• About this map

    • All normal text is a direct quote from researched article, hyperlinked below the quote.

    • If tagged “austin,” then use case or thought leadership came from Austin/Central Texas.

    • Curated articles can be found at https://smartaustin.bloomfire.com

    • Red text is drafted, synthesized text, or commentary intended to be incorporated into the roadmap. It should be critiqued.

    Header

    -> from the Smart City Strategic Roadmap facilitation plan https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1Xo0WvmK9sRkIpaH101zV0w6QkCcK5Qcdfy5YYmSMOn0/edit?usp=sharing

    Subheaders

    Sub-subheaders

    ^these headers are also intended to be incorporated into the roadmap, and as such should be critiqued.

  • Chores

  • Roadmap Preparation

  • Smart Defintion

  • Smart Foundation

    • Quote: "Moore’s Law ... is really about people’s belief system, it’s not a law of physics, it’s about human belief, and when people believe in something, they’ll put energy behind it to make it come to pass." – Carver Mead quoted in the book What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

    • About: A Smart Foundation for the Austin's Smart City Strategic Roadmap includes being holistic and specific about those principles we value and prioritize, while establishing norms around the creative tensions and potential conflicts that may arise, particularly .

    • Intent: This section intends to identify those core principles of consequence to smart cities, how the Austin community prioritizes those key principles, and how the community foresees ways in the near term, medium term, and long term to express these values in concrete actions.

    • Applies to:City as Community

  • Smart Policy

    City as Entity

    "Of all the prospects raised by the evolution of digital culture, the most tantalizing is the possibility that technology could fuse with politics to create a more civil society." Jon Katz

  • Smart Teams

  • Smart Services

  • Smart Technology

    "Technology is anything that was invented after you were born." – Alan Kay

  • Smart Business Models

  • Use Case Examples

  • Questions to ask #citydepts or #community or #smartbiz

    Who has a relationship to the term "Smart City"?

    Perhaps community conversation happens after first draft of roadmap, and helpfully connects technology industry to community.

  • Short Term

  • Medium Term

  • Long Term

  • Definition of Smart Cities

    Applied to: City as Community and/or City as Entity

    Definition in Resolution: "a city that uses information and communications technology to enhance its livability, workability, sustainability"

  • Rationale

  • Engagement

  • Timeline & Activities

  • Hope the road map is process-oriented to talk about how to get to opportunity. Has clear outcomes.

  • Conversation with ATD & ACM Mark Washington:
    Karla:
    “It’s great to be smart, but it doesn’t mean we can’t be thoughtful.
    We don’t have to be first. Sounds good, but if we can learn from others and be more impactful.”
    Gap: We don’t have a process to accept unsolicited proposals

    Mark: What would be responsive to the Council directive - establish awareness about how we can have more digital/electronic capabilities and services in all of the Depts and identify those needs. Have a foundational assessment. Then figure out priorities and resources.

    Rob: Challenge with Smart Cities - we don’t know where all the opportunities are. We need to get our house in order to be able to receive the opportunities. 18 months is not the timeline - it’s 2-3 months.

    “It’s about making decisions based on data, not just having the technology.
    Predictive analytics. Everytime we think we’re doing something cool, something new crops up. The smarter you get, the stupider you feel.”

    Mark: Getting other Dept Directors as engaged as Rob. Create awareness.

    Rob: Defining smart - what are you trying to solve. it’s really easy to get focused on the tech. Transportation is the tool, not the end game. Jobs/prosperty is the end game.

    Karla - don’t lock into proprietary systems. how to figure out best options for the city - technical analysis -> what’s real and what’s smoke?

    Reframing the conversation - technology can be figured out. good government, org teamwork, synergies - that needs to come first. business processes.

  • Principles

    A concept of consequence to smart cities: privacy, security, sustainability, resilience, accessibility, equity and efficiency

  • Values

    How the community prioritizes key principles in terms of desirability, and worth

  • Norms

    How the community expresses its values. Every innovation begins as a deviation to a norm. Therefore norms around creative tension and conflict are critically important.

    The norms will be best described by the activities that we should undertake in the near term, medium term, and longer term. Such as defining our approach to opt in or opt out policies, or hiring a consultant or team to build out an accessibility tooklit.

  • Strategic Intent

    A statement with a point of view about the future, a sense of discovery and destiny that focuses attention, motivates, guides resources, allows for flexible implementation.

  • Decision-Making

    Policies and process for framing, making, and weighing trade-offs. Data-informed decisions require 1) reliable quantitative and qualitative data, 2) active consideration of data

  • Governance

    The way the rules, norms, standards, and actions are structured, sustained, and regulated; and how teams are held accountable.

  • Agile

    Self-organizing, cross-functional teams collaborate and plan adaptively, deliver early, while responding flexibly to change

  • Human-centered

    Teams meaningfully include the community in the design, production, and delivery of public value; they design with, not for, the community.

  • Iterative

    Teams begin with discovery, and iterate through testing and experimentation: they prioritize efforts on problems worth solving, and opportunities worth seizing.

  • Value Proposition

    A belief from the customer about how value (benefit) will be delivered, experienced and acquired

  • Outcomes

    Demonstrate tangible outcomes and experiences for Austin residents.

  • Data as a Service

    Reusable, open data and open interfaces (APIs), enable data from one service to be combined with data from another to create interesting data combination and integration

  • Overall

  • Application

  • Data

  • Security

  • Platform

  • Infrastructure

    [ **needs definition**]

  • Standards

  • Business Models

    How we organize around key resources and activities that deliver upon a value proposition to city residents and customers, while balancing cost structures between private sector revenue streams and public sector funds

  • Government as a Platform

    What does City government need to do to establish itself as a platform and enabler of Smart Cities?

  • Partnerships

    What kind of public-private partnerships, strategic alliances, programs such as Entrepreneurs in Residence do we need to flourish as a Smart City?

  • Note:

    Use case examples can be used to inspire city departments about their smart city future needs and desires. Use case examples can also help with meaningful categorization of areas of focus. We will ultimately need to categorize Austin’s areas of focus, and should develop a meaningful taxonomy.

  • Resilience in Natural Systems

  • Save time, money, labor

  • Mobility

  • Waste Management

  • Street Lights

  • Engagement, Crowdsourcing, Partnerships

  • Procurement

  • Building Management

  • Data & Predictions

  • Public Safety

  • When we say we want Austin to be a “Smart City”, what does that mean to you?

  • What are your aspirations for Austin’s Smart City future?

    #smartbiz

  • What’s blocking your from realizing your Smart City aspirations?

    #smartbiz

  • What do you have to contribute to the Smart City future in the:

    • Near Term

    • Medium Term

    • Long Term

    Could also be ideas…

  • When looking at [list examples], what projects should Austin be undertaking in the short, medium, and long term?

  • Have already run three 5k

  • Start Training on swimming

  • Run 15 miles

  • Run Marathon

    • Why are we creating a strategic roadmap instead of a strategic or implementation plan?

      For every technology advance or item, multiple issues need to be addressed that go beyond the technology itself. This roadmap helps Austin look into policies, relationships, and intended and unintended consequences. The creation of strategic roadmap enables a holistic, aligned operating environment in which the the City government, Austin community, and technology sector can collaborate.

    • “the preparation stage encompass all of the initial preliminary work needed to successfully develop a plan and implement programs, including a comprehensive approach to educating stakeholders and obtaining their input.”

      “Educating all of the parties involved in creating a smart city is one key to success. That education begins with a survey of what is already known, what citizens need, and what the city requires to meet needs and develop.”

      “The preparatory stage extends to all stakeholders in smart city initiatives: the citizens, businesses, government employees, vendors with technology-based solutions, schools, and non-profits.”

      “The preparation stage also involves assessing what the city already has in place, not only in terms of infrastructure, but other assets, as well.”

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • A new mindset and best practice of successful smart cities is to ensure you’re building two-way communications with their citizens and creating stronger initiatives as a result.

      “Does your idea of listening to citizens consist of giving people a few minutes to speak during public meetings? And are they invited to speak only after you’ve nearly finalized your plans? If this is how your city “listens,” you probably aren’t hearing what is really important to your constituents — nor are you hearing from a truly broad cross-section of your city’s population.”

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • That’s not to suggest cities shouldn’t use social media in their engagement efforts — it can be quite valuable. But it’s important to remember that the audience you’ll reach is a subset of your community and therefore there are some limitations to the insights you glean.

      Digital engagement efforts primarily work in two ways. Digital tools can help you measure what people in your community are thinking and they can help you create an online forum where people can share and debate ideas.

      The key is to make sure your marketing strategies are accessible for all people including people that use assistive technology to access the internet.

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • “For online discussions to thrive, cities must commit to a two-way dialogue. If people ask questions or present ideas, someone from the city should respond. If citizens decide nobody is listening, they’ll quickly lose interest.”

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • But more importantly, the Cisco chief consistently said that one of the most fundamental elements of any smart city is, firstly, a developed policy around open data and, next, a strong relationship between the head of the locality and the developer community.

      https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

    • ### Entity focus -> City organization, city as community

      And/or situation -> signal what's important to the community, how the City will interact with others on this topic

    • “Smart cities require a roadmap as a part of their plan that incorporates the easily-implemented initiatives as well as longer-term investments. Short-term projects that can be implemented quickly and supported easily form a ready foundation from which to launch other successful projects. A number of short-term projects include those focusing on LED lights, smart garbage cans, and CCTV. These inexpensive technologies provide a quick return on the investment and can be frequently implemented through existing agencies and infrastructure”

      “Even for smaller investments, like LED lights and smart garbage cans, there will be a learning curve for staff and maintenance crews, but the payoff is that gains can be realized quickly.”

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • Privacy

    • Transparency

    • Security

    • Accessibility

    • Inclusion

      "Our mission as humans is not only to discover our fullest selves in the technium, and to find full contentment, but to expand the possibility for others." - Kevin Kelly in What Technology Wants

    • Equity

    • Utility

    • Tradeoffs

    • Focus

    • What are the enforcement mechanisms related to these principles? Is it possible to make it easy to do the right thing, rather than rely on enforcement?

    • Potential for toolkits to be built to make these principles and values easy to implement. This could be a short, med, long term activity.

    • Opt in vs Opt Out

      “Having security policies, having privacy policies is a given. I think you have to first give the citizens the right to opt-in or opt-out,” he said. (Wim Elfrink, executive vice president of industry solutions and chief globalisation officer of Cisco)

      “Then all these policies, longer term, security and privacy are going to be the biggest imperatives. If we don’t solve this, people will opt-out more.”

      https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

    • What is the Mission of a Smart City?

      a mission defines goals, but also elucidates its key values. A solid mission statement incorporates an understanding of the city’s current situation with its goals in mind. The mission statement should incorporate an idea of what the city planners consider a smart city, taking into account the uniqueness of the city or region.

      the mission and purpose of the smart city is unique to the local environment. The geography, politics, industries, revenue sources, population, and needs of each city vary.

      Ultimately, the mission statement reflects the city’s values. How is the city government attempting to increase the quality of life for its citizens and visitors?

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • I think the more important and interesting question is, “what do you want a smart city to be?” We need to focus on how we shape the technology we employ in future cities. There are many different visions of what the opportunity is. Ask an IBM engineer and he will tell you about the potential for efficiency and optimization. Ask an app developer and she will paint a vision of novel social interactions and experiences in public places. Ask a mayor and it’s all about participation and democracy. In truth, smart cities should strive for all of these things.

      https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

    • There are trade-offs between these competing goals for smart cities. The urgent challenge is weaving together solutions that integrate these aims and mitigate conflicts. Smart cities need to be efficient but also preserve opportunities for spontaneity, serendipity, and sociability. If we program all of the randomness out, we’ll have turned them from rich, living organisms into dull mechanical automatons. They need to be secure, but not at the risk of becoming surveillance chambers. They need to be open and participatory, but provide enough support structure for those who lack the resources to self-organize. More than anything else, they need to be inclusive.

      https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

    • I believe there is a better way to build smart cities than to simply call in the engineers. We need to lift up the civic leaders who would show us a different way. We need to empower ourselves to build future cities organically, from the bottom up, and do it in time to save ourselves from climate change. If that seems an insurmountable goal, don’t forget that at the end of the day the smartest city in the world is the one you live in. If that’s not worth fighting for, I don’t know what is.

      https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

    • But more importantly, the Cisco chief consistently said that one of the most fundamental elements of any smart city is, firstly, a developed policy around open data …

      https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

    • Reliance on data to solve complex problems is subject to what’s sometimes called the “drunk under the streetlamp” effect: An obviously intoxicated man is on his hands and knees on the sidewalk, under a streetlamp. A passing cop asks him what he’s doing. “Looking for my keys,” the man replies. “Well, where did you drop them?” the cop inquires. “About a block away, but the light’s better here.”

      When it comes to transportation planning, we have copious data about some things, and almost nothing about others. Plus, there’s an evident systematic bias in favor of current modes of urban transportation and travel patterns. The car-centric data we have about transportation fundamentally warps the field’s decision-making. Unless we’re careful, over-reliance on big data will only perpetuate that problem—if not make it worse.

      https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/08/the-downside-of-data-based-transportation-planning/496250/

    • When it comes to car traffic, we have parking standards, traffic counts, speed studies, and “level of service” standards. Traffic engineers can immediately tell us when a road is substandard, or its pavement has deteriorated, or its level of service has become (or might someday become) degraded. By stark contrast, there is no comparable vocabulary or metrics for walking or cycling. We have not collected a parallel array of statistics to tell us that it isn’t similarly as safe, convenient, or desirable to walk or bicycle to common destinations.

      https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/08/the-downside-of-data-based-transportation-planning/496250/

    • We need a framework that considers a wide array of evidence related to what we’ve done and what we’ve left undone; of what we are, and what we aspire to be. Merely grafting more technology on to today’s imbalanced system will not accomplish this.

      https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/08/the-downside-of-data-based-transportation-planning/496250/

    • “Every aspect of smart city programs should be managed, guided, and supported.

      “There are a range of issues that are attached to every implementation, from device failures to problems capturing and understanding all of the relevant data. While it is important for a city to partner with outside vendors through a competitive and transparent process, the overall control of any initiative must remain within the city’s domain to ensure that security, privacy, and regulatory issues are all being addressed.”

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • “after a program is implemented, the support for it typically ends, so the project’s value diminishes or the intended results are never realized. Since there is no closed-loop feedback cycle or ongoing support, vital programs, such as open data projects, are abandoned, wasting taxpayer money, resources, and time while potentially creating liabilities for the local government.”

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • An approach that mixes top-down with bottom-up brings together the best of both worlds and avoids common pitfalls. Communities need some governance; they just don’t need heavy-handed “my way or the highway” governance. Under a light governance model, city leaders set guardrails for the citizens to work within.

      Rigid rules are replaced with conditional models. Instead of restrictive rules that tell people what they can’t do, leaders enable the community to come up with innovative solutions within certain boundaries while ensuring that everyone has a voice.

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • “Public meetings tend be held near the end of the process, so forums on any controversial issue tend to be venting sessions where citizens yell at staff and elected leaders.”

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • To move cities forward, city leaders and staff need to partner with stakeholders —engage in diverse civil partnerships with citizens, diverse equity groups, the business community, academia, nonprofits, other public agencies, etc.

      — And with a Smart Cities project, that is likely to involve inspiring stakeholders by educating them on the possibilities and encouraging them to get involved. It also means guiding the project’s implementation to ensure that it is done correctly, on time and at reasonable cost and is accessible and inclusive of all citizens.

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • “getting everything to work well together, even in limited pilot projects, can be challenging. If it finds lower-cost consumer sensors and hardware for its flood alert project, LCRA will have to find a way to use them in conjunction with its existing system, Miri noted. “These sensors won’t work exactly the same way, they won’t provide data exactly the same way,” he said. “So part of what we’re doing is changing the whole notification system, the whole business process around it. That’s what will help us get to a more cost-effective system.”

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

      #austin

    • “Personalized e-government services increase citizen satisfaction and compliance while reducing mistakes and misunderstandings that can occur when they are forced to dig up information on their own.”

      https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

      #austin

    • (Cisco VP) Elfrink suggests that government could give citizens a tax break if they dump less waste. This is because it allows waste collectors to take more efficient routes and ignore bins that don’t need to be collected.

    • Measuring Success

    • Data Exchanges

    • Tech professionals as a customer

    • The Buggy and Brittle Problem

      • Anthony Townsend, author of Smart Cities
    • Strategic know-how

      a recent report as holding back IoT projects at the federal level are likely to be even bigger barriers at the state and local levels. These include a lack of strategic leadership on how to use IoT; a lack of skills in using the data generated by IoT; insufficient funding to modernize IT infrastructure to enable IoT projects; procurement policies that make it difficult for governments to quickly and easily adopt the technology; and risk and uncertainty about privacy, security, interoperability and return on investment.

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html?flipboard=yes

    • State of play, interoperability

      “City planners must evaluate the current state of the city infrastructure in order to determine the possibilities of interoperability with vendors and platforms.”

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • Maturity model

      Although smart city projects mature and new ones are being promoted and/or deployed, it will take several more years before we really can call a city a smart city.

      Smart cities today are more a vision than a strategic end-to-end approach. You can image that in order to have a true smart city there is a lot of work across the various activities, assets and infrastructure, which can be turned into smart versions. Realizing a true smart city can be incredibly complex as so many factors and parties are involved and cities have numerous tasks and functions.

      Moreover, in a smart city all these areas are connected as mentioned and that doesn’t happen overnight. There is a lot of legacy, there are several operations and regulations, new skillsets are required and many connections need to be made and there is loads of alignment to do on various levels (city administration, public services, transportation services, safety and security, public infrastructure, local government agencies and contractors, education services, the list goes on).

      https://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/

    • Moving from smart city projects to smart cities

      In order to be a ‘true’ smart city, cities need to have an integrated approach whereby various projects are connected and most of all the data and platforms are glued together in order to achieve all the benefits smart cities make possible. Open technologies and open data platforms will be key to move to that next stage.

      According to IDC, the open data platform will emerge as the next frontier in Internet of Things platform discussions by 2018.

      https://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/

    • Overall infrastucture

    • Wifi

    • LWPAN

    • Procurement

    • Understanding Externalities

    • Scalability

    • although it is likely that large companies will provide the initial tools for cities to create more data and open up data sets, it is smaller organisations and developers that will create applications that will truly affect citizens on a daily basis.

      https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

    • “When city planners have a strong understanding of the types of technologies and platforms available, a neutral vendor-agnostic party can help the city manage the requests for information/proposals to ensure diversity in the types of vendors and solutions while adhering to best practices. This neutral third party should be well-versed in the latest technologies, security standards, data collection, data cleansing, data permissions, analytics in the cloud, and security, including security on the edge.”

      “This will ensure that vendors are thoroughly vetted and that technology is not based on a conventional platform that still uses traditional centralized security practices (all new technology must fully account for the nuances of IoT in order to ensure success). For example, how should a smart city negotiate with cloud providers?”

      https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

    • Flood

      Over the past several decades, LCRA built a network of 275 connected river sensors — called Hydromet — to monitor and report stream flows and other data, including temperature, rainfall and humidity, on a public website in near real time.

      This year, LCRA received a $650,000 contract from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to investigate better sensor technologies and software needed to disseminate information and alerts during a flood. The sensors used in the system today are expensive — costing anywhere from $25,000 to $50,000 each. One goal is to find or develop a next-generation flood sensor that would take advantage of advances in hardware and consumer sensor technologies yet still be rugged enough to last in harsh outdoor conditions.

      Today, LCRA is evaluating sensors that cost $200 to $2,500, Miri said. The other goal is to build a better framework so that data can be used more practically. Rather than just post it on a website, LCRA might be able to help emergency responders geo-target the smartphones of citizens in specific areas where flooding is imminent. “If this works, then the cities and counties we serve could use this technology to send out better, more targeted warnings to keep their citizens safe,” Miri said.

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

      #flood

      #austin

    • Trees

      Los Angeles is also using sensors to monitor environmental factors, including the health of trees. In its Internet of Trees project, the city is combining data from Google Street View with a machine-learning algorithm developed by Caltech to inventory its urban forest of some 700,000 trees scattered over 469 square miles. That has saved the city approximately $3 million, which is what it would have cost to deploy an army of people with clipboards to visually inspect each tree. Now, it is in the process of replacing 200,000 trees (removed when road repairs are made) with new ones that contain sensors to monitor moisture, air quality and the health of the tree itself.

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html?

    • Animal Protection

      Florida’s Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has been using sensors to track various kinds of wildlife for at least 15 years, said Chip Deutsch, associate research scientist. In one project, researchers attach GPS tags, along with temperature and depth sensors, to manatees to study their movements and habitats. The tags allow researchers to track the animals, documenting where and when the manatees travel in search of food, for example. With the latest sensors, Deutsch said, “we can get incredibly fine-scale on the locations and the time.” The project has helped wildlife managers know where to put boating speed limits in order to protect the animals.

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

    • In one case, sensor data spotlighted a congested road on the east side of town where inhaler use was three times as high as in other parts of the city. In response, the city planted a belt of trees separating the road from a nearby residential neighborhood; the plantings have resulted in a 60% reduction in particulate matter (which can aggravate breathing problems) behind the green belt.

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120

    • Connected devices are also helping small cities save time, money and labor. Tamarac, Fla., population 65,000, uses IP-based controllers in many areas of city infrastructure, including controlling HVAC systems and monitoring data centers for humidity, temperature and flooding, said Levent Sucuoglu, the city’s director of IT. Today, Tamarac requires that sensing and IP-based controls be considered in all new city construction. “We make that part of our construction documents, then as we go through the design phase to … determine how much [technology] will be included based on cost, functionality, availability and reliability,” Sucuoglu said.

      The city’s new fire station, now under construction, will include IP-based building access control, security surveillance, HVAC and lighting control. It will have IP-based sensors to monitor the amount of gas in the facility’s pumping station and report how much gas is distributed to each fire engine.

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

      #cityfacilities

    • Parking

      Data from sensors in parking spaces in the City of Westminster, for example, showed the council that commuters typically went to a specific set of roads to find their parking and enacted policies to encourage them to find spaces in nearby streets.

      https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

    • The Boston traffic-management center uses Waze data to supplement live feeds from its network of traffic cameras and sensors, getting a more detailed picture of what’s happening on city streets. Messages from Waze users can alert the center to traffic problems—a double-parked truck or a fender-bender—as soon as they develop, allowing officials to respond more quickly.

      Waze data also has helped the city to run low-cost experiments on possible traffic changes. For instance, to test how to best enforce “don’t block the box” at congested intersections, the center took more than 20 problem intersections and assigned each one either a changing message sign, a police officer or no intervention at all. Using Waze data, analysts would then see which enforcement approach was most effective at reducing congestion. As it turns out, Waze’s traffic-jam data didn’t show that either approach made much difference in reducing congestion (which may reinforce the view of those who believe little can be done to eliminate traffic headaches).

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120

    • But perhaps a more interesting case study is using data to change the intensity of street lights. In certain areas of Barcelona, Cisco use video to identify the density of public squares.

      The company matches that data alongside other elements, such as whether there is a half- or full-moon and sends instructions of whether to reduce or increase the brightness of the LED street lights.

      “If you have more people on the street, you have less light. If you have more people, you have less light. You wouldn’t figure that out without the data,” Elfrink explains.

      https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

    • Their ability to detect motion also can be used to adjust the LED streetlights so that they dim if no one is around and automatically brighten if cars or pedestrians pass by. The goal is to use data to “improve our efficiency of service and ascertain what services we ought to be providing,” says Bob Bennett, Kansas City’s chief innovation officer.

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120

    • Oakland County is installing a new building management system that will be centrally controlled, but the connection will usually be over a secure fiber-optic network connection, not riding over the open Internet, Bertolini said. There will be a way for IT managers to dial in remotely via the Internet, he added, but it will be through a secured “tunnel” connection requiring two-factor authentication.

      http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

    • The presence of smoke alarms is critical in preventing these deaths; the National Fire Protection Association, a nonprofit standards group, says a working fire alarm cuts the risk of dying in a home fire in half.New Orleans, like most cities, has a program run by its Fire Department to distribute smoke detectors. But until recently, the program relied on residents to request an alarm. Oliver Wise, director of the city’s Office of Performance and Accountability, had his data team tap two Census Bureau surveys to identify city blocks most likely to contain homes without smoke detectors and at the greatest risk for fire fatalities—those with young children or the elderly. They then used other data to zero in on neighborhoods with a history of house fires. Using advanced machine-learning techniques, Mr. Wise’s office produced a map that showed those blocks where fire deaths were most likely to occur and where the Fire Department could target its smoke-detector distribution.

      Since the data program began in early 2015, the department has installed about 18,000 smoke detectors, says Tim McConnell, chief of the New Orleans Fire Department. That compares with no more than 800 detectors a year under the older program. It is too early to tell how effective it has been at preventing fire deaths, Chief McConnell says, since they are so rare. But the program did have an early, notable success.

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120

    • Predictive analytics have also been used to improve restaurant health inspections in Chicago. The Department of Public Health relies on about three dozen inspectors to check for possible violations at more than 15,000 food establishments across the city. It needed a better way to prioritize inspections to make sure that places with potential critical violations—those that carry the greatest risk for the spread of food-borne illness—were examined before someone actually became sick.

      The data team in the city’s Department of Innovation and Technology developed an algorithm that looked at 11 variables, including whether the restaurant had previous violations, how long it has been in business (the longer, the better), the weather (violations are more likely when it’s hot), even stats about nearby burglaries (which tells something about the neighborhood, though analysts aren’t sure what).

      With the tool, the health department could identify establishments that were most likely to have problems and move them up the list for inspection. After the algorithm went into use in 2015, a follow-up analysis found that inspectors were visiting restaurants with possible critical violations seven days sooner than before. Since then, its use has resulted in a 15% rise in the number of critical violations found, though the number of illness complaints—an imperfect measure of violations—has been flat.

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120

    • In Mobile, Ala., building-code inspectors armed with smartphones and Facebook Inc.’s Instagram photo-sharing app were able to inventory the city’s 1,200 blighted properties in just eight days—a task that enforcement officers had previously considered impossible with the older paper-based systems of tracking blight. With Instagram, inspectors could snap a photo of a property and have it appear on a map, showing officials where dilapidated, abandoned or other problem properties are clustered.

      The inventory was just the first step. Mobile’s two-year-old Innovation Team, funded with a grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies, cross-referenced the data with other available property information—tax records, landmark status, out-of-state ownership—to compile a “blight index,” a master profile of every problem property in the city.

      This made it possible to identify which property owners might need assistance in rehabbing their properties and which ones to cite for code violations. The city is wrapping up a second survey of blighted properties to measure the net change over the past year, says Jeff Carter, Innovation Team’s executive director. “Instagram was phase one, and we would never have made it to phase two without it,” Mr. Carter says.

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120

      • interoperability
        ability of systems to provide services to and accept services from other systems and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together

        https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en

      • smart community infrastructure
        community infrastructure with enhanced technological performance that is designed, operated and maintained to contribute to sustainable development and resilience of the community
        Note 1 to entry: It is the infrastructure that is considered to be “smart” in this document, and not the community.
        Note 2 to entry: Sustainable development tends to require community infrastructures that meet multiple, often contradictory, needs at the same time.
        Note 3 to entry: Information and communication technologies (ICT) is an enabler but not a precondition for achieving smart community infrastructures.

        https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en

      • 3.1.4
        smartness
        quality of contributing to sustainable development and resilience, through soundly based decision making and the adoption of a long- and short-term perspective
        Note 1 to entry: Smartness is embedded in the process of sustainable development, i.e. sustainable development is the overarching process, while smartness is a characteristic. It implies a holistic approach, including good governance and adequate organization, processes and behaviours, and appropriate innovative use of techniques, technologies and natural resources.
        Note 2 to entry: Smartness is addressed in terms of performance, relevant to technologically implementable solutions.

        https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en

      • If the history of city building in the last century tells us anything, it is that the unintended consequences of new technologies often dwarf their intended design.

        https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

      • Complexity is also contextual and as cities exchange experiences and develop IoT projects with clear benefits they have the opportunity to grow their expertise and learn from potential failures. Having a roadmap in mind, with various stakeholders involved, of course greatly expands the possibilities of current ad hoc smart city projects in a further, more integrated future.

        https://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/

      • With cities around the world looking to invest in smart city projects, a number of companies are looking to promote themselves as the go-to brand for expertise and thought leadership.

        https://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief

      • “While city-wide technologies bring a host of improvements, they also present challenges. The best approach for implementing successful smart city initiatives is to develop a strong framework for initiatives. Holistic plans that provide valuable services for citizens while creating a better environment start with the most fundamental ideas of planning, preparation, implementation, and feedback.”

        “The development of the smart city plan includes the roadmap, which is a detailed plan that is guided by the values found in the mission statement and takes into consideration the outcomes of the preparation stage.”

        https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

      • We can stack the deck and improve the odds, but we need to completely rethink our approach to the opportunities and challenges of building smart cities. We need to question the confidence of tech-industry giants, and organize the local innovation that’s blossoming at the grassroots into a truly global movement. We need to push our civic leaders to think more about long-term survival and less about short-term gain, more about cooperation than competition. Most importantly, we need to take the wheel back from the engineers, and let people and communities decide where we should steer.

        https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

      • “A common problem with smart city initiatives is that they are not implemented holistically. Each agency runs its own independent projects without following a centralized plan, resulting in a potpourri of vendors, technologies, protocols, and standards with no verified security standard or framework, data policies, or privacy checks and balances.”

        https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

      • “Without a unified framework, security standards, and auditability, city data, resources, and highly confidential citizen records are open to attack.”

        https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

      • People often ask me, “What is a smart city?” It’s a hard question to answer. “Smart” is a problematic word that has come to mean a million things. Soon, it may take its place alongside the handful of international cognates — vaguely evocative terms like “sustainability” and “globalization” — that no one bothers to translate because there’s no consensus about what they actually mean.

        I take a more focused view and define smart cities as places where information technology is combined with infrastructure, architecture, everyday objects, and even our bodies to address social, economic, and environmental problems.

        https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

        • Security and privacy are the first and most important principles, as they are the foundational aspects of human rights.

          Security aspects of smart city initiatives should take into consideration a range of threats, such as outside agents with agendas against the city itself or against citizens, as well as opportunistic threats which may arise from access to unsecured data or devices.

          https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

        • October 2016 - “a massive chain of hacked computers simultaneously dropped what they were doing and blasted terabytes of junk data to a set of key servers, temporarily shutting down access to popular sites in the eastern U.S. and beyond. Unlike previous attacks, many of these compromised computers weren’t sitting on someone’s desk, or tucked away in a laptop case—they were instead the cheap processors soldered into web-connected devices, from security cameras to video recorders. A DVR could have helped bring down Twitter.

          “(Probably not, at least this time—the targeted products were older than what you’d find in most American homes, and less protected.) But the internet is huge! There are around a couple billion public IPv4 addresses out there; any one of those might have a server, a desktop computer, or a toaster plugged in at the other end.”

          https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/10/we-built-a-fake-web-toaster-and-it-was-hacked-in-an-hour/505571/

        • Phil Bertolini, CIO of Oakland County, Mich., is extremely cautious when it comes to IoT. While central management and control of systems via the Internet can reduce costs and increase efficiency, it can also increase the danger that such systems can be hacked.

          What if a hacker shuts down the air conditioning in a data center, causing millions of dollars’ worth of damage to computer equipment? Worse yet, a nefarious actor might take control of all those Internet-connected lights and plunge a city’s entire downtown into darkness. “As government, we have to be extra careful,” he noted.

          http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

        • Accessibility enables people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, interact with, and contribute to the web.

          These guidelines will cover the major things you need to know in order for your products to be “design-ready” to meet the minimum of standards in Section 508 and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. The rest will be up to development and quality testing.

          This can include people who are blind, color blind, or have low vision, those who are Deaf or have hearing difficulties, people with mobility impairments which may be temporary or permanent, or people with cognitive disabilities. Design for people who are young, old, power users, casual users, and those who just enjoy a quality experience.

          https://medium.com/salesforce-ux/7-things-every-designer-needs-to-know-about-accessibility-64f105f0881b

        • “It’s about making inclusion, listening and reaching out — and oftentimes it’s about a new mindset at city hall that is more open, more transparent and more focused on accessibility and inclusion for all citizens, including people with disabilities.”

          https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

          #austin

        • “People with disabilities, people of color, older citizens, people with low income — live in every community — and they have a smart city vision of their own. Any project or program that seeks to broadly assist members of a community should be inclusive of all equity groups, all citizens — no one should be excluded.” Locating and including equity groups in all development programs is a mandatory step for creating an inclusive society and a successful and sustainable Smart City. Your project, your planning and development — is not complete if people with disabilities and other historically marginalized communities are not included with full participation and decision making authority…

          https://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx

          #austin

        • Is data a utility?
          Is wifi a utility?

        • Privacy vs Efficiency

        • Privacy vs Customization/Ease of Use

        • Efficacy vs Efficiency

        • Security vs Ease of Use

        • Accessibility vs Efficiency

          • Smart city projects need to have attainable, measurable goals for savings, efficiency, and effectiveness.

            https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

          • “how can something as ethereal as the “happiness” of residents be measured? Is it because citizens are choosing to live there longer, or are more people purchasing real estate? Are more businesses moving to the city? Measuring goals for a smart city program may be difficult because governments are not private enterprises. They are not governed by a return on investment, shareholder value, or market capitalization.

            “Chicago’s technology plan has a series of projected, desired outcomes, including cutting costs, improving the services and information offered by the city, encouraging more engagement from citizens, increasing public access to technology, increasing the number of STEM workers in the city, and of course, creating jobs.”

            https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

          • Feedback loops

            various feedback methods should be in place to ensure that the public and business has an easy way to communicate about smart city projects. Individual agencies managing the smart city project should address any issues in a timely fashion.

            https://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/

          • First Impressions of Copenhagen’s Data Exchange

            https://blog.ldodds.com/2016/05/21/first-impressions-of-copenhagens-city-data-exchange/

            Elements to consider when delivering on the vision and value of a data exchange:

            • terms of service
              • pricing
              • payments
              • restrictions (should enable consumers & innovation)
              • licensing
            • registration requirement
            • publishing options (affected by pricing and workflows)
            • consuming options
            • metadata
            • format choices
            • developer tools - critique = There’s no obvious help or support for developers creating useful applications against these APIs.

              • direct access to APIs
              • filter
              • search
            • using OAuth or similar to give extra security.

          • What if the smart cities of the future are buggy and brittle? What are we getting ourselves into?

            how will we experience bugs in the smart city? They could be as isolated as that faulty toilet or a crashed public screen. In 2007 a Washington Metro rail car caught fire after a power surge went unnoticed by buggy software designed to detect it. Temporarily downgrading back to the older, more reliable code took just 20 minutes per car while engineers methodically began testing and debugging.

            The troubles of automation in transit systems are a precursor to the kinds of problems we’re likely to see as we buy into smart cities. As disconcerting as today’s failures are, however, they are actually a benchmark for reliability.

            in the future many smart technologies will be thrown together under tight schedules and even tighter budgets. They will struggle to match this gold standard of reliability, with only a few short-lived, sporadic glitches each year.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • even when their code is clean, the innards of smart cities will be so complex that so-called normal accidents will be inevitable. The only questions will be when smart cities fail, and how much damage they cause when they crash. Layered atop the fragile power grid, already prone to overload during crises and open to sabotage, the communications networks that patch the smart city together are as brittle an infrastructure as we’ve ever had.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • The sheer size of city-scale smart systems comes with its own set of problems. Cities and their infrastructure are already the most complex structures humankind has ever created. Interweaving them with equally complex information processing can only multiply the opportunities for bugs and unanticipated interactions.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • Centralization of smart-city infrastructure is risky, but decentralization doesn’t always increase resilience. Uncoordinated management can create its own brittle structures…

            Nothing short of a crisis will force us to confront the risk of smart cities’ brittle infrastructure. The first mayor who has to deal with the breakdown of a city-scale smart system will be in new territory, but who will take the blame? The city? The military? Homeland security? The technology firms that built it?

            If the history of city building in the last century tells us anything, it is that the unintended consequences of new technologies often dwarf their intended design.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • the IoT technology stack for smart city applications today is relatively easy and cheap for many use cases such as smart waste management or smart parking.

            https://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/

          • But network-connected sensors aren’t always cost-effective, Sucuoglu noted. “There are a lot of practical applications, but the ones you read about in magazines — all those futuristic IoT devices — they aren’t really widely available or affordable.”

            http://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html

          • The biggest threat to cellular networks in cities, however, is population density. Because wireless carriers try to maximize the profit-making potential of their expensive spectrum licenses, they typically only build out enough infrastructure to connect a fraction of their customers in a given place at the same time. “Oversubscribing,” as this carefully calibrated scheme is known in the business, works fine under normal conditions, when even the heaviest users rarely chat for more than a few hours a day. But during a disaster, when everyone starts to panic, call volumes surge and the capacity is quickly exhausted.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • Disruptions in public cloud-computing infrastructure highlight the vulnerabilities of dependence on network apps.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • Another “cloud” literally floating in the sky above us, the Global Positioning System satellite network, is perhaps the greatest single point of failure for smart cities. Without it, many of the things on the Internet will struggle to ascertain where they are. America’s rivals have long worried about their dependence on the network of 24 satellites owned by the U.S. Defense Department. But now even America’s closest allies worry that GPS might be cut off not by military fiat but by neglect.

            https://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/

          • Municipal wifi — a municipal responsibility or best left to the private sector?

            On the surface, the benefits seem obvious, especially when considering equity in service delivery for cities. Wifi available for the public, providing fast access to information for tourists, people away from home, and providing a no (or low) cost option for the underprivileged who may not be able to afford it. Municipalities have the infrastructure and resources to deploy a service like this, and costs could be offset by advertising and tax revenues. Wifi would become a utility, much like trash collection or water.

            Then why have so many cities’ wifi efforts sputtered or downright failed? Critics have cited a number of issues facing these types of city-wide wifi deployments — cost, misuse, speed, security, and inequitable distribution in deployments to name some of the potential pitfalls facing city-wide wifi deployments.

            the fundamental mission of cities and government is to support society and its citizens. Due to its prevalence in society and even recent legislation has classified it more as a utility than a luxury, wifi and Internet connection have become staples of modern life. This puts them squarely in the public domain of responsibility. Additionally, much like trash collection or water, cities and government are the only organizations with enough infrastructure and resources to meet the need of all its citizens with a function like municipal wifi, or whatever service evolves in the future.

            https://medium.com/cusp-civic-analytics-urban-intelligence/municipal-wifi-a-municipal-responsibility-or-best-left-to-the-private-sector-e52e2891010c#.q9b79pmbk

          • Urban environments typically have good wireless coverage for cases with moving parts, you have the cloud, there are several point solutions and products which are designed for smart city projects and in several cities across the globe there is low-power wide-area network connectivity available (LPWAN) which suffices for many applications. In fact, when drafting its list of IoT applications, IoT Analytics found that 59 percent (!) of all LPWAN projects today are part of smart city initiatives while LPWAN in general is only present in 10 percent of the IoT projects the company identified.

            https://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/

          • The RFP process is meant to bring structure and transparency to the procurement process, while reducing risk through open requirements and discussion. For decades this has made sense, particularly for larger government organizations whose contracts can be very large and typically are open to negotiation.

            But with the rise of cloud-based technologies — which have democratized technology of all kinds in both the public and private sectors — and the ever-accelerating rate of technological innovation, the traditional RFP process is increasingly proving to be a poor tool for procurement, leaving public servants and citizens with few options, locked into predatory contracts and languishing years behind private-sector counterparts.

            How did the RFP process, meant to encourage competition, end up undermining it? A major reason is the long list of requirements that companies are required to meet but which make little sense for young, innovative companies and create often-unsurmountable barriers for them.

            http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html

          • Knowing that working with governments is more challenging, time-intensive and generally not as profitable, tech startups have mostly focused (and built for) the private sector, resulting in a widening gap between the products and services available to private- and public-sector organizations.

            http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html

          • As a result, inferior legacy products go unchallenged. One recent list of top government technologies reveals a stubborn reliance on legacy technologies that savvy private-sector organizations have long since abandoned.

            http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html

              {"cards":[{"_id":"78386fd8521cbfc650000065","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10859179,"position":0.25,"parentId":null,"content":"## About this map\n\n* All normal text is a direct quote from researched article, hyperlinked below the quote.\n\n* If tagged \"austin,\" then use case or thought leadership came from Austin/Central Texas.\n\n* Curated articles can be found at https://smartaustin.bloomfire.com\n\n* `Red text is drafted, synthesized text, or commentary intended to be incorporated into the roadmap. It should be critiqued.`\n\n\n# Header\n-> from the Smart City Strategic Roadmap facilitation plan https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1Xo0WvmK9sRkIpaH101zV0w6QkCcK5Qcdfy5YYmSMOn0/edit?usp=sharing\n## Subheaders\n### Sub-subheaders\n` ^these headers are also intended to be incorporated into the roadmap, and as such should be critiqued.`\n\n","deleted":false},{"_id":"7838cb25c877b6b658000064","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9900419,"position":0.375,"parentId":null,"content":"### Chores\n\n[ ] Security as a principle, vs security in technology layer - where and how to represent it\n\n[ ] Create list of tags\n\n[ ] Draft how this map is intended to be used. City as Entity, vs City as Community "},{"_id":"78382ed3521cbfc650000049","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9907549,"position":0.5,"parentId":null,"content":"### Roadmap Preparation"},{"_id":"787a675f2d87051d39000364","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9907626,"position":1,"parentId":"78382ed3521cbfc650000049","content":"## Definition of Smart Cities\n\nApplied to: `City as Community and/or City as Entity`\n\nDefinition in Resolution: `\"a city that uses information and communications technology to enhance its livability, workability, sustainability\"`"},{"_id":"79b00d421b5d8f127a000107","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10084786,"position":4,"parentId":"787a675f2d87051d39000364","content":"ISO 37100:2016(en)\nSustainable cities and communities — Vocabulary\n\nhttps://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en"},{"_id":"79b0095d1b5d8f127a000106","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10084787,"position":1,"parentId":"79b00d421b5d8f127a000107","content":"**interoperability**\nability of systems to provide services to and accept services from other systems and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together\n\nhttps://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en"},{"_id":"79b005df1b5d8f127a000105","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10084789,"position":2,"parentId":"79b00d421b5d8f127a000107","content":"**smart community infrastructure**\ncommunity infrastructure with enhanced technological performance that is designed, operated and maintained to contribute to sustainable development and resilience of the community\nNote 1 to entry: It is the infrastructure that is considered to be “smart” in this document, and not the community.\nNote 2 to entry: Sustainable development tends to require community infrastructures that meet multiple, often contradictory, needs at the same time.\nNote 3 to entry: Information and communication technologies (ICT) is an enabler but not a precondition for achieving smart community infrastructures.\n\nhttps://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en"},{"_id":"79b000e71b5d8f127a000104","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10084790,"position":3,"parentId":"79b00d421b5d8f127a000107","content":"3.1.4\n**smartness**\nquality of contributing to sustainable development and resilience, through soundly based decision making and the adoption of a long- and short-term perspective\nNote 1 to entry: Smartness is embedded in the process of sustainable development, i.e. sustainable development is the overarching process, while smartness is a characteristic. It implies a holistic approach, including good governance and adequate organization, processes and behaviours, and appropriate innovative use of techniques, technologies and natural resources.\nNote 2 to entry: Smartness is addressed in terms of performance, relevant to technologically implementable solutions.\n\nhttps://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:37100:ed-1:v1:en"},{"_id":"7838348d521cbfc65000004c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862747,"position":2,"parentId":"78382ed3521cbfc650000049","content":"## Rationale\n"},{"_id":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901911,"position":8,"parentId":"7838348d521cbfc65000004c","content":"`Why are we creating a strategic roadmap instead of a strategic or implementation plan?`\n\n`For every technology advance or item, multiple issues need to be addressed that go beyond the technology itself. This roadmap helps Austin look into policies, relationships, and intended and unintended consequences. The creation of strategic roadmap enables a holistic, aligned operating environment in which the the City government, Austin community, and technology sector can collaborate. `"},{"_id":"787a622b2d87051d39000362","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901853,"position":2,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"If the history of city building in the last century tells us anything, it is that the unintended consequences of new technologies often dwarf their intended design.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"78394ae70fbc9d6bbb000081","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901854,"position":3,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"Complexity is also contextual and as cities exchange experiences and develop IoT projects with clear benefits they have the opportunity to grow their expertise and learn from potential failures. Having a roadmap in mind, with various stakeholders involved, of course greatly expands the possibilities of current ad hoc smart city projects in a further, more integrated future.\n\nhttps://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/"},{"_id":"78391f9fc877b6b65800007f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901856,"position":4,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"With cities around the world looking to invest in smart city projects, a number of companies are looking to promote themselves as the go-to brand for expertise and thought leadership.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"78382f77521cbfc65000004a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901860,"position":7,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"\"While city-wide technologies bring a host of improvements, they also present challenges. The best approach for implementing successful smart city initiatives is to develop a strong framework for initiatives. Holistic plans that provide valuable services for citizens while creating a better environment start with the most fundamental ideas of planning, preparation, implementation, and feedback.\"\n\n\"The development of the smart city plan includes the roadmap, which is a detailed plan that is guided by the values found in the mission statement and takes into consideration the outcomes of the preparation stage.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"787a66602d87051d39000363","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901888,"position":7.5,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"We can stack the deck and improve the odds, but we need to completely rethink our approach to the opportunities and challenges of building smart cities. We need to question the confidence of tech-industry giants, and organize the local innovation that’s blossoming at the grassroots into a truly global movement. We need to push our civic leaders to think more about long-term survival and less about short-term gain, more about cooperation than competition. Most importantly, we need to take the wheel back from the engineers, and let people and communities decide where we should steer.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"783850d2521cbfc650000058","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901875,"position":8,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"\"A common problem with smart city initiatives is that they are not implemented holistically. Each agency runs its own independent projects without following a centralized plan, resulting in a potpourri of vendors, technologies, protocols, and standards with no verified security standard or framework, data policies, or privacy checks and balances.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"7838522b521cbfc650000059","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9901877,"position":9,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"\"Without a unified framework, security standards, and auditability, city data, resources, and highly confidential citizen records are open to attack.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"787a6a2a2d87051d39000365","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9992947,"position":10,"parentId":"7881a9982d87051d3900038e","content":"People often ask me, “What is a smart city?” It’s a hard question to answer. “Smart” is a problematic word that has come to mean a million things. Soon, it may take its place alongside the handful of international cognates — vaguely evocative terms like “sustainability” and “globalization” — that no one bothers to translate because there’s no consensus about what they actually mean. \n\n I take a more focused view and define smart cities as places where information technology is combined with infrastructure, architecture, everyday objects, and even our bodies to address social, economic, and environmental problems.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862750,"position":3,"parentId":"78382ed3521cbfc650000049","content":"## Engagement\n"},{"_id":"78383598521cbfc65000004e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862775,"position":1,"parentId":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","content":"\"the preparation stage encompass all of the initial preliminary work needed to successfully develop a plan and implement programs, including a comprehensive approach to educating stakeholders and obtaining their input.\"\n\n\"Educating all of the parties involved in creating a smart city is one key to success. That education begins with a survey of what is already known, what citizens need, and what the city requires to meet needs and develop.\"\n\n\"The preparatory stage extends to all stakeholders in smart city initiatives: the citizens, businesses, government employees, vendors with technology-based solutions, schools, and non-profits.\"\n\n\"The preparation stage also involves assessing what the city already has in place, not only in terms of infrastructure, but other assets, as well.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/\n"},{"_id":"78386f3c521cbfc650000064","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864055,"position":2,"parentId":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","content":"A new mindset and best practice of successful smart cities is to ensure you’re building two-way communications with their citizens and creating stronger initiatives as a result.\n\n\"Does your idea of listening to citizens consist of giving people a few minutes to speak during public meetings? And are they invited to speak only after you’ve nearly finalized your plans? If this is how your city “listens,” you probably aren’t hearing what is really important to your constituents — nor are you hearing from a truly broad cross-section of your city’s population.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"78388c0e521cbfc650000073","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864056,"position":3,"parentId":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","content":"That’s not to suggest cities shouldn’t use social media in their engagement efforts — it can be quite valuable. But it’s important to remember that the audience you’ll reach is a subset of your community and therefore there are some limitations to the insights you glean.\n\nDigital engagement efforts primarily work in two ways. Digital tools can help you measure what people in your community are thinking and they can help you create an online forum where people can share and debate ideas.\n\nThe key is to make sure your marketing strategies are accessible for all people including people that use assistive technology to access the internet.\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"78388da7521cbfc650000075","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864057,"position":4,"parentId":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","content":"\"For online discussions to thrive, cities must commit to a two-way dialogue. If people ask questions or present ideas, someone from the city should respond. If citizens decide nobody is listening, they’ll quickly lose interest.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"78390a3ec877b6b658000078","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864242,"position":5,"parentId":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","content":"But more importantly, the Cisco chief consistently said that one of the most fundamental elements of any smart city is, firstly, a developed policy around open data and, next, a strong relationship between the head of the locality and the developer community.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"787e8a922d87051d3900037b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899410,"position":6,"parentId":"7838355d521cbfc65000004d","content":"`### Entity focus -> City organization, city as community`\n\n`And/or situation -> signal what's important to the community, how the City will interact with others on this topic`\n"},{"_id":"78385543521cbfc65000005a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862785,"position":4,"parentId":"78382ed3521cbfc650000049","content":"## Timeline & Activities"},{"_id":"783855cb521cbfc65000005b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862787,"position":1,"parentId":"78385543521cbfc65000005a","content":"\"Smart cities require a roadmap as a part of their plan that incorporates the easily-implemented initiatives as well as longer-term investments. Short-term projects that can be implemented quickly and supported easily form a ready foundation from which to launch other successful projects. A number of short-term projects include those focusing on LED lights, smart garbage cans, and CCTV. These inexpensive technologies provide a quick return on the investment and can be frequently implemented through existing agencies and infrastructure\"\n\n\"Even for smaller investments, like LED lights and smart garbage cans, there will be a learning curve for staff and maintenance crews, but the payoff is that gains can be realized quickly.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"78962a51261859b3280000c5","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9915424,"position":5,"parentId":"78382ed3521cbfc650000049","content":"`Hope the road map is process-oriented to talk about how to get to opportunity. Has clear outcomes.`"},{"_id":"790fcb7f3af1200d010001a7","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9993041,"position":0.75,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Defintion"},{"_id":"790fcc323af1200d010001a8","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9993043,"position":1,"parentId":"790fcb7f3af1200d010001a7","content":"Conversation with ATD & ACM Mark Washington:\nKarla:\n\"It's great to be smart, but it doesn't mean we can't be thoughtful.\nWe don't have to be first. Sounds good, but if we can learn from others and be more impactful.\"\nGap: We don't have a process to accept unsolicited proposals\n\nMark: What would be responsive to the Council directive - establish awareness about how we can have more digital/electronic capabilities and services in all of the Depts and identify those needs. Have a foundational assessment. Then figure out priorities and resources.\n\nRob: Challenge with Smart Cities - we don't know where all the opportunities are. We need to get our house in order to be able to receive the opportunities. 18 months is not the timeline - it's 2-3 months.\n\n\"It's about making decisions based on data, not just having the technology.\nPredictive analytics. Everytime we think we're doing something cool, something new crops up. The smarter you get, the stupider you feel.\"\n\nMark: Getting other Dept Directors as engaged as Rob. Create awareness.\n\nRob: Defining smart - what are you trying to solve. it's really easy to get focused on the tech. Transportation is the tool, not the end game. Jobs/prosperty is the end game.\n\nKarla - don't lock into proprietary systems. how to figure out best options for the city - technical analysis -> what's real and what's smoke?\n\nReframing the conversation - technology can be figured out. good government, org teamwork, synergies - that needs to come first. business processes."},{"_id":"782f7399902263487b00014a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9907544,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Foundation\n\n\n* Quote: `\"Moore’s Law ... is really about people’s belief system, it’s not a law of physics, it’s about human belief, and when people believe in something, they’ll put energy behind it to make it come to pass.\" – Carver Mead quoted in the book What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly`\n\n* About: `A Smart Foundation for the Austin's Smart City Strategic Roadmap includes being holistic and specific about those principles we value and prioritize, while establishing norms around the creative tensions and potential conflicts that may arise, particularly .`\n\n* Intent: `This section intends to identify those core principles of consequence to smart cities, how the Austin community prioritizes those key principles, and how the community foresees ways in the near term, medium term, and long term to express these values in concrete actions.`\n\n* Applies to:`City as Community`\n"},{"_id":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864247,"position":1,"parentId":"782f7399902263487b00014a","content":"## Principles\n\n`A concept of consequence to smart cities: privacy, security, sustainability, resilience, accessibility, equity and efficiency`"},{"_id":"7837b1a4521cbfc650000040","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862561,"position":1,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Privacy"},{"_id":"7837fb2d521cbfc650000045","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862694,"position":1,"parentId":"7837b1a4521cbfc650000040","content":"\"Cities should have a clear privacy policy\" that addresses:\n- law enforcement use\n- selling of data\n- disclosure requirements\n- actual ability to opt out\n \nhttps://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/articles/2016-11-07/smart-cities-must-balance-privacy-with-government-transparency\n\n"},{"_id":"78383972521cbfc65000004f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862755,"position":2,"parentId":"7837b1a4521cbfc650000040","content":"\"Security and privacy are the first and most important principles, as they are the foundational aspects of human rights.\"\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/\n"},{"_id":"78383cf1521cbfc650000052","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862759,"position":3,"parentId":"7837b1a4521cbfc650000040","content":"\"city planners must understand that the data available in a smart city could have a significant impact on the life of its citizens. The careless use of data or the lack of safeguards could open up the city to litigation or federal investigation.\" \n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"7838ed6dc877b6b658000069","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864131,"position":4,"parentId":"7837b1a4521cbfc650000040","content":"Wim Elfrink, executive vice president of industry solutions and chief globalisation officer of Cisco, heads up the company's smart cities team and warned that if cities did not give citizens the choice of whether or not to allow the government to use their data, they might opt-out of future initiatives.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"7838f444c877b6b65800006d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9993001,"position":1,"parentId":"7838ed6dc877b6b658000069","content":"Elfrink's warning also comes the year after two companies received major backlash when citizens learned their movements were being tracked.\n\nA number of customers of American retail store Nordstrom, for example, were incensed when they found out that sensors within the shop were monitoring their behaviour around the store.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"7838f6bbc877b6b65800006e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864155,"position":2,"parentId":"7838ed6dc877b6b658000069","content":"marketing company Renew was forced to shut down a programme that tracked individuals movements if they walked through Cheapside (near St. Paul's Cathedral) through sensors embedded into a number of recycling bins. The company's chief executive argued that citizens could opt-out of being monitored but many questioned the premise of opting out of something you didn't know was taking place.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"7837f9ad521cbfc650000044","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862697,"position":1.5,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Transparency"},{"_id":"78380181521cbfc650000046","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862719,"position":1,"parentId":"7837f9ad521cbfc650000044","content":"\"Smart city technologies should be implemented when they increase, rather than decrease, government transparency.\"\n\nhttps://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/articles/2016-11-07/smart-cities-must-balance-privacy-with-government-transparency"},{"_id":"7837c277521cbfc650000041","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862562,"position":2,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Security\n"},{"_id":"78383a2c521cbfc650000050","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862758,"position":1,"parentId":"7837c277521cbfc650000041","content":"Security and privacy are the first and most important principles, as they are the foundational aspects of human rights.\n\nSecurity aspects of smart city initiatives should take into consideration a range of threats, such as outside agents with agendas against the city itself or against citizens, as well as opportunistic threats which may arise from access to unsecured data or devices.\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"78383b12521cbfc650000051","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9863298,"position":2,"parentId":"7837c277521cbfc650000041","content":"October 2016 - \"a massive chain of hacked computers simultaneously dropped what they were doing and blasted terabytes of junk data to a set of key servers, temporarily shutting down access to popular sites in the eastern U.S. and beyond. Unlike previous attacks, many of these compromised computers weren’t sitting on someone’s desk, or tucked away in a laptop case—they were instead the cheap processors soldered into web-connected devices, from security cameras to video recorders. A DVR could have helped bring down Twitter.\n\n\"(Probably not, at least this time—the targeted products were older than what you’d find in most American homes, and less protected.) But the internet is huge! There are around a couple billion public IPv4 addresses out there; any one of those might have a server, a desktop computer, or a toaster plugged in at the other end.\"\n \nhttps://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/10/we-built-a-fake-web-toaster-and-it-was-hacked-in-an-hour/505571/"},{"_id":"7838b3d6c877b6b658000060","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864036,"position":3,"parentId":"7837c277521cbfc650000041","content":"Phil Bertolini, CIO of Oakland County, Mich., is extremely cautious when it comes to IoT. While central management and control of systems via the Internet can reduce costs and increase efficiency, it can also increase the danger that such systems can be hacked.\n\nWhat if a hacker shuts down the air conditioning in a data center, causing millions of dollars’ worth of damage to computer equipment? Worse yet, a nefarious actor might take control of all those Internet-connected lights and plunge a city’s entire downtown into darkness. “As government, we have to be extra careful,” he noted.\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html"},{"_id":"7837c2c3521cbfc650000042","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862564,"position":3,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Accessibility"},{"_id":"78392334c877b6b658000081","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864692,"position":1,"parentId":"7837c2c3521cbfc650000042","content":"Accessibility enables people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, interact with, and contribute to the web. \n\nThese guidelines will cover the major things you need to know in order for your products to be “design-ready” to meet the minimum of standards in Section 508 and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. The rest will be up to development and quality testing.\n\nThis can include people who are blind, color blind, or have low vision, those who are Deaf or have hearing difficulties, people with mobility impairments which may be temporary or permanent, or people with cognitive disabilities. Design for people who are young, old, power users, casual users, and those who just enjoy a quality experience.\n\nhttps://medium.com/salesforce-ux/7-things-every-designer-needs-to-know-about-accessibility-64f105f0881b"},{"_id":"783933760fbc9d6bbb00007e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864690,"position":1,"parentId":"78392334c877b6b658000081","content":"Don’t use color as the only visual means of conveying information.\n\nEnsure sufficient contrast between text and its background.\n\nProvide visual focus indication for keyboard focus.\n\nBe careful with forms.\n\nAvoid component identity crises.\n\nDon’t make people hover to find things.\n\nhttps://medium.com/salesforce-ux/7-things-every-designer-needs-to-know-about-accessibility-64f105f0881b#.gmj97dj02"},{"_id":"7837c316521cbfc650000043","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9904344,"position":4,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Inclusion\n\n`\"Our mission as humans is not only to discover our fullest selves in the technium, and to find full contentment, but to expand the possibility for others.\" - Kevin Kelly in What Technology Wants`"},{"_id":"78387707521cbfc650000067","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864058,"position":1,"parentId":"7837c316521cbfc650000043","content":"\"It's about making inclusion, listening and reaching out — and oftentimes it’s about a new mindset at city hall that is more open, more transparent and more focused on accessibility and inclusion for all citizens, including people with disabilities.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"783880d7521cbfc65000006b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864059,"position":2,"parentId":"7837c316521cbfc650000043","content":"“People with disabilities, people of color, older citizens, people with low income — live in every community — and they have a smart city vision of their own. Any project or program that seeks to broadly assist members of a community should be inclusive of all equity groups, all citizens — no one should be excluded.” Locating and including equity groups in all development programs is a mandatory step for creating an inclusive society and a successful and sustainable Smart City. Your project, your planning and development — is not complete if people with disabilities and other historically marginalized communities are not included with full participation and decision making authority…\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"78388629521cbfc65000006d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864060,"position":5,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Equity"},{"_id":"7838866d521cbfc65000006e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864061,"position":1,"parentId":"78388629521cbfc65000006d","content":"\"A smart city incorporates all communities and devotes attention to providing the necessary infrastructure in those neighborhoods that are falling behind. With populations swelling, providing equitable access and raising living standards of those typically left behind is the only way cities can become truly livable and sustainable.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"7844fe93a6d5ca662200015e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9872220,"position":6,"parentId":"78379c59521cbfc650000029","content":"### Utility"},{"_id":"7844ff68a6d5ca662200015f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9872227,"position":1,"parentId":"7844fe93a6d5ca662200015e","content":"Is data a utility?\nIs wifi a utility?"},{"_id":"78379d13521cbfc65000002a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864702,"position":2,"parentId":"782f7399902263487b00014a","content":"## Values\n\n`How the community prioritizes key principles in terms of desirability, and worth`"},{"_id":"7838e9fec877b6b658000066","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864106,"position":2,"parentId":"78379d13521cbfc65000002a","content":"### Tradeoffs"},{"_id":"7838eb8ec877b6b658000068","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864115,"position":1,"parentId":"7838e9fec877b6b658000066","content":"#### Privacy vs Efficiency"},{"_id":"787e9a152d87051d3900037f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899432,"position":1.5,"parentId":"7838e9fec877b6b658000066","content":"Privacy vs Customization/Ease of Use"},{"_id":"787e96202d87051d3900037c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899419,"position":2,"parentId":"7838e9fec877b6b658000066","content":"Efficacy vs Efficiency"},{"_id":"787e97e42d87051d3900037e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899426,"position":2.5,"parentId":"7838e9fec877b6b658000066","content":"Security vs Ease of Use"},{"_id":"787e96cf2d87051d3900037d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899423,"position":3,"parentId":"7838e9fec877b6b658000066","content":"Accessibility vs Efficiency"},{"_id":"7838eaf0c877b6b658000067","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864110,"position":4,"parentId":"78379d13521cbfc65000002a","content":"### Focus\n"},{"_id":"78386cd9521cbfc650000063","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9872233,"position":1,"parentId":"7838eaf0c877b6b658000067","content":"\"Too often smart technologies are portrayed as a means to streamline, optimize, integrate, digitalize, systematize, consolidate and otherwise improve infrastructure.\n\n\"too often that citizen focus is not underscored often or loudly enough by well-meaning city leaders struggling to find affordable solutions to pressing urban problems.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"78379d72521cbfc65000002b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9907571,"position":3,"parentId":"782f7399902263487b00014a","content":"## Norms\n\n`How the community expresses its values. Every innovation begins as a deviation to a norm. Therefore norms around creative tension and conflict are critically important.`\n\n`The norms will be best described by the activities that we should undertake in the near term, medium term, and longer term. Such as defining our approach to opt in or opt out policies, or hiring a consultant or team to build out an accessibility tooklit.`\n"},{"_id":"787ea1352d87051d39000381","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899439,"position":1.5,"parentId":"78379d72521cbfc65000002b","content":"`What are the enforcement mechanisms related to these principles? Is it possible to make it easy to do the right thing, rather than rely on enforcement?`"},{"_id":"787e9f1b2d87051d39000380","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899437,"position":2,"parentId":"78379d72521cbfc65000002b","content":"`Potential for toolkits to be built to make these principles and values easy to implement. This could be a short, med, long term activity.`"},{"_id":"7838eee4c877b6b65800006a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10859168,"position":3,"parentId":"78379d72521cbfc65000002b","content":"### Opt in vs Opt Out\n\n\"Having security policies, having privacy policies is a given. I think you have to first give the citizens the right to opt-in or opt-out,\" he said. (Wim Elfrink, executive vice president of industry solutions and chief globalisation officer of Cisco)\n\n\"Then all these policies, longer term, security and privacy are going to be the biggest imperatives. If we don’t solve this, people will opt-out more.\"\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"782f7b46521cbfc650000024","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9905842,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Policy\n\n`City as Entity`\n\n`\"Of all the prospects raised by the evolution of digital culture, the most tantalizing is the possibility that technology could fuse with politics to create a more civil society.\"\nJon Katz`"},{"_id":"7837a03f521cbfc65000002d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864265,"position":1,"parentId":"782f7b46521cbfc650000024","content":"## Strategic Intent\n\n`A statement with a point of view about the future, a sense of discovery and destiny that focuses attention, motivates, guides resources, allows for flexible implementation.`\n"},{"_id":"7838322d521cbfc65000004b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862769,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a03f521cbfc65000002d","content":"What is the Mission of a Smart City?\n\na mission defines goals, but also elucidates its key values. A solid mission statement incorporates an understanding of the city’s current situation with its goals in mind. The mission statement should incorporate an idea of what the city planners consider a smart city, taking into account the uniqueness of the city or region.\n\nthe mission and purpose of the smart city is unique to the local environment. The geography, politics, industries, revenue sources, population, and needs of each city vary.\n\nUltimately, the mission statement reflects the city’s values. How is the city government attempting to increase the quality of life for its citizens and visitors?\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/\n\n"},{"_id":"787a6c562d87051d39000367","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9896998,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a03f521cbfc65000002d","content":"I think the more important and interesting question is, “what do you want a smart city to be?” We need to focus on how we shape the technology we employ in future cities. There are many different visions of what the opportunity is. Ask an IBM engineer and he will tell you about the potential for efficiency and optimization. Ask an app developer and she will paint a vision of novel social interactions and experiences in public places. Ask a mayor and it’s all about participation and democracy. In truth, smart cities should strive for all of these things.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787a6f592d87051d39000369","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897007,"position":3,"parentId":"7837a03f521cbfc65000002d","content":"There are trade-offs between these competing goals for smart cities. The urgent challenge is weaving together solutions that integrate these aims and mitigate conflicts. Smart cities need to be efficient but also preserve opportunities for spontaneity, serendipity, and sociability. If we program all of the randomness out, we’ll have turned them from rich, living organisms into dull mechanical automatons. They need to be secure, but not at the risk of becoming surveillance chambers. They need to be open and participatory, but provide enough support structure for those who lack the resources to self-organize. More than anything else, they need to be inclusive. \n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787a72e62d87051d3900036a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897150,"position":4,"parentId":"7837a03f521cbfc65000002d","content":"I believe there is a better way to build smart cities than to simply call in the engineers. We need to lift up the civic leaders who would show us a different way. We need to empower ourselves to build future cities organically, from the bottom up, and do it in time to save ourselves from climate change. If that seems an insurmountable goal, don’t forget that at the end of the day the smartest city in the world is the one you live in. If that’s not worth fighting for, I don’t know what is.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"7837a140521cbfc65000002e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864268,"position":2,"parentId":"782f7b46521cbfc650000024","content":"## Decision-Making\n\n`Policies and process for framing, making, and weighing trade-offs. Data-informed decisions require 1) reliable quantitative and qualitative data, 2) active consideration of data`\n "},{"_id":"78390c68c877b6b65800007a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864245,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a140521cbfc65000002e","content":"But more importantly, the Cisco chief consistently said that one of the most fundamental elements of any smart city is, firstly, a developed policy around open data ...\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"787aa8962d87051d3900036c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897263,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a140521cbfc65000002e","content":"Reliance on data to solve complex problems is subject to what’s sometimes called the “drunk under the streetlamp” effect: An obviously intoxicated man is on his hands and knees on the sidewalk, under a streetlamp. A passing cop asks him what he’s doing. “Looking for my keys,” the man replies. “Well, where did you drop them?” the cop inquires. “About a block away, but the light’s better here.”\n\nWhen it comes to transportation planning, we have copious data about some things, and almost nothing about others. Plus, there’s an evident systematic bias in favor of current modes of urban transportation and travel patterns. The car-centric data we have about transportation fundamentally warps the field’s decision-making. Unless we’re careful, over-reliance on big data will only perpetuate that problem—if not make it worse.\n\nhttps://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/08/the-downside-of-data-based-transportation-planning/496250/"},{"_id":"787aafeb2d87051d3900036d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897267,"position":3,"parentId":"7837a140521cbfc65000002e","content":"When it comes to car traffic, we have parking standards, traffic counts, speed studies, and “level of service” standards. Traffic engineers can immediately tell us when a road is substandard, or its pavement has deteriorated, or its level of service has become (or might someday become) degraded. By stark contrast, there is no comparable vocabulary or metrics for walking or cycling. We have not collected a parallel array of statistics to tell us that it isn’t similarly as safe, convenient, or desirable to walk or bicycle to common destinations. \n\nhttps://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/08/the-downside-of-data-based-transportation-planning/496250/"},{"_id":"787ab8062d87051d3900036e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897284,"position":4,"parentId":"7837a140521cbfc65000002e","content":"We need a framework that considers a wide array of evidence related to what we’ve done and what we’ve left undone; of what we are, and what we aspire to be. Merely grafting more technology on to today’s imbalanced system will not accomplish this.\n\nhttps://www.citylab.com/transportation/2016/08/the-downside-of-data-based-transportation-planning/496250/"},{"_id":"7837a206521cbfc65000002f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864270,"position":3,"parentId":"782f7b46521cbfc650000024","content":"## Governance\n\n`The way the rules, norms, standards, and actions are structured, sustained, and regulated; and how teams are held accountable.`"},{"_id":"78385812521cbfc65000005c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862789,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a206521cbfc65000002f","content":"\"Every aspect of smart city programs should be managed, guided, and supported.\n\n\"There are a range of issues that are attached to every implementation, from device failures to problems capturing and understanding all of the relevant data. While it is important for a city to partner with outside vendors through a competitive and transparent process, the overall control of any initiative must remain within the city’s domain to ensure that security, privacy, and regulatory issues are all being addressed.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"78385af2521cbfc65000005d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862802,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a206521cbfc65000002f","content":"\"after a program is implemented, the support for it typically ends, so the project’s value diminishes or the intended results are never realized. Since there is no closed-loop feedback cycle or ongoing support, vital programs, such as open data projects, are abandoned, wasting taxpayer money, resources, and time while potentially creating liabilities for the local government.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"783887b1521cbfc65000006f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864054,"position":3,"parentId":"7837a206521cbfc65000002f","content":"An approach that mixes top-down with bottom-up brings together the best of both worlds and avoids common pitfalls. Communities need some governance; they just don’t need heavy-handed “my way or the highway” governance. Under a light governance model, city leaders set guardrails for the citizens to work within.\n\nRigid rules are replaced with conditional models. Instead of restrictive rules that tell people what they can’t do, leaders enable the community to come up with innovative solutions within certain boundaries while ensuring that everyone has a voice.\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"783889f4521cbfc650000071","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864052,"position":4,"parentId":"7837a206521cbfc65000002f","content":"\"Public meetings tend be held near the end of the process, so forums on any controversial issue tend to be venting sessions where citizens yell at staff and elected leaders.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"7838910e521cbfc650000077","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864051,"position":5,"parentId":"7837a206521cbfc65000002f","content":"To move cities forward, city leaders and staff need to partner with stakeholders —engage in diverse civil partnerships with citizens, diverse equity groups, the business community, academia, nonprofits, other public agencies, etc.\n\n— And with a Smart Cities project, that is likely to involve inspiring stakeholders by educating them on the possibilities and encouraging them to get involved. It also means guiding the project’s implementation to ensure that it is done correctly, on time and at reasonable cost and is accessible and inclusive of all citizens.\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"782f7bfe521cbfc650000025","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9905840,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Teams"},{"_id":"7837a382521cbfc650000030","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864273,"position":1,"parentId":"782f7bfe521cbfc650000025","content":"## Agile\n\n`Self-organizing, cross-functional teams collaborate and plan adaptively, deliver early, while responding flexibly to change`"},{"_id":"78385be5521cbfc65000005e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862806,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a382521cbfc650000030","content":"There is some evidence that starting small can be beneficial. For example, in Nice, France, officials focused the beginning of their efficient lighting initiative on a single street. Starting with only one street allows the solution to be implemented in a real-world environment. The scale is small enough so that issues can be addressed quickly but large enough so that useful data can be collected and analyzed.\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"78387a88521cbfc650000069","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864069,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a382521cbfc650000030","content":"\"The traditional top-down approach to city planning and decision-making — the fish with a blow horn strategy — tends to result either in improvements that are more iterative than innovative, or sweeping initiatives that get stuck or fouled-up plans and projects that require costly taxpayer dollars for remediation and compliance.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"78390119c877b6b658000074","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864208,"position":3,"parentId":"7837a382521cbfc650000030","content":"The best cities in the world will be the one where governments have better relationships with developers\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"787a20472d87051d3900035e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9896759,"position":4,"parentId":"7837a382521cbfc650000030","content":"The Role of a Data Scientist and why this World needs them\n\n“A chief data scientist will be the enabler for next-generation innovations such as machine-learning algorithms, autonomous product development and accurate financial forecasting”\n\nBusiness Intelligence is a new emerging field in data science itself that has also transformed businesses and they way they are conducted. \n\nthe ability to analyze this data dumped out in real-time and with regards to real-time scenarios, this ability helps numerous businesses make on the spot and nearly perfect decisions on time and sometimes even ahead of time \n\nThis superpower to change at the nick of time helps these businesses meet their customers’ requirements of innovation, strategy and more importantly decisions being well informed.\n\nSo as well “Urban Science” and the science for “Smart Cities” will grow as time moves on, the question here is — Will we be ready to grow along with it ? Will we have the resources to do so ?\n\nhttps://medium.com/cusp-civic-analytics-urban-intelligence/the-role-of-a-data-scientist-and-why-this-world-needs-them-f6b482415567#.pf0r23j5d"},{"_id":"7837a44a521cbfc650000031","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864275,"position":2,"parentId":"782f7bfe521cbfc650000025","content":"## Human-centered\n\n`Teams meaningfully include the community in the design, production, and delivery of public value; they design with, not for, the community.`\n\n"},{"_id":"78387ba0521cbfc65000006a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864049,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a44a521cbfc650000031","content":"\"Plans that are developed using very limited input may miss out on unique viewpoints that can give the effort so much more strength.\"\n\n\"A bottom-up approach is typically much more innovative and inclusive. As Council member Oracle describes it, this approach turns citizens from end-users to begin-users. \"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"7837a4e1521cbfc650000032","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864277,"position":3,"parentId":"782f7bfe521cbfc650000025","content":"## Iterative\n\n`Teams begin with discovery, and iterate through testing and experimentation: they prioritize efforts on problems worth solving, and opportunities worth seizing.`"},{"_id":"7838ba24c877b6b658000063","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864070,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a4e1521cbfc650000032","content":"\"getting everything to work well together, even in limited pilot projects, can be challenging. If it finds lower-cost consumer sensors and hardware for its flood alert project, LCRA will have to find a way to use them in conjunction with its existing system, Miri noted. “These sensors won’t work exactly the same way, they won’t provide data exactly the same way,” he said. “So part of what we’re doing is changing the whole notification system, the whole business process around it. That’s what will help us get to a more cost-effective system.”\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"782f7c5c521cbfc650000026","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9859115,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Services"},{"_id":"7837a5e0521cbfc650000033","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864280,"position":1,"parentId":"782f7c5c521cbfc650000026","content":"## Value Proposition\n\n`A belief from the customer about how value (benefit) will be delivered, experienced and acquired`"},{"_id":"78388f97521cbfc650000076","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864071,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a5e0521cbfc650000033","content":"\"Personalized e-government services increase citizen satisfaction and compliance while reducing mistakes and misunderstandings that can occur when they are forced to dig up information on their own.\"\n\nhttps://austinstartups.com/the-secret-sauce-of-a-successful-smart-city-2b4967f70f71#.qcswt0lgx\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"7838f8cec877b6b65800006f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864187,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a5e0521cbfc650000033","content":"(Cisco VP) Elfrink suggests that government could give citizens a tax break if they dump less waste. This is because it allows waste collectors to take more efficient routes and ignore bins that don't need to be collected."},{"_id":"7837a670521cbfc650000034","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864281,"position":2,"parentId":"782f7c5c521cbfc650000026","content":"## Outcomes\n\n`Demonstrate tangible outcomes and experiences for Austin residents.`"},{"_id":"78385ed0521cbfc65000005f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862817,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a670521cbfc650000034","content":"### Measuring Success"},{"_id":"78385f1b521cbfc650000060","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862816,"position":1,"parentId":"78385ed0521cbfc65000005f","content":"Smart city projects need to have attainable, measurable goals for savings, efficiency, and effectiveness. \n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"78386105521cbfc650000061","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862821,"position":2,"parentId":"78385ed0521cbfc65000005f","content":"\"how can something as ethereal as the “happiness” of residents be measured? Is it because citizens are choosing to live there longer, or are more people purchasing real estate? Are more businesses moving to the city? Measuring goals for a smart city program may be difficult because governments are not private enterprises. They are not governed by a return on investment, shareholder value, or market capitalization. \n\n\"Chicago’s technology plan has a series of projected, desired outcomes, including cutting costs, improving the services and information offered by the city, encouraging more engagement from citizens, increasing public access to technology, increasing the number of STEM workers in the city, and of course, creating jobs.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"783862e0521cbfc650000062","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862823,"position":3,"parentId":"78385ed0521cbfc65000005f","content":"#### Feedback loops\n\nvarious feedback methods should be in place to ensure that the public and business has an easy way to communicate about smart city projects. Individual agencies managing the smart city project should address any issues in a timely fashion.\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/\n"},{"_id":"7837a6fc521cbfc650000035","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864283,"position":3,"parentId":"782f7c5c521cbfc650000026","content":"## Data as a Service\n\n`Reusable, open data and open interfaces (APIs), enable data from one service to be combined with data from another to create interesting data combination and integration` "},{"_id":"78380e5d521cbfc650000047","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864235,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a6fc521cbfc650000035","content":"### Data Exchanges"},{"_id":"78380fbc521cbfc650000048","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862743,"position":1,"parentId":"78380e5d521cbfc650000047","content":"First Impressions of Copenhagen's Data Exchange\n\nhttps://blog.ldodds.com/2016/05/21/first-impressions-of-copenhagens-city-data-exchange/\n\nElements to consider when delivering on the vision and value of a data exchange:\n- terms of service\n - pricing\n - payments\n - restrictions (should enable consumers & innovation)\n - licensing\n- registration requirement\n- publishing options (affected by pricing and workflows)\n- consuming options\n- metadata\n- format choices\n- developer tools - critique = There’s no obvious help or support for developers creating useful applications against these APIs.\n - direct access to APIs\n - filter\n - search\n \n- using OAuth or similar to give extra security.\n"},{"_id":"78390259c877b6b658000075","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864210,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a6fc521cbfc650000035","content":"### Tech professionals as a customer"},{"_id":"78390444c877b6b658000076","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864212,"position":1,"parentId":"78390259c877b6b658000075","content":"The best cities in the world will be the one where governments have better relationships with developers\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9904300,"position":5,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Technology\n\n`\"Technology is anything that was invented after you were born.\" – Alan Kay`"},{"_id":"783893d9521cbfc650000078","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9863473,"position":0.5,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Overall"},{"_id":"787a4be82d87051d39000361","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899235,"position":0.5,"parentId":"783893d9521cbfc650000078","content":"## The Buggy and Brittle Problem\n- Anthony Townsend, author of Smart Cities"},{"_id":"787abff52d87051d3900036f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897303,"position":1,"parentId":"787a4be82d87051d39000361","content":"What if the smart cities of the future are buggy and brittle? What are we getting ourselves into?\n\nhow will we experience bugs in the smart city? They could be as isolated as that faulty toilet or a crashed public screen. In 2007 a Washington Metro rail car caught fire after a power surge went unnoticed by buggy software designed to detect it. Temporarily downgrading back to the older, more reliable code took just 20 minutes per car while engineers methodically began testing and debugging.\n\nThe troubles of automation in transit systems are a precursor to the kinds of problems we’re likely to see as we buy into smart cities. As disconcerting as today’s failures are, however, they are actually a benchmark for reliability.\n\nin the future many smart technologies will be thrown together under tight schedules and even tighter budgets. They will struggle to match this gold standard of reliability, with only a few short-lived, sporadic glitches each year.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787ac9012d87051d39000375","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897325,"position":1.5,"parentId":"787a4be82d87051d39000361","content":"even when their code is clean, the innards of smart cities will be so complex that so-called normal accidents will be inevitable. The only questions will be when smart cities fail, and how much damage they cause when they crash. Layered atop the fragile power grid, already prone to overload during crises and open to sabotage, the communications networks that patch the smart city together are as brittle an infrastructure as we’ve ever had.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787ac2572d87051d39000370","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897306,"position":2,"parentId":"787a4be82d87051d39000361","content":"The sheer size of city-scale smart systems comes with its own set of problems. Cities and their infrastructure are already the most complex structures humankind has ever created. Interweaving them with equally complex information processing can only multiply the opportunities for bugs and unanticipated interactions. \n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787ac7312d87051d39000374","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897317,"position":3,"parentId":"787a4be82d87051d39000361","content":"Centralization of smart-city infrastructure is risky, but decentralization doesn’t always increase resilience. Uncoordinated management can create its own brittle structures...\n\nNothing short of a crisis will force us to confront the risk of smart cities’ brittle infrastructure. The first mayor who has to deal with the breakdown of a city-scale smart system will be in new territory, but who will take the blame? The city? The military? Homeland security? The technology firms that built it?\n\nIf the history of city building in the last century tells us anything, it is that the unintended consequences of new technologies often dwarf their intended design.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"7838948a521cbfc650000079","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899237,"position":1,"parentId":"783893d9521cbfc650000078","content":"## Strategic know-how\na recent report as holding back IoT projects at the federal level are likely to be even bigger barriers at the state and local levels. These include a lack of strategic leadership on how to use IoT; a lack of skills in using the data generated by IoT; insufficient funding to modernize IT infrastructure to enable IoT projects; procurement policies that make it difficult for governments to quickly and easily adopt the technology; and risk and uncertainty about privacy, security, interoperability and return on investment.\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html?flipboard=yes"},{"_id":"78383e66521cbfc650000053","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899243,"position":2,"parentId":"783893d9521cbfc650000078","content":"## State of play, interoperability\n\n\"City planners must evaluate the current state of the city infrastructure in order to determine the possibilities of interoperability with vendors and platforms.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"783948df0fbc9d6bbb000080","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899249,"position":3,"parentId":"783893d9521cbfc650000078","content":"## Maturity model\n\nAlthough smart city projects mature and new ones are being promoted and/or deployed, it will take several more years before we really can call a city a smart city.\n\nSmart cities today are more a vision than a strategic end-to-end approach. You can image that in order to have a true smart city there is a lot of work across the various activities, assets and infrastructure, which can be turned into smart versions. Realizing a true smart city can be incredibly complex as so many factors and parties are involved and cities have numerous tasks and functions.\n\nMoreover, in a smart city all these areas are connected as mentioned and that doesn’t happen overnight. There is a lot of legacy, there are several operations and regulations, new skillsets are required and many connections need to be made and there is loads of alignment to do on various levels (city administration, public services, transportation services, safety and security, public infrastructure, local government agencies and contractors, education services, the list goes on).\n\nhttps://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/"},{"_id":"7837a831521cbfc650000036","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862519,"position":1,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Application"},{"_id":"7837a940521cbfc650000037","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862520,"position":2,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Data"},{"_id":"78384018521cbfc650000054","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862763,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a940521cbfc650000037","content":"\"In order to best serve the widest range of people, a reasonable amount of data should be made freely available (open data)\"\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"7838ab42c877b6b65800005c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864018,"position":2,"parentId":"7837a940521cbfc650000037","content":"\"The future value of such projects depends on the city’s ability to innovate with the data, which is why it created a federation of 11 local universities where students will do projects with data from various use cases, Ross said. “We think an investment in data science and analysis will have multiple benefits.”\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html"},{"_id":"78390b84c877b6b658000079","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864332,"position":3,"parentId":"7837a940521cbfc650000037","content":"But more importantly, the Cisco chief consistently said that one of the most fundamental elements of any smart city is, firstly, a developed policy around open data and, next, a strong relationship between the head of the locality and the developer community.\n\nencourages entrepreneurs to build tools and apps not only around the available data sets but to also create more data.\n\ncreates a stronger relationship between the government and citizens, according to Elfrink, because developers are more likely to move faster, without bureaucratic boundaries, but also to create tools that are more helpful to the regular citizen.\n\nYou'll get developers in cities, you'll unleash the potential and speed, and [unleash the] innovation close to citizens,\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"7837a997521cbfc650000038","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862521,"position":3,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Security"},{"_id":"7837a9ee521cbfc650000039","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862522,"position":4,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Platform\n"},{"_id":"783945f30fbc9d6bbb00007f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864758,"position":1,"parentId":"7837a9ee521cbfc650000039","content":"Moving from smart city projects to smart cities\n\nIn order to be a ‘true’ smart city, cities need to have an integrated approach whereby various projects are connected and most of all the data and platforms are glued together in order to achieve all the benefits smart cities make possible. Open technologies and open data platforms will be key to move to that next stage.\n\nAccording to IDC, the open data platform will emerge as the next frontier in Internet of Things platform discussions by 2018. \n\nhttps://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/"},{"_id":"7837aa89521cbfc65000003a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866975,"position":5,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Infrastructure\n\n`[ **needs definition**]`\n"},{"_id":"783bcaf9a6d5ca66220000ce","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9867986,"position":3,"parentId":"7837aa89521cbfc65000003a","content":"### Overall infrastucture"},{"_id":"78394e630fbc9d6bbb000082","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866921,"position":1,"parentId":"783bcaf9a6d5ca66220000ce","content":"the IoT technology stack for smart city applications today is relatively easy and cheap for many use cases such as smart waste management or smart parking. \n\nhttps://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/"},{"_id":"7838b0a0c877b6b65800005f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866968,"position":2,"parentId":"783bcaf9a6d5ca66220000ce","content":"But network-connected sensors aren’t always cost-effective, Sucuoglu noted. “There are a lot of practical applications, but the ones you read about in magazines — all those futuristic IoT devices — they aren’t really widely available or affordable.”\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html"},{"_id":"787ac3a62d87051d39000371","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897309,"position":3,"parentId":"783bcaf9a6d5ca66220000ce","content":"The biggest threat to cellular networks in cities, however, is population density. Because wireless carriers try to maximize the profit-making potential of their expensive spectrum licenses, they typically only build out enough infrastructure to connect a fraction of their customers in a given place at the same time. “Oversubscribing,” as this carefully calibrated scheme is known in the business, works fine under normal conditions, when even the heaviest users rarely chat for more than a few hours a day. But during a disaster, when everyone starts to panic, call volumes surge and the capacity is quickly exhausted.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787ac4c32d87051d39000372","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897312,"position":4,"parentId":"783bcaf9a6d5ca66220000ce","content":"Disruptions in public cloud-computing infrastructure highlight the vulnerabilities of dependence on network apps.\n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"787ac58d2d87051d39000373","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9897313,"position":5,"parentId":"783bcaf9a6d5ca66220000ce","content":"Another “cloud” literally floating in the sky above us, the Global Positioning System satellite network, is perhaps the greatest single point of failure for smart cities. Without it, many of the things on the Internet will struggle to ascertain where they are. America’s rivals have long worried about their dependence on the network of 24 satellites owned by the U.S. Defense Department. But now even America’s closest allies worry that GPS might be cut off not by military fiat but by neglect. \n\nhttps://placesjournal.org/article/smart-cities/"},{"_id":"783bcaaea6d5ca66220000cd","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866902,"position":6,"parentId":"7837aa89521cbfc65000003a","content":"### Wifi"},{"_id":"7844fc2fa6d5ca662200015d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9874948,"position":1,"parentId":"783bcaaea6d5ca66220000cd","content":"Municipal wifi — a municipal responsibility or best left to the private sector?\n\nOn the surface, the benefits seem obvious, especially when considering equity in service delivery for cities. Wifi available for the public, providing fast access to information for tourists, people away from home, and providing a no (or low) cost option for the underprivileged who may not be able to afford it. Municipalities have the infrastructure and resources to deploy a service like this, and costs could be offset by advertising and tax revenues. Wifi would become a utility, much like trash collection or water.\n\nThen why have so many cities’ wifi efforts sputtered or downright failed? Critics have cited a number of issues facing these types of city-wide wifi deployments — cost, misuse, speed, security, and inequitable distribution in deployments to name some of the potential pitfalls facing city-wide wifi deployments.\n\n the fundamental mission of cities and government is to support society and its citizens. Due to its prevalence in society and even recent legislation has classified it more as a utility than a luxury, wifi and Internet connection have become staples of modern life. This puts them squarely in the public domain of responsibility. Additionally, much like trash collection or water, cities and government are the only organizations with enough infrastructure and resources to meet the need of all its citizens with a function like municipal wifi, or whatever service evolves in the future.\n\nhttps://medium.com/cusp-civic-analytics-urban-intelligence/municipal-wifi-a-municipal-responsibility-or-best-left-to-the-private-sector-e52e2891010c#.q9b79pmbk"},{"_id":"783bcc83a6d5ca66220000cf","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9867985,"position":8,"parentId":"7837aa89521cbfc65000003a","content":"### LWPAN"},{"_id":"78395a250fbc9d6bbb000083","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866918,"position":1,"parentId":"783bcc83a6d5ca66220000cf","content":"Urban environments typically have good wireless coverage for cases with moving parts, you have the cloud, there are several point solutions and products which are designed for smart city projects and in several cities across the globe there is low-power wide-area network connectivity available (LPWAN) which suffices for many applications. In fact, when drafting its list of IoT applications, IoT Analytics found that 59 percent (!) of all LPWAN projects today are part of smart city initiatives while LPWAN in general is only present in 10 percent of the IoT projects the company identified.\n\nhttps://www.i-scoop.eu/smart-cities-smart-city/"},{"_id":"7837aad9521cbfc65000003b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862524,"position":6,"parentId":"782f7cae521cbfc650000027","content":"## Standards"},{"_id":"782f7d26521cbfc650000028","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9859119,"position":6,"parentId":null,"content":"# Smart Business Models"},{"_id":"7837adae521cbfc65000003d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864284,"position":1,"parentId":"782f7d26521cbfc650000028","content":"## Business Models\n\n`How we organize around key resources and activities that deliver upon a value proposition to city residents and customers, while balancing cost structures between private sector revenue streams and public sector funds`\n"},{"_id":"783bb85ba6d5ca66220000c8","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866850,"position":1,"parentId":"7837adae521cbfc65000003d","content":"## Procurement\n"},{"_id":"783bb8afa6d5ca66220000c9","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866856,"position":1,"parentId":"783bb85ba6d5ca66220000c8","content":"The RFP process is meant to bring structure and transparency to the procurement process, while reducing risk through open requirements and discussion. For decades this has made sense, particularly for larger government organizations whose contracts can be very large and typically are open to negotiation.\n\nBut with the rise of cloud-based technologies -- which have democratized technology of all kinds in both the public and private sectors -- and the ever-accelerating rate of technological innovation, the traditional RFP process is increasingly proving to be a poor tool for procurement, leaving public servants and citizens with few options, locked into predatory contracts and languishing years behind private-sector counterparts.\n\nHow did the RFP process, meant to encourage competition, end up undermining it? A major reason is the long list of requirements that companies are required to meet but which make little sense for young, innovative companies and create often-unsurmountable barriers for them.\n\nhttp://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html"},{"_id":"783bba43a6d5ca66220000ca","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866862,"position":2,"parentId":"783bb85ba6d5ca66220000c8","content":"Knowing that working with governments is more challenging, time-intensive and generally not as profitable, tech startups have mostly focused (and built for) the private sector, resulting in a widening gap between the products and services available to private- and public-sector organizations.\n\nhttp://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html"},{"_id":"783bbaf0a6d5ca66220000cb","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866868,"position":3,"parentId":"783bb85ba6d5ca66220000c8","content":"As a result, inferior legacy products go unchallenged. One recent list of top government technologies reveals a stubborn reliance on legacy technologies that savvy private-sector organizations have long since abandoned.\n\nhttp://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html"},{"_id":"787ec9872d87051d39000383","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899504,"position":1.5,"parentId":"7837adae521cbfc65000003d","content":"## Understanding Externalities"},{"_id":"787ec8402d87051d39000382","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899501,"position":2,"parentId":"7837adae521cbfc65000003d","content":"## Scalability"},{"_id":"7837ae90521cbfc65000003e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864285,"position":2,"parentId":"782f7d26521cbfc650000028","content":"## Government as a Platform\n\n`What does City government need to do to establish itself as a platform and enabler of Smart Cities?`\n"},{"_id":"7838417b521cbfc650000055","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9862766,"position":1,"parentId":"7837ae90521cbfc65000003e","content":"\"Getting real feedback from citizens, businesses, government employees, agencies, vendors, and tourists will allow for the greatest success of a program.\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"7837af3d521cbfc65000003f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864286,"position":3,"parentId":"782f7d26521cbfc650000028","content":"## Partnerships\n\n`What kind of public-private partnerships, strategic alliances, programs such as Entrepreneurs in Residence do we need to flourish as a Smart City?`"},{"_id":"78392153c877b6b658000080","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864361,"position":2,"parentId":"7837af3d521cbfc65000003f","content":"although it is likely that large companies will provide the initial tools for cities to create more data and open up data sets, it is smaller organisations and developers that will create applications that will truly affect citizens on a daily basis.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"78384d69521cbfc650000057","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899509,"position":3,"parentId":"7837af3d521cbfc65000003f","content":"\"When city planners have a strong understanding of the types of technologies and platforms available, a neutral vendor-agnostic party can help the city manage the requests for information/proposals to ensure diversity in the types of vendors and solutions while adhering to best practices. This neutral third party should be well-versed in the latest technologies, security standards, data collection, data cleansing, data permissions, analytics in the cloud, and security, including security on the edge.\"\n\n\"This will ensure that vendors are thoroughly vetted and that technology is not based on a conventional platform that still uses traditional centralized security practices (all new technology must fully account for the nuances of IoT in order to ensure success). For example, how should a smart city negotiate with cloud providers?\"\n\nhttps://amyxinternetofthings.com/2016/08/15/designing-a-holistic-smart-city-initiative/"},{"_id":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9863480,"position":7,"parentId":null,"content":"# Use Case Examples"},{"_id":"78395c580fbc9d6bbb000084","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864863,"position":0.5,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"### Note: \n*Use case examples can be used to inspire city departments about their smart city future needs and desires. Use case examples can also help with meaningful categorization of areas of focus. We will ultimately need to categorize Austin's areas of focus, and should develop a meaningful taxonomy.*"},{"_id":"7838a132521cbfc65000007b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864009,"position":1,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Resilience in Natural Systems"},{"_id":"7838a304c877b6b658000059","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864076,"position":1,"parentId":"7838a132521cbfc65000007b","content":"## Flood\nOver the past several decades, LCRA built a network of 275 connected river sensors — called Hydromet — to monitor and report stream flows and other data, including temperature, rainfall and humidity, on a public website in near real time.\n\nThis year, LCRA received a $650,000 contract from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to investigate better sensor technologies and software needed to disseminate information and alerts during a flood. The sensors used in the system today are expensive — costing anywhere from $25,000 to $50,000 each. One goal is to find or develop a next-generation flood sensor that would take advantage of advances in hardware and consumer sensor technologies yet still be rugged enough to last in harsh outdoor conditions.\n\nToday, LCRA is evaluating sensors that cost $200 to $2,500, Miri said. The other goal is to build a better framework so that data can be used more practically. Rather than just post it on a website, LCRA might be able to help emergency responders geo-target the smartphones of citizens in specific areas where flooding is imminent. “If this works, then the cities and counties we serve could use this technology to send out better, more targeted warnings to keep their citizens safe,” Miri said.\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html\n\n#flood\n\n#austin"},{"_id":"7838a932c877b6b65800005b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864014,"position":2,"parentId":"7838a132521cbfc65000007b","content":"## Trees\n\nLos Angeles is also using sensors to monitor environmental factors, including the health of trees. In its Internet of Trees project, the city is combining data from Google Street View with a machine-learning algorithm developed by Caltech to inventory its urban forest of some 700,000 trees scattered over 469 square miles. That has saved the city approximately $3 million, which is what it would have cost to deploy an army of people with clipboards to visually inspect each tree. Now, it is in the process of replacing 200,000 trees (removed when road repairs are made) with new ones that contain sensors to monitor moisture, air quality and the health of the tree itself.\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html?"},{"_id":"7838b743c877b6b658000062","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864045,"position":3,"parentId":"7838a132521cbfc65000007b","content":"## Animal Protection\n\nFlorida’s Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has been using sensors to track various kinds of wildlife for at least 15 years, said Chip Deutsch, associate research scientist. In one project, researchers attach GPS tags, along with temperature and depth sensors, to manatees to study their movements and habitats. The tags allow researchers to track the animals, documenting where and when the manatees travel in search of food, for example. With the latest sensors, Deutsch said, “we can get incredibly fine-scale on the locations and the time.” The project has helped wildlife managers know where to put boating speed limits in order to protect the animals.\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html"},{"_id":"79b6a5061b5d8f127a00010c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087756,"position":4,"parentId":"7838a132521cbfc65000007b","content":"In one case, sensor data spotlighted a congested road on the east side of town where inhaler use was three times as high as in other parts of the city. In response, the city planted a belt of trees separating the road from a nearby residential neighborhood; the plantings have resulted in a 60% reduction in particulate matter (which can aggravate breathing problems) behind the green belt.\n\nhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120"},{"_id":"7838acf4c877b6b65800005d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864021,"position":2,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Save time, money, labor"},{"_id":"7838ad58c877b6b65800005e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864025,"position":1,"parentId":"7838acf4c877b6b65800005d","content":"Connected devices are also helping small cities save time, money and labor. Tamarac, Fla., population 65,000, uses IP-based controllers in many areas of city infrastructure, including controlling HVAC systems and monitoring data centers for humidity, temperature and flooding, said Levent Sucuoglu, the city’s director of IT. Today, Tamarac requires that sensing and IP-based controls be considered in all new city construction. “We make that part of our construction documents, then as we go through the design phase to ... determine how much [technology] will be included based on cost, functionality, availability and reliability,” Sucuoglu said.\n\nThe city’s new fire station, now under construction, will include IP-based building access control, security surveillance, HVAC and lighting control. It will have IP-based sensors to monitor the amount of gas in the facility’s pumping station and report how much gas is distributed to each fire engine. \n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html\n\n#cityfacilities"},{"_id":"7838f1f2c877b6b65800006b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864138,"position":3,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Mobility"},{"_id":"7838f23bc877b6b65800006c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864141,"position":1,"parentId":"7838f1f2c877b6b65800006b","content":"### Parking\n\nData from sensors in parking spaces in the City of Westminster, for example, showed the council that commuters typically went to a specific set of roads to find their parking and enacted policies to encourage them to find spaces in nearby streets.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"79b6ab141b5d8f127a00010e","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087760,"position":2,"parentId":"7838f1f2c877b6b65800006b","content":"The Boston traffic-management center uses Waze data to supplement live feeds from its network of traffic cameras and sensors, getting a more detailed picture of what’s happening on city streets. Messages from Waze users can alert the center to traffic problems—a double-parked truck or a fender-bender—as soon as they develop, allowing officials to respond more quickly.\n\nWaze data also has helped the city to run low-cost experiments on possible traffic changes. For instance, to test how to best enforce “don’t block the box” at congested intersections, the center took more than 20 problem intersections and assigned each one either a changing message sign, a police officer or no intervention at all. Using Waze data, analysts would then see which enforcement approach was most effective at reducing congestion. As it turns out, Waze’s traffic-jam data didn’t show that either approach made much difference in reducing congestion (which may reinforce the view of those who believe little can be done to eliminate traffic headaches).\n\nhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120"},{"_id":"7838fb6fc877b6b658000070","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864190,"position":4,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Waste Management"},{"_id":"7838fbbfc877b6b658000071","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864194,"position":1,"parentId":"7838fb6fc877b6b658000070","content":"(Cisco VP) Elfrink suggests that government could give citizens a tax break if they dump less waste. This is because it allows waste collectors to take more efficient routes and ignore bins that don't need to be collected.\n\n\"Most containers [in Barcelona] have sensors that say how full they are,\" Elfrink said. \"Instead of picking up waste on Tuesday and Thursday, you have dynamic route management, thinking about the most efficient route, saving 20-30% energy.\"\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"7838fda1c877b6b658000072","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864195,"position":5,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Street Lights\n\n"},{"_id":"7838fe1fc877b6b658000073","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864196,"position":1,"parentId":"7838fda1c877b6b658000072","content":"But perhaps a more interesting case study is using data to change the intensity of street lights. In certain areas of Barcelona, Cisco use video to identify the density of public squares.\n\nThe company matches that data alongside other elements, such as whether there is a half- or full-moon and sends instructions of whether to reduce or increase the brightness of the LED street lights.\n\n\"If you have more people on the street, you have less light. If you have more people, you have less light. You wouldn’t figure that out without the data,\" Elfrink explains.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"79b6a3651b5d8f127a00010b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087755,"position":2,"parentId":"7838fda1c877b6b658000072","content":"Their ability to detect motion also can be used to adjust the LED streetlights so that they dim if no one is around and automatically brighten if cars or pedestrians pass by. The goal is to use data to “improve our efficiency of service and ascertain what services we ought to be providing,” says Bob Bennett, Kansas City’s chief innovation officer.\n\nhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120"},{"_id":"78391970c877b6b65800007b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864335,"position":6,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Engagement, Crowdsourcing, Partnerships"},{"_id":"783919ecc877b6b65800007c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864322,"position":1,"parentId":"78391970c877b6b65800007b","content":"fillthathole.org .uk, a website run by a national cyclist charity. Users can report potholes around the UK not only through the website but also through apps on the iPhone and more recently on Android phones, thanks to funding from the Department for Transport.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"78391e18c877b6b65800007d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9864337,"position":2,"parentId":"78391970c877b6b65800007b","content":"Alongside a number of partners such as IBM, EDF Energy and the Smart Homes & Building Association, the council has been working on creating an 'Iot-Bay', built around taking data from parking bay occupancy, street lights, energy use and crowd movement data and making it available for registered developers.\n\nhttps://www.theguardian.com/news/2014/apr/04/if-smart-cities-dont-think-about-privacy-citizens-will-refuse-to-accept-change-says-cisco-chief"},{"_id":"783bbc16a6d5ca66220000cc","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9867002,"position":7,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Procurement\n"},{"_id":"783be0d7a6d5ca66220000d2","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9867005,"position":1,"parentId":"783bbc16a6d5ca66220000cc","content":"The mid-size city of San Rafael, Calif., took the lead in 2016, by simplifying its RFP process and adopting a number of new technologies as part of a broader citywide plan to update digital services. \n\nhttp://www.governing.com/gov-institute/voices/col-technology-startups-rfp-enemy-innovation.html\n"},{"_id":"783be04fa6d5ca66220000d1","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9866988,"position":8,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Building Management"},{"_id":"7838b5e7c877b6b658000061","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9867013,"position":1,"parentId":"783be04fa6d5ca66220000d1","content":"Oakland County is installing a new building management system that will be centrally controlled, but the connection will usually be over a secure fiber-optic network connection, not riding over the open Internet, Bertolini said. There will be a way for IT managers to dial in remotely via the Internet, he added, but it will be through a secured “tunnel” connection requiring two-factor authentication.\n\nhttp://www.govtech.com/Practical-Uses-of-the-Internet-of-Things-in-Government-Are-Everywhere.html"},{"_id":"787a237d2d87051d3900035f","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9896762,"position":9,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Data & Predictions\n"},{"_id":"787a24a22d87051d39000360","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087751,"position":1,"parentId":"787a237d2d87051d3900035f","content":"there are a few of those problems we face today that can be better in tomorrow’s world with the use of data and predictions using the analysis of that data:\n\nHigh School Dropouts\nWeather\nCyber Attacks\nHealth and Disease\nPolice Misconduct\n\nhttps://medium.com/cusp-civic-analytics-urban-intelligence/the-role-of-a-data-scientist-and-why-this-world-needs-them-f6b482415567#.pf0r23j5d\n\nRestaurant inspections (see public safety)"},{"_id":"79b69c471b5d8f127a000108","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087737,"position":10,"parentId":"783897c4521cbfc65000007a","content":"## Public Safety\n"},{"_id":"79b69c981b5d8f127a000109","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087741,"position":1,"parentId":"79b69c471b5d8f127a000108","content":"The presence of smoke alarms is critical in preventing these deaths; the National Fire Protection Association, a nonprofit standards group, says a working fire alarm cuts the risk of dying in a home fire in half.New Orleans, like most cities, has a program run by its Fire Department to distribute smoke detectors. But until recently, the program relied on residents to request an alarm. Oliver Wise, director of the city’s Office of Performance and Accountability, had his data team tap two Census Bureau surveys to identify city blocks most likely to contain homes without smoke detectors and at the greatest risk for fire fatalities—those with young children or the elderly. They then used other data to zero in on neighborhoods with a history of house fires. Using advanced machine-learning techniques, Mr. Wise’s office produced a map that showed those blocks where fire deaths were most likely to occur and where the Fire Department could target its smoke-detector distribution.\n\nSince the data program began in early 2015, the department has installed about 18,000 smoke detectors, says Tim McConnell, chief of the New Orleans Fire Department. That compares with no more than 800 detectors a year under the older program. It is too early to tell how effective it has been at preventing fire deaths, Chief McConnell says, since they are so rare. But the program did have an early, notable success.\n\nhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120"},{"_id":"79b69fc41b5d8f127a00010a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087742,"position":2,"parentId":"79b69c471b5d8f127a000108","content":""},{"_id":"79afe98f1b5d8f127a000103","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087749,"position":3,"parentId":"79b69c471b5d8f127a000108","content":"Predictive analytics have also been used to improve restaurant health inspections in Chicago. The Department of Public Health relies on about three dozen inspectors to check for possible violations at more than 15,000 food establishments across the city. It needed a better way to prioritize inspections to make sure that places with potential critical violations—those that carry the greatest risk for the spread of food-borne illness—were examined before someone actually became sick.\n\nThe data team in the city’s Department of Innovation and Technology developed an algorithm that looked at 11 variables, including whether the restaurant had previous violations, how long it has been in business (the longer, the better), the weather (violations are more likely when it’s hot), even stats about nearby burglaries (which tells something about the neighborhood, though analysts aren’t sure what).\n\nWith the tool, the health department could identify establishments that were most likely to have problems and move them up the list for inspection. After the algorithm went into use in 2015, a follow-up analysis found that inspectors were visiting restaurants with possible critical violations seven days sooner than before. Since then, its use has resulted in a 15% rise in the number of critical violations found, though the number of illness complaints—an imperfect measure of violations—has been flat. \n\nhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120"},{"_id":"79b6a7121b5d8f127a00010d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10087758,"position":4,"parentId":"79b69c471b5d8f127a000108","content":"In Mobile, Ala., building-code inspectors armed with smartphones and Facebook Inc.’s Instagram photo-sharing app were able to inventory the city’s 1,200 blighted properties in just eight days—a task that enforcement officers had previously considered impossible with the older paper-based systems of tracking blight. With Instagram, inspectors could snap a photo of a property and have it appear on a map, showing officials where dilapidated, abandoned or other problem properties are clustered.\n\nThe inventory was just the first step. Mobile’s two-year-old Innovation Team, funded with a grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies, cross-referenced the data with other available property information—tax records, landmark status, out-of-state ownership—to compile a “blight index,” a master profile of every problem property in the city. \n\nThis made it possible to identify which property owners might need assistance in rehabbing their properties and which ones to cite for code violations. The city is wrapping up a second survey of blighted properties to measure the net change over the past year, says Jeff Carter, Innovation Team’s executive director. “Instagram was phase one, and we would never have made it to phase two without it,” Mr. Carter says.\n\nhttps://www.wsj.com/articles/the-rise-of-the-smart-city-1492395120"},{"_id":"787a14232d87051d3900035d","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10859183,"position":7.5,"parentId":null,"content":"# Questions to ask #citydepts or #community or #smartbiz\n\n`Who has a relationship to the term \"Smart City\"?`\n\n`Perhaps community conversation happens after first draft of roadmap, and helpfully connects technology industry to community.`","deleted":false},{"_id":"787a6ccb2d87051d39000368","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899051,"position":1,"parentId":"787a14232d87051d3900035d","content":"## When we say we want Austin to be a \"Smart City\", what does that mean to you?"},{"_id":"787e1c7e2d87051d39000376","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899702,"position":2,"parentId":"787a14232d87051d3900035d","content":"## What are your aspirations for Austin's Smart City future?\n\n#smartbiz"},{"_id":"787e1dff2d87051d39000377","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899704,"position":3,"parentId":"787a14232d87051d3900035d","content":"## What's blocking your from realizing your Smart City aspirations?\n\n#smartbiz"},{"_id":"787e1f122d87051d39000378","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899515,"position":4,"parentId":"787a14232d87051d3900035d","content":"## What do you have to contribute to the Smart City future in the:\n* ##Near Term\n* ##Medium Term\n* ##Long Term\n\nCould also be ideas..."},{"_id":"787e24272d87051d39000379","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899211,"position":5,"parentId":"787a14232d87051d3900035d","content":"## When looking at [*list examples*], what projects should Austin be undertaking in the short, medium, and long term?"},{"_id":"787ed8b32d87051d39000384","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899518,"position":7.75,"parentId":null,"content":"# Short Term"},{"_id":"787ede342d87051d3900038c","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899539,"position":1.5,"parentId":"787ed8b32d87051d39000384","content":"Have already run three 5k"},{"_id":"787eddf02d87051d3900038b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899540,"position":2,"parentId":"787ed8b32d87051d39000384","content":"Start Training on swimming"},{"_id":"787ed8e42d87051d39000385","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899519,"position":7.875,"parentId":null,"content":"# Medium Term"},{"_id":"787eddb82d87051d3900038a","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899536,"position":2,"parentId":"787ed8e42d87051d39000385","content":"Run 15 miles"},{"_id":"787ed9172d87051d39000386","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899520,"position":7.9375,"parentId":null,"content":"# Long Term"},{"_id":"787edd792d87051d39000389","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":9899535,"position":1,"parentId":"787ed9172d87051d39000386","content":"Run Marathon\n"},{"_id":"787a0aac2d87051d3900035b","treeId":"782f724a902263487b000147","seq":10859181,"position":8,"parentId":null,"content":"#toread","deleted":false}],"tree":{"_id":"782f724a902263487b000147","name":"Austin Smart Cities Roadmap","publicUrl":"smart-cities-roadmap"}}