • at academic institutions
  • Equal rights (Formal equality)

    Equal rights before the law:

    • the right to vote
    • the right to privacy
    • the right to own property
    • the right to due process
  • The narrow case

    Protesting police brutality against African Americans

  • The broad case

    Protesting against systemic racism

  • The case for individualism

    All lives matter regardless of race

  • 1) A belief not supported in facts

  • 2) assigning the group distinct negative characteristics, abilities, or qualities

  • 3) making one group inferior and another superior

  • 4) judging an individual member of a group on the basis of their racial or ethnic group rather than on merit

  • 1) An over-generalized belief (even if partially supported in fact)

  • 2) assigning a whole group or category distinct characteristics, abilities, or qualities

  • 3) judging an individual based on their group rather than on merit

  • Do you need to have power to be racist?

    No. Power is not a necessary element of racism. Power can be a cause and a product of discrimination but is by no means a required condition.

  • Is this racist?

  • What is implicit bias?

  • What is systemic racism

  • Slavery

  • Civil War

  • Reconstruction era

  • Jim Crow

  • Civil Rights Movement

  • Present day

  • BlackLivesMatter

  • The case for:

    Imagine a monopoly game where for 40 rounds where one player is not allowed to buy properties, serves double time in jail and gets only $100 every time he passes Go. Meanwhile, the other buys up most of the board and builds homes and hotels.

    You stop the game and decide that was unfair. From now on everyone is equal - everyone can buy and sell properties, serve the same jail time and gets $200 when they pass Go.

    Then you play on.

    Is round 41 fair play?

    Or perhaps you would have a better game if you reallocate some of the properties on the board to ensure a fair and equal outcome.

  • The case against:

    A society that puts equality — in the sense of equality of outcome — ahead of freedom will end up with neither equality nor freedom (Milton Friedman)

    • The only way to achieve equality of outcome is through inequality of opportunity - by handicapping the successful.
    • A society that punishes those who excel cannot breed excellence leading to failure for rich and poor alike.
    • This exercise requires egregious government intervention and lends itself to corruption and tyranny.
    • Every society that tried experimenting with wealth distribution ended up in tyranny and disaster.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness (US Deceleration of Independence)

  • The term ‘hate speech’ is public speech that which prohibits speech that is likely to offend, insult, humiliate or intimidate another person or group because of the race, colour or national or ethnic origin of the other person.’ (section 18C of Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act)

  • Hate speech can be hurtful, dehumanising and insulting to people. People should be able to live free of offence.

  • Acts of hate speech can end up as action and lead to violence and discrimination.

  • Oxford Union - Freedom of Speech and Right to Offend [Opposition]

  • Oxford Union - Freedom of Speech and Right to Offend [Proposition]

  • Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never break me.

    John Stuart Mill (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill) listed three categories of possible harm:

    1. Bodily harm. Therefore I mustn’t poison you or break your leg.
    2. Harm to property or money. Thus I mustn’t pick your pocket or shoot your dog or burn down your house.
    3. Reputational harm. Therefore I mustn’t slander or libel you.

    Speech is a tool for reputational harm and when used in direct incitement to violence can be said to cause harm to body and property. Emotional harm is not a harm society should and can govern. We leave that to good manners

      • Asians are good at maths

        This is a positive stereotype - as long as it is not accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, it is not racism.

      • White men can’t jump

        This is a negative stereotype - as long as it is not accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, it is not racism.

      • African Americans account for over 52% of homicide offenders

        Taken on its own, it is not racist as this is an observation of fact rather than a belief. However, such a statement may when combined with stereotype, prejudice or discrimination amounts to racism.

      • All blacks are criminals

        This is racist prejudice

      • All whites are racist

        This is a racist prejudice.

      • but what about the Scandinavian model?

      • How to fix an unfair monopoly game?

        The analogy to monopoly is effective but inaccurate for the following reasons:

        • the player you are taking from is not the same player who had the unfair advantage. Children should not be punished for the sings of their fathers.
        • The analogy assumes all wealth is created by inheritance (property from 40 rounds of acquisition) but that is untrue. Only 3% of millionaires inherited a million dollars.
        • Unlike the standard monopoly game, in life’s game, innovation and hard work in round 41 can make up for the losing 40 >97% of your success.
        • There are two caveats:

          • If such statements are combined with an over-generalised opinion applying malice to all African Americans individuals or suggesting that they be treated differently as a group, that is racist.
          • To avoid over simplistic answers, it is important to ask ‘five whys?’
          1. African Americans account for over 52% of homicide offenders - Why?
          2. Because drug and violent crime is high in African American males - Why?
          3. Because Street gangs attract many teenage young African-Americans men - why?
          4. Most African-American youths grow up without positive male role models - why?
          5. Because 70% of boys grow up in single-mother families - why?
          6. Since the war on drugs commenced:
          • African-American prison population grew by %%
          • 1 in 3 African American men end up in jail.
          • rates of single-parent families rose from 30% to 70%.

          Possible conclusion: The war on drugs has had a devastating effect on the African-American family and the role of fathers and sons - leaving young teenagers vulnerable into a cycle of gangs, drugs, violence resulting in death or imprisonment.

        {"cards":[{"_id":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933157,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"![](https://media.thegospelcoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/21094619/racism-2014.png)\n## Defining **#racism**\n"},{"_id":"4ae15223b15735669e000030","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20922313,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","content":"## What is **#racism**?\n\n1) A belief that all individuals within a racial or ethnic group possess distinct negative characteristics, abilities, or qualities that make them inferior to another race or ethnicity.\n\n2) Discrimination or prejudice based on race.\n\nThe building blocks of racism are:\n- **stereotypes** (*how you **think***)\n- **prejudice** (*how you **feel***)\n- **discrimination** (*how you **act***)"},{"_id":"4ae0fee8b15735669e000031","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920557,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae15223b15735669e000030","content":"1) A *belief* not supported in facts"},{"_id":"4ae0faf7b15735669e000033","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920600,"position":2.75,"parentId":"4ae15223b15735669e000030","content":"2) assigning the group *distinct negative characteristics*, abilities, or qualities "},{"_id":"4ae0f46cb15735669e000035","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920601,"position":3.625,"parentId":"4ae15223b15735669e000030","content":"3) making one group *inferior *and another *superior*"},{"_id":"4ae0fd8eb15735669e000032","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920604,"position":4.3125,"parentId":"4ae15223b15735669e000030","content":"4) judging an *individual* member of a group on the basis of their racial or ethnic *group* rather than on merit"},{"_id":"4ae0bd46b15735669e000038","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920642,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","content":"### What is a **#stereotype**?\n\nAn over-generalized belief about a particular category of people"},{"_id":"4ae0af97b15735669e00003d","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920636,"position":0.375,"parentId":"4ae0bd46b15735669e000038","content":"1) An over-generalized belief (even if partially supported in fact) "},{"_id":"4ae0a46cb15735669e000040","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920595,"position":0.75,"parentId":"4ae0bd46b15735669e000038","content":"2) assigning a whole group or category *distinct characteristics,* abilities, or qualities "},{"_id":"4ae08518b15735669e000044","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920597,"position":1.875,"parentId":"4ae0bd46b15735669e000038","content":"3) judging an *individual* based on their *group* rather than on merit"},{"_id":"4ae0417eb8ba0bed68000035","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933156,"position":4,"parentId":"4ae0bd46b15735669e000038","content":"![](https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GA6QXKERGUk/VVYFen5Rz_I/AAAAAAAAGNw/SmeUGrdmaac/s640/world-map-of-stereotypes.jpg)"},{"_id":"4ae0605eb8ba0bed68000031","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920650,"position":3,"parentId":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","content":"### What is **#prejudice**?\nAllowing a stretotype to affect "},{"_id":"4ae018f6eae2a8aada000038","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920680,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae0605eb8ba0bed68000031","content":"![](https://res.cloudinary.com/jerrick/image/upload/fl_progressive,q_auto,w_1024/cxvjnoelhcrwqxqp5k57.png)"},{"_id":"4ae05fb1b8ba0bed68000032","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920644,"position":4,"parentId":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","content":"### What is **#discrimination**?"},{"_id":"4ae04413b8ba0bed68000034","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920647,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae05fb1b8ba0bed68000032","content":"![](https://media4.s-nbcnews.com/i/newscms/2017_22/2023466/170602-russell-lee-segregation-ac-506p_798e76e72fb947d86db9f6db163a8178.jpg)"},{"_id":"4adc0df25faf397dc400005d","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933137,"position":4.5,"parentId":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","content":"### Why we love to hate \n<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/HLNhPMQnWu4\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4ae02ea3b8ba0bed68000036","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920743,"position":5,"parentId":"4ae16570b15735669e00002f","content":"### **FAQ**"},{"_id":"4ae02e29b8ba0bed68000037","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923229,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae02ea3b8ba0bed68000036","content":"*Do you need to have power to be racist?*\n\nNo. Power is not a necessary element of racism. Power can be a cause and a product of discrimination but is by no means a required condition. "},{"_id":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923230,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae02ea3b8ba0bed68000036","content":"*Is this racist?*"},{"_id":"4adbd85c844fed083800005e","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923273,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","content":"*Asians are good at maths*\n\nThis is a positive stereotype - as long as it is not accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, it is not racism."},{"_id":"4adbd9b4844fed083800005d","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923275,"position":2.5,"parentId":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","content":"*White men can't jump*\n\nThis is a negative stereotype - as long as it is not accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, it is not racism."},{"_id":"4adbc731844fed0838000061","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20924136,"position":2.875,"parentId":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","content":"*African Americans account for over 52% of homicide offenders*\n\nTaken on its own, it is not racist as this is an observation of fact rather than a belief. However, such a statement may when combined with stereotype, prejudice or discrimination amounts to racism. \n "},{"_id":"4adb7f7a844fed0838000063","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20924821,"position":1,"parentId":"4adbc731844fed0838000061","content":"There are two caveats:\n* If such statements are combined with an over-generalised opinion applying malice to all African Americans individuals or suggesting that they be treated differently as a group, that is racist.\n* To avoid over simplistic answers, it is important to ask 'five whys?' \n1. African Americans account for over 52% of homicide offenders - Why?\n2. Because drug and violent crime is high in African American males - Why?\n3. Because Street gangs attract many teenage young African-Americans men - why?\n4. Most African-American youths grow up without positive male role models - why?\n5. Because 70% of boys grow up in single-mother families - why? \n6. Since the war on drugs commenced:\n- African-American prison population grew by %%\n- 1 in 3 African American men end up in jail.\n- rates of single-parent families rose from 30% to 70%. \n\nPossible conclusion: The war on drugs has had a devastating effect on the African-American family and the role of fathers and sons - leaving young teenagers vulnerable into a cycle of gangs, drugs, violence resulting in death or imprisonment. "},{"_id":"4adbc3b4844fed0838000062","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923292,"position":3.25,"parentId":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","content":"*All blacks are criminals*\n\nThis is racist prejudice"},{"_id":"4adbd7fc844fed083800005f","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20924135,"position":3.375,"parentId":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","content":"*All whites are racist*\n\nThis is a racist prejudice."},{"_id":"4adbd6c5844fed0838000060","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923245,"position":4,"parentId":"4ae027e4b8ba0bed68000038","content":""},{"_id":"4acea22fe6d78c208b000070","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934302,"position":3,"parentId":"4ae02ea3b8ba0bed68000036","content":"*What is implicit bias?*"},{"_id":"4ace9faee6d78c208b000071","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934308,"position":4,"parentId":"4ae02ea3b8ba0bed68000036","content":"*What is systemic racism* "},{"_id":"4ace9c89e6d78c208b000072","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934310,"position":1,"parentId":"4ace9faee6d78c208b000071","content":"<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/YrHIQIO_bdQ\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4ae01033eae2a8aada00003c","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933158,"position":2.5,"parentId":null,"content":"## Racism in **#History**"},{"_id":"4adf8b08eae2a8aada00006a","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920778,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae01033eae2a8aada00003c","content":"### Indigenous Australians"},{"_id":"4ad1f443e6d78c208b000068","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20941673,"position":1,"parentId":"4adf8b08eae2a8aada00006a","content":"<embed src=\"https://www.abc.net.au/rightwrongs/\" style=\"width:320px; height: 500px;\">"},{"_id":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920802,"position":2.5,"parentId":"4ae01033eae2a8aada00003c","content":"### African Americans"},{"_id":"4adf92bfeae2a8aada000065","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920763,"position":0.625,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### Slavery"},{"_id":"4adf8fb8eae2a8aada000069","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920794,"position":2.5,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### Civil War"},{"_id":"4ade718cc609d492be00004d","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20921297,"position":2.5625,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### Reconstruction era"},{"_id":"4adf927beae2a8aada000066","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20921082,"position":2.625,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### Jim Crow\n<iframe width=\"280\" height=\"158\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/2_gOtZ--4WE\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>\n"},{"_id":"4adef5445faf397dc400004e","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20921081,"position":2.6875,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":""},{"_id":"4adf9206eae2a8aada000067","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920796,"position":2.75,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### Civil Rights Movement"},{"_id":"4ade6f76c609d492be00004e","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20921301,"position":2.875,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### Present day\n"},{"_id":"4adf91cbeae2a8aada000068","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920792,"position":3,"parentId":"4adf9c17eae2a8aada000064","content":"### BlackLivesMatter"},{"_id":"4adf868ceae2a8aada00006b","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920801,"position":3,"parentId":"4ae01033eae2a8aada00003c","content":"### Jews in Europe "},{"_id":"4ae0128aeae2a8aada00003a","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933159,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"## Discrimination and the **#Law**"},{"_id":"4adf6b99f1605d953b000045","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920809,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae0128aeae2a8aada00003a","content":"### Discrimination de jure "},{"_id":"4adf6a8df1605d953b000046","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920810,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae0128aeae2a8aada00003a","content":"### Discrimination de facto"},{"_id":"4adf6a42f1605d953b000047","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920811,"position":3,"parentId":"4ae0128aeae2a8aada00003a","content":"### Anti-discrimination laws"},{"_id":"4adf69b9f1605d953b000048","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920812,"position":4,"parentId":"4ae0128aeae2a8aada00003a","content":"### Positive discrimination (affirmative action)"},{"_id":"4ade6cf4c609d492be00004f","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933375,"position":3.25,"parentId":null,"content":"### **#Equality and #Inequality**"},{"_id":"4ad1baf9e6d78c208b00006a","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933210,"position":0.25,"parentId":"4ade6cf4c609d492be00004f","content":"### Positive and Negative Rights\n<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/k-DnN6FCnro?start=6\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4ade6ba3c609d492be000050","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20941675,"position":0.375,"parentId":"4ade6cf4c609d492be00004f","content":"### **Equal outcomes** (Equity)\nClosing the gap through the reallocation of resources so to as to ensure:\n \nMINIMALIST POSITION\na universal basic standard for:\n* health \n* education\n* social welfare\n\nMAXIMALIST POSITION\nensure that all outcomes are equalised on the basis of race, sex and sexual orientation . "},{"_id":"4ad0b4f7e6d78c208b00006d","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933630,"position":1,"parentId":"4ade6ba3c609d492be000050","content":"### **The case for:**\nImagine a monopoly game where for 40 rounds where one player is not allowed to buy properties, serves double time in jail and gets only $100 every time he passes Go. Meanwhile, the other buys up most of the board and builds homes and hotels. \n\nYou stop the game and decide that was unfair. From now on everyone is equal - everyone can buy and sell properties, serve the same jail time and gets $200 when they pass Go.\n\nThen you play on. \n\nIs round 41 fair play?\n\nOr perhaps you would have a better game if you reallocate some of the properties on the board to ensure a fair and equal outcome."},{"_id":"4ad0ad69e6d78c208b00006e","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20940967,"position":2,"parentId":"4ade6ba3c609d492be000050","content":"### **The case against:**\n`A society that puts equality — in the sense of equality of outcome — ahead of freedom will end up with neither equality nor freedom (Milton Friedman)`\n\n* The only way to achieve equality of outcome is through inequality of opportunity - by handicapping the successful. \n* A society that punishes those who excel cannot breed excellence leading to failure for rich and poor alike. \n* This exercise requires egregious government intervention and lends itself to corruption and tyranny.\n* Every society that tried experimenting with wealth distribution ended up in tyranny and disaster."},{"_id":"4ace9689e6d78c208b000075","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20940842,"position":0.5,"parentId":"4ad0ad69e6d78c208b00006e","content":"<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/TBDfMQ27Asw\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4ac3e48c838d6548e000007a","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20940968,"position":2,"parentId":"4ad0ad69e6d78c208b00006e","content":"*but what about the Scandinavian model?*"},{"_id":"4ad0121de6d78c208b00006f","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20941635,"position":3,"parentId":"4ad0ad69e6d78c208b00006e","content":"### **How to fix an unfair monopoly game?**\n\nThe analogy to monopoly is effective but inaccurate for the following reasons:\n* the player you are taking from is not the same player who had the unfair advantage. Children should not be punished for the sings of their fathers. \n* The analogy assumes all wealth is created by inheritance (property from 40 rounds of acquisition) but that is untrue. Only 3% of millionaires inherited a million dollars.\n* Unlike the standard monopoly game, in life's game, innovation and hard work in round 41 can make up for the losing 40 >97% of your success.\n"},{"_id":"4ade6acdc609d492be000051","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934565,"position":0.5,"parentId":"4ade6cf4c609d492be00004f","content":"### **Equal opprtunity ** (Substantaive equality)\nRemoving any barriers limiting opportunities to some on the basis of sex, race, religion and sexual orientation. \n* at the workplace\n* in government\n* at academic institutions "},{"_id":"4ad0bca3e6d78c208b00006c","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934566,"position":1.25,"parentId":"4ade6cf4c609d492be00004f","content":"### **Equal rights** (Formal equality)\nEqual rights before the law:\n* the right to vote\n* the right to privacy\n* the right to own property \n* the right to due process\n"},{"_id":"4ace62f3e6d78c208b000079","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934589,"position":0.5,"parentId":"4ad0bca3e6d78c208b00006c","content":"`We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness\n(US Deceleration of Independence)` "},{"_id":"4ace6e42e6d78c208b000078","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934568,"position":1,"parentId":"4ad0bca3e6d78c208b00006c","content":"<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/y9X0Hgr6C04\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4ae0152deae2a8aada000039","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920844,"position":3.5,"parentId":null,"content":"### **#HateSpeech** vs **#FreeSpeech**"},{"_id":"4adca2b95faf397dc4000055","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20924824,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae0152deae2a8aada000039","content":"### The case for banning #HateSpeech"},{"_id":"4ad230b6e6d78c208b000064","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933151,"position":0.5,"parentId":"4adca2b95faf397dc4000055","content":"The term **‘hate speech’** is public speech that which prohibits speech that is likely to *offend, insult, humiliate or intimidate* another person or group *because of the race, colour or national or ethnic origin* of the other person.’ (**section 18C ** of Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act) "},{"_id":"4ad22b87e6d78c208b000065","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933152,"position":0.75,"parentId":"4adca2b95faf397dc4000055","content":"Hate speech can be hurtful, dehumanising and insulting to people. People should be able to live free of offence."},{"_id":"4ad20f34e6d78c208b000066","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933153,"position":0.875,"parentId":"4adca2b95faf397dc4000055","content":"Acts of hate speech can end up as action and lead to violence and discrimination."},{"_id":"4adc77275faf397dc400005c","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20933139,"position":1,"parentId":"4adca2b95faf397dc4000055","content":"<blockquote class=\"twitter-tweet\"><p lang=\"en\" dir=\"ltr\">Does the censorship of hate speech demean minority communities? Brendan O&#39;Neill and <a href=\"https://twitter.com/NyadolNyuon?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw\">@NyadolNyuon</a> discuss <a href=\"https://twitter.com/hashtag/QandA?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw\">#QandA</a> <a href=\"https://t.co/MjHqaer8WP\">pic.twitter.com/MjHqaer8WP</a></p>&mdash; QandA (@QandA) <a href=\"https://twitter.com/QandA/status/1072279330196152321?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw\">December 10, 2018</a></blockquote> <script async src=\"https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js\" charset=\"utf-8\"></script>"},{"_id":"4adbe3e85faf397dc4000060","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20924316,"position":2,"parentId":"4adca2b95faf397dc4000055","content":"#### Oxford Union - Freedom of Speech and Right to Offend [Opposition]\n\n<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/TWDfVMc-_Fo\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4adca19f5faf397dc4000056","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20922364,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae0152deae2a8aada000039","content":"### The case for #FreeSpeech"},{"_id":"4ac5547f838d6548e0000078","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20940471,"position":5,"parentId":"4adca19f5faf397dc4000056","content":"<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/t_fYFSX5A44\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4adc9a075faf397dc400005a","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20923227,"position":6,"parentId":"4adca19f5faf397dc4000056","content":"<iframe style=\"border: 1px solid #777;\" src=\"https://indd.adobe.com/embed/fe20936e-cc7c-46d7-ac5a-97d5f5c87d93?startpage=1&allowFullscreen=true\" width=\"320px\" height=\"226px\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"\"></iframe>"},{"_id":"4adbf1b85faf397dc400005f","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20940470,"position":8,"parentId":"4adca19f5faf397dc4000056","content":"Oxford Union - Freedom of Speech and Right to Offend [Proposition]\n\n<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/BtWrljX9HRA\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4ac54ed7838d6548e0000079","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20941637,"position":9,"parentId":"4adca19f5faf397dc4000056","content":"Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never break me.\n\nJohn Stuart Mill (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill) listed three categories of possible harm:\n\n1. **Bodily harm. **Therefore I mustn’t poison you or break your leg.\n2. **Harm to property or money. **Thus I mustn’t pick your pocket or shoot your dog or burn down your house.\n3. **Reputational harm.** Therefore I mustn’t slander or libel you.\n\nSpeech is a tool for reputational harm and when used in direct incitement to violence can be said to cause harm to body and property. **Emotional harm** is not a harm society should and can govern. We leave that to good manners\n"},{"_id":"4adca12d5faf397dc4000057","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20922367,"position":3,"parentId":"4ae0152deae2a8aada000039","content":"### Section 18c debate"},{"_id":"4ae0113aeae2a8aada00003b","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920852,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"### **#BlackLivesMatter **"},{"_id":"4adf551f5faf397dc400004a","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920858,"position":1,"parentId":"4ae0113aeae2a8aada00003b","content":"### The narrow case\nProtesting police brutality against African Americans"},{"_id":"4ace8fd6e6d78c208b000077","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934531,"position":1,"parentId":"4adf551f5faf397dc400004a","content":"<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/ktYV_e1PcSU\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4adf53fa5faf397dc400004b","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20920859,"position":2,"parentId":"4ae0113aeae2a8aada00003b","content":"### The broad case\nProtesting against systemic racism "},{"_id":"4ace93aae6d78c208b000076","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20934536,"position":1,"parentId":"4adf53fa5faf397dc400004b","content":"<iframe width=\"320\" height=\"180\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/llci8MVh8J4\" frameborder=\"0\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" allowfullscreen></iframe>"},{"_id":"4adf4f655faf397dc400004d","treeId":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","seq":20921101,"position":2.5,"parentId":"4ae0113aeae2a8aada00003b","content":"### The case for individualism \nAll lives matter regardless of race"}],"tree":{"_id":"4ae16585b15735669e00002d","name":"Racism","publicUrl":"racism"}}