The Doctrine of Salvation - Soteriology

The order of salvation. The work of Christ. That branch of Christian Theology which is concerned with the work of the Savior.

In ministry “What must I do to be saved?” is the most important question that a pastor will face in his work.

The Holy Spirit guides the sinner to the salvation which Jesus Christ secured for all mankind by his vicarious atonement.

Biblical Theology
There is a Biblical Theology of the OT, NT, of Apostle Paul. There are several ways to interpret this.

Historical Theology
There have been historical changes that have occurred regarding how Scripture is understood.

Systematic Theology
Study of various doctrines in a systematic manner.

Philosophical Theology
The study of how things are in the world. Theodicy the great “WHY?” questions that arise in life when we encounter difficulties.

The application of the righteousness of Christ to the sinner.



  1. Salvation
  2. Sanctification
  3. Future deliverance

Luke 1:77
Rom 5:10
2 Cor 5:19

I have been saved. At the cross.
I am being saved. Continually being saved through the work of the Holy Spirit.
I will be saved. To be brought into the very presence of God.

Muller (pp 384) gives a narrow and wider sense of Sanctification. Another word used Renovation. To renovate something which gives the sense of renewing.

Made like Christ.

There is the completed future deliverance that is promised.

  1. Salvation: procured by Christ for all by His vicarious atonement.
    1 John 2:12
    Luke 1:77
    Rom 5:8-10
    2 Cor 5:19

  2. Salvation: offered to the sinner in the means of grace.
    a. The Gospel: Offers and confers forgiveness and produces faith. Confession and Absolution.
    b. The Sacraments: Baptism and the Lord’s Supper.

  3. Salvation: The offer itself works faith.
    a. The Holy Spirit creates faith
    b. The Holy Spirit converts and justifies the sinner

  4. Salvation: Immediate as soon as the sinner accepts God’s general pardon

  5. Salvation by grace alone.

  6. Salvation: guaranteed by God’s grace and truth

Means of Grace
How the grace is brought to the sinner.
How the grace is communicated to the sinner.

pg 350 Mueller
Note that the Means of Grace is at work bringing about the conversion. SO the sinner must encounter WORD and Sacrament.

Primary and Secondary Means of Grace
Primary is the Word
Secondary receives its authority from the Word

Acts 2:38
The divine purpose of baptism is salvation.

Matt 26:28
The blood of the Messiah was poured out for salvation.

John 15:16
It’s God not me.

Justification effects the mystical union by which the Holy Trinity, in particular the Holy Spirit, dwells in the believer. Gal 3:2; Eph. 3:17; John 14:23; 1 Cor 3:16 and 6:19.

Justification produces sanctification.
Rom 7:5 - 6 Gal 2:20; 3:2 and 3
2 Cor 3:6 Rom 3:28

Justification makes the sinner a member of the Christian Church.

Forensic Legal Act based on merits of Christ
Romans 4:3, 7 -8
Based on the act of Jesus Christ sins are removed.

This is contrasted with human emotion. Emotions flutter all over the place but the LEGAL status before the LORD stands.

Solo gratia
We can not add anything to our salvation. Rom. 3:28

The sinner prays a confession to the LORD at or near the point of conversion.

Daily confession. To remember that we are sinful and need him.
We can fall away and need to be guarded.

. 5. Salvation by grace alone

. 6. Salvation: guaranteed by God’s grace and truth

. 7. Salvation: brings indwelling of the Holy Spirit

Gal 3:2
Eph 3:17
John 14:23. The Trinity is within us.
I Cor 3:16 and 6:19 Note that the “you” is plural in verse 16 and 19.

It does not matter how much you have of the Holy Spirit but it makes all the difference how much He has of you.

.8. Salvation: produces sanctification

.9. Salvation

Incorporates a sinner into membership in the Church Militant
Church Triumphant

There should be a desire to be part of a congregation. Hebrews 10 do not forsake the assembly.

there is a distinction between Church Militant and Church Triumphant. The one is in the fallen world and the other is in heaven enjoying the presence of the Lord.

The Doctrine of Saving Faith

Muller pp 32
Holy Scripture knows but one way to salvation, namely, by grace, through faith in the redemption of Christ. Rom 3:22-25.

pp 322. …Scripture itself testifies that a sinner is justified before God only through his trust in the objective atonement made by Christ. Rom 3:24. It is a personal confidence in the divine promises found in the Gospel.

pp 324 Faith is essentially trust of the heart, or sincere confidence in the grace of God offered to all sinners for Christ’s sake in the Gospel. This faith was/is denied by the papist.

Place trust on the Son of God.

Rom 4:3 - 5 and 10:9
John 3:16
Gal 2:16

pp 325 describes faith as knowledge, assent and confidence/trust.

pp 326 Faith apprehends the grace of God and the merits of Christ which are offered in the Gospel.

pp 327 Mueller writes that receiving the fruit of Christ’s labors is a passive act on our part.

The Order of Salvation (ordo salutis)

A. The Call:

  1. Definition “…that gracious activity of the Holy Spirit by which He causes the sinner to realize that all is not weel with him” (George Aus)
  2. Purpose

    Awakening: “to bring a man to seek salvation and become willing to let God save him.” Kildahl

  3. Means: The Gospel

The call from God to encounter himself. To awaken them to truth. That all mankind is sinful and in need of forgiveness and that this forgiveness is given. Christ has done the deed at the cross to redeem the sinner and now offers the the gift.



IN the Old Testament it was a returning to the LORD. From the Hebrew word Shuv and the other word Nacham is to have regret in the heart.

In the New Testament the metanoeo was to change one’s mind to turn back from a particular path. metanoia is the noun.

Note: the usage by John the Baptist, the Lord, the apostles Peter and Paul.

John the Baptist - Matthew 3:1 - 12
Our Lord - Matthew 4:17, 11:20 - 24
The Apostle Peter - Acts 2:38, 5:31
The Apostle Paul - Acts 17:30, 20:21, 26:20

humiliation - James 4:6 - 10 Contrition (SA 3.3) “…terrors smiting the conscience through the knowledge of sin” (AC XII) (Apol. XII) Confession

The kindness of God guides one to turn to the LORD (repent or return to him).
Entry points: death, birth, marriage, transition in life. These may be times when people are open to hear the Word. The Holy Spirit uses these points in the lives of people.


  1. Meaning and usage
    Old Testament (aman)
    New Testament

  2. The necessity of faith
    Faith (in Christ) = salvation
    Unbelief = damnation

  3. The nature of faith
    What is is not
    Mere general belief in God - Romans 1:19, 20; Luke 4:34; James 2:19
    Mere Assent to the Gospel
    Mere knowledge of the Bible in general - James 2:14 - 16

Pg 322 Mueller
Saving faith: “I believe that Jesus Christ… is my Lord, who has redeemed me, a lost and condemned creature, purchased and won me from all sins, from death, and from the power of the devil, not with gold or silver, but with His holy, precious blood and with His innocent suffering and death.”

The Holy Spirit must take a person to this place.

True Faith - Mark 16:15 - 16; John 3:16 - 18; 2 Peter 2:1; 2 Cor 5:19 0 21; Acts 2:38, 16:31, 10:42 - 43; 2 Tim 2:4; Acts 13:39, Acts 26 26:27 - 29; Mark 1:14 - 15; Romans 3:22 - 25

What it is
Definition - Galatians 2:20; 1 John 1:17; Luke 24:47
Special faith (personal) Job 19:25
Actual faith (apprehending) Romans 5:11, 9:30; John 1:12; Colossians 2:6; Is 55:6; John 6:44; Gal 3:27; Matt 11:12, 28
Direct faith - Matt 18:6, Ps 22:9; Luke 18:15; Rom 5:12
Reflex faith (discursive) - 1 John 3:14; Rom 1:5; Acts 6:7 We are to remember what God has down for us through Christ.

By looking at Nature we have an awareness that there is a creator.

  1. Synonyms for faith
    Knowledge - James 2:19; John 17:3; I Cor 4:6; Phil 3:8
    Assent - 1 Cor 2:14 - 15; 1 John 5:15; Romans 4:5

  2. The function of faith in justification
    Objective foundation of justification - the cross - Rom 3:28
    Subjective condition of justification - faith
    A means of receiving God’s grace
    Faith is a work of God - Rom 10:17; 1 Cor 12:3, 9; Mark 9:24
    Pertinent Scripture

Wrong understanding of faith looks like:
Faith in faith
Faith is a feeling
Faith is good works

However faith results in the doing of good works.

** 4. Synonyms for faith
a. Knowledge ; James 2:19; John 17:3; I Cor 4:6; Phil 3:8
b. Assent - 1Cor 2:14- 15; 1 John 5:1- 5; Romans 4:5
c. Confidence

** 5. The function of faith in justification
a. Objective foundation of justification -the cross - Rom 3:28
b. Subjective condition of justification - faith
A means of receiving God’s grace
Faith is a work of God - Rom 10:17; 1 Cor 12:3, 9 Mark 9:24
c. Pertinent Scriptures

faith is not equal to grace
Faith beleives that Christ has saved.

Objective is what Jesus did at the cross.
Subjective is my reponse to the event.

theodicy - the problem of evil.

The faith healing folks want to control God. What kind of god can be controled? Only idols.

**6. Faith as a passive instrument
a. Merely accepts God’s grace in Christ
b. Produced and preserved by the Holy Spirit

** 8 . Faith and the assurance of salvation
a. Obstacles to assurance

  > Works - righteousness
  > Errant Bible. A false understanding of the Word. Man is the authority over and above Scripture in liberal theology.

b. Prossibility of assurance - 1 John 5:13; 2 Samuel 23:1; 2 Timothy 1:12, 4:7
c. Prescription for removal of doubt

  > Preach the Law
  > Preach the Gospel

d. The witness of the Spirit

   > Internal: Our spirit bears witness with the Spirit
   > External: Love for God and His Word. Love for others. Fruits of the Spirit. 

hope so - salvation
know so - salvation

Some will talk about this a put down the word “HOPE”. In English “hope so” expresses doubt. The usage in the Bible is that “HOPE” is confidance in something.

Do not be too quick to play games with the English language. Know the language of the Bible.

** 9 The Faith of Infants
a. Faith ascribed to infants - Ps 22:9; 1 John 2:13; Ps 8:2; Mark 10:14; Acts 4:12; Ps 71:6; Eph 2:2-3; Ps 51:5
b. Effects of faith ascribed to infants

Matthew 18:6

The Mirror of Faith by Eric Pontoppidan

  1. Constancy of the faithfulness of God. Ps 145:6; Is 11:5; Men and work 2 Kings 12:16; Jer 5
  2. Christian Articles of Faith. Rom 1:5; Eph 4:5; Acts 14:27; Gal 1:23
  3. Christ as the object of faith. Gal 3:23
  4. Kinship in hope and faith. 1 Peter 1:5
  5. Power to work signs and miracles. 1 Cor 12:10; ;Lk 17:6; Matt 17:20
  6. Steadfast open confession and pure doctrine. 1 Thess 1:8; Acts 14:22; Rom 1:8; 1 Cor 16:13; Rev 13:10
  7. Merely external of Christian doctrineJames 2:19, 20, 24 (James and Romans ch 1 work together)
  8. Laying hold of Christ and His merits with a repentant heart. This is saving faith.

The Nature of Conversion

The right preaching about the objective justification will lead to and encounter with Jesus. The subjective justification will occur.

True Conversion Essentials - Acts 26:17b - 18

  1. The Call
  2. Enlightenment - Acts 26:18; Matthew 4:16
  3. Repentance
    a. Nature and meaning of repentance - Acts 2:38; Romans 2:4; Matthew 27:2; 2 Cor 7:9-10; 1 Kings 21; Heb 6:4
    b. Major themes of the prophets - Is 1:16-17; Jer 7:3; Ex 14:6
    c. Humiliation - 2 Chron 7:14
    d. Contrition or sorrow for sin - Luke 18:13; Ezra 9:3; Ps 6:6; Ps 51:4
    e. Confession to God - Romans 8:1; Psalm 32:5, 11; John 20:21-23; Matt 18:18; James 5:16
    f. Transformation follows - Isaiah 55:7; Ex 14:6
    g. Repentance is the turning away from darkness and turning to the light - Isaiah 55:7
  4. Faith
  5. Justification

Preach the Gospel when witnessing. The Gospel converts.
Acts 8 is an example.

The pastor through his preaching and interaction is used by the Holy Spirit in the call to the sinner.

C. Theological Basis

  1. Man’s need (fallen nature)
    a) Spiritually dead / blind - Gal 3:21ff; 1 Cor 1:18; Col 2:13
    b) Enmity against God - Romans 8:5 - 8; Eph 2:12 - 18; Gal 3:22
    c) Bondage of the will - Mueller 236 - 241
     > Inability to worship God
     > Incapable of saving himself

Key Words:

Prison, Perish, dead, hostile (cannot please God) When we work with the fallen we will encounter a wall of hostility. This is to be expected from those who are hostile towards God.

Important to remember this:
Love people, trust God

This is important to keep straight in your mind.

Free will

Human will is free to resist God. It can perform in matters of civil righteousness. It can act in a way that pleases or displease our neighbor here on earth.

However, the human will is incapable of performing anything related to spiritual righteousness. Eph 2. Mankind is spiritually dead and can do nothing to please God.

Just as a child does not choose to be born to his parents so the Christian does not choose to be a Christian.

Conversion (continued)

*2. God’s Provision
a. Reconciliation through Christ
1) His perfect fulfillment of law.

Circumcision - Luke 2:21 - 24; Col 2:9 - 19
Presentation in the temple - Luke 2:22 - 24
Baptism by John - Matthew 3:15
2) His atoning sacrifice for sin - 1 John 2:1
b. Reception through means of grace

Arndt’s Four Properties of True Repentance

  1. Unworthy
    a. Accounts himself unworthy - Luke 14:26
    b. Denying himself - Matthew 16:24
    c. Hating one’s self-comparative love- Matthew 10:34-39
    d. Taking up the cross
     *Mephiboseth - 2 Samuel 9:8
     *Prodigal Son - Luke 15:19
     *Canaanite woman - Matt 15:21-28
     *Peter - Luke 5:8
     *Centurion - Matt 8:6
     *Paul - 1 Corinth 15:9; Acts 20:24
     *Plus me - Matthew 16:23-24
  2. Grief
  3. Deeply sense own weakness - Psalm 39:5
  4. Union with God

Find a balance between Orthodoxy and Pietism.

Inducements of True Repentance

  1. Boundless mercy of God - Rom 2:4 ( but isn’t this repentance in the wide sense? )
  2. Kindness of Christ and HIs inestimable merit - Col 1:19-20
  3. The awful threatening and punishment that lay before the sinner
  4. Truth of death - fact that death is inevitable - Heb 9:27
  5. Judgment - 2 Peter 3:11-12
  6. Hell itself - Psalm 49:14-20
  7. Everlasting Joy - 1 John 3:2; John 16:19, 22

The Scriptural Doctrine of Conversion

The starting point and the terminus of conversion

The starting point is unbelief - Eph 2:12
Terminus is saving faith - Eph 2:13; Mark 9:24; Mark 5:6; John 3:36; Acts 10:43

Essential Features


The means of Conversion - The Gospel
Romans 10:14 - 17
James 1:18, 21
1 Thess 1:5
2 Thess 2:13 - 14
1 Thess 2:13
Romans 1:16
Hebrews 4:12
John 6:63

Emotions in Conversion
Acts 16:29 - 30
Acts 2:37
John 4

Trust of the heart
Acts 16:31

Conversion is instantaneous
John 3:18, 36
Mark 16:16
Colossians 1:13

No in between position. Discussion about spiritual growth takes place. Remember Pastor Haugen’s discussion. We are both sinner and saint. From God’s perspective we are spiritually mature. He sees us as justified and perfect.


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Conversion is resistible
Matthew 23:37
Acts 7:51

“O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you were not willing! 38 See,

Care of souls

When you ask someone “how is it with you and the Lord today?” they may hear law. They may hear law. They haven’t been doing something they should. Great care has to be practiced. The Word presents it as From God’s perspective they are Right.

But also the point of noting the condition of the Sheep. IN our understanding of theology we can fall from grace. We can resist grace and this is important to monitor in the life of the congregation.

The Efficient Cause of Conversion

The unscriptural alternatives

1) Power ( for Pelagiaus God was only active in the power and man is active in will and realization. )
2) Will
3) Realization

Pay attention. Bondage of the will says we are not willing. We are hostile to the Lord.

This understanding is still present with us today. There are those who still don’t believe in original sin. They don’t see children as sinners. That you can earn salvation. All these are still present today and we struggle today against these in our churches.

In contrast Luther was different in that he focused on the Bible and was from the Augustinian Order. This order did study the Scriptures. So Luther did study Scripture. His Father Confessor had more of an evangelical view, more so than other Catholics did at that time. The Lord worked to bring about something wonderful in the life of Luther.

The humanist viewpoint of today is basically Pelagian or Semi-Pelagian.

Synergism is the understanding that man works together in the conversion of self.

Philip Melancthon was accused of being synergistic. We don’t think this is the case. He wrote Loci and he may have pushed his understanding too far.

Matthias Flacius opposed the Phillipist. The result was the Formula of Concord 1577 Part 1, II Freewill pg. 469 - 472.

The HOly Spirit has to do a work on the will of man to make him truly willing and able to believe. The KEY seems to be the work of the HOly Spirit and to give him the credit of causing faith and conversion. Gal. 3:3 Note that the Holy Spirit begins the work.

Power of the Holy Spirit is the GOSPEL.

The greatest demonstration of the power of the Holy Spirit is to convert a spiritually dead person to faith.

The signs that Jesus did were to point himself as the Messiah. It was to bring faith to those around him. Faith that He is the Messiah.

When TV evangelist do things that point to themselves be very careful.

Enthusiasm - This is problematic as it states it is without means. What about the Muslim who has a vision. This is event with our without a means. Maybe the vision is a means.

Maybe another term could be emotionalism which is more of a feeling and this is always suspect.

The True and Only Cause: Monergism (God Alone)

God alone effects conversion through means of Grace
Romans 1:16-17, Acts 5;31; 2 Timothy 2:25

Scriptural Basis of Divine Monergism

Conversion is ascribed exclusively to God. Jn 6a:44; Col 1:12 - 13

>Divine Grace - Eph 2:8-9
>Divine power - 2 Cor 4:6
    * Regeneration - John 1:12 - 13
    * Resurrection - Col 2:12 - 13

Man cannot know or believe the Gospel

>1 Cor 2:14; Romans 8:7

Justification by Grace Alone


Objective - Jesus died to save the world John 3. The Gospel offers forgiveness. The general offer. Jesus did die for all. The FACT. Reconciled the World. 1 John 2:2 propitiation for the whole world.
Subjective - Romans 3:28 Jesus died for me. When the individual, through the work of the HOly Spirit, responds to the prompting of the HOly Spirit through the preaching of the Gospel. By faith apprehending the fact.

Necessity of Grace
Assurance - Romans 4:16; 1 John 5:11 - 15
God’s Glory - Ephesians 1:6 - 7 God is honored every time a sinner is saved.

God’s grace is real each day. Each day we are called to trust his saving work for us.

We sin daily. The “old man” is always with us. We must confess our sin 1 John 1:8ff He is faithful to forgive us.

Justification: The Central Doctrine

Central in all of Scripture
1 Cor 2:2; Acts 20:27; Acts 10:43

Central in all Doctrines

The Church (ecclesiology)
The Ministry ( you have to know Christ to share Christ )
The Means of Grace (they are not separate from Christ, they are Christ.)


————> cross <<<<<<<<<<

OT people were looking forward to their salvation. The NT people look back towards the Christ Event. IT is the same God, the same way of salvation. Through faith.

A false teaching is that only the Apostle Paul taught justification through faith and others did not. I saw this in the Church of Christ.

Trust God and Love People.
Do not trust people and love God.

A Study of Terminology

God Justifies: By grace, for Christ’s sake, through faith. Romans 1:16
Justification: a forensic (applying scientific facts in a court case. He knows we are guilty. The facts state this. Christ took my place) or judicial act (come forgiven in Christ, HIS act), not medical or physical
Justification: by grace alone
Justification: does not even require the presence of good works. John 13:35; Matt 12:37; 1 John 3:14; Matt 6:14
Justification: has no degrees (The woman in Luke 7 as she is washing Jesus’ feet with her tears. Her actions came out of her faith.)
Justification: fully expressed as the forgiveness of sin.


Justification by works? ( Good works follow justification. )
Effects of Justification

* State of grace (pg 380ff 1 Cor 10:12. Guard your position. Romans 11:20. 
* Indwelling of the Holy Spirit ( Gal 3:2; 1 Cor 3:16; Romans 8:15, 16).
* Sanctification or renewal (inward transformation. begins when the person is justified. Awareness of personal depravity. Also are indications of the work of the Holy Spirit. 1 Thess 4:9; ) 
* Christian liberty ( Absolute freedom in Christ. Paul in Galatians the issue was circumcision. 1 Cor 9:1ff)
* Membership in the church. (there is a membership in the Body of Christ that is automatic. THe local congregation may have different rules about joining. At the local congregation membership is not automatic. Members should be encouraged as well as encouragers. There is a responsibility for each member.)

The Doctrine of Sanctification and Good Works

Understanding the term
Biblical usage
Qadhosh - to be set apart for a special purpose
‘agiaomos hagiasomos - Separation to God
1 Cor 1:30; 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Thes 2:13
Course of life consistent with those separated
1 Thes 4:3, 4, 7; Romans 5:19, 22; 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 12:14

Basic Idea
Separation from evil
Separation unto God
Being made holy. Separation from the world and unto God.

Faith is a focus on an object. It is NOT faith in faith. Faith is a gift of the HOly Spirit that has Jesus and his work as the object of that faith. quiet confidence that God will take care of you.

Rom 3:28; 10:17
Gal 2:16, 20
Eph 6:16; 2:20
I Cor 12:9



Two fold usages

Wide sense
1 Peter 1:2; 2 Thess 2:13; Romans 1:7; 1 Cor 1:2, 6:11
Romans 6:18 - 19, 22; 2 Cor 7:1; Gal 5:22 - 26; 6:1, 22; Titus 3:8, 11; 2:11

Cause of Sanctification
1 Thess 5:23 - 24; 1 John 1:8

Sanctification - becoming more and more aware of what Christ has done for us.

The “Inner Motions” of Sanctification

The reality of conflict
The “new man” Eph 4:24; Col 3:10; 2 Cor 4:16; Romans 7:22, 6:11
The “old man” Eph 4:22; 2 Cor 4:16; Romans 6:6, 7:18; Gal 5:17

The realization needed
Struggle - evidence of spiritual life
Temptation will come - James 1:12 - 15
Crucifixion not reformation - 2 Cor 7:1; Romans 8:16; Gal 5:24; Col 3:5; 1 Cor 9:27; Matt 18:8-9
It is a battle “fight” 1 Tim 6:12; 2 Tim 4:7; Romans 7:24

The way of victory
Recognize our own weakness - 2 Cor 12:10
Cling to the Word - Psalm 119:9-11; Eph 6:17; Romans 8:37; 2 Cor 4:8; 1 Peter 5:9; John 17:17

The Lord’s Prayer is important for the sanctified life.

Our Father who art in heaven,
hallowed be Thy name,
Thy kingdom come,
Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread;
and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us;
and lead us not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
For Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever and ever. Amen.

what are the selves that need to die

self will
self indulgence
self love
self ishness
self glorification
self gratification

Means of Sanctification
Powerful Gospel - John 17:17
Preparatory Law
Accuses Romans 6:14; 5:20 - 21
Guides Romans 7:5-6; Jeremiah 31:31-34; Romans 12:1; 1 John 4:10-11; Psalm 119:105; Gal 3:14; Romans 12:1
The Law as accuser, curb, and rule

Place of Trials.

Necessity of Sanctification and Good Works

The related errors

good works - necessary for salvation? NO
good works - necessary to retain salvation? NO

Romans 5:2; Romans 11:20; Col 1:22-23; 1 Peter 1:5, 9; James 2

evil works - do not destroy faith

1 Tim 1:18-20; 2 Tim 2:16-18; 1 Cor 6:9ff

The Biblical view: Sanctification and good works are necessary (Acts 5:29; 1 Thess 4:3)

on the Lord’s account
on the believer’s account
on the account of the unsaved (1 John 3:23)

Imperfection of Sanctification

The error of sinless perfection
The call to perfection (holiness) The thought that you can achieve sinlessness in this life.

The Doctrine of Good Works

Definition - Works that flow from faith and from the joy of heart that has come to us because we have the forgiveness of sins through Christ. Luther

Norm of good works
Positively (inspired by the Gospel, Holy Spirit, Word)

Source of good works
Growth of good works

The reward of good works

The five “crowns” - Rev 4:10-11 (life, incorruptible, righteousness, glory, rejoicing)
Reason for reward

Value of good works
Perversion of good works (an attempt to merit grace)

Cross bearing and the Christian

Definition of Cross
Practical application
The right view of the cross
The benefits of cross bearing
The strength to bear the cross
The cross and the old nature.

The cross is to die to yourself and live for Christ. It is not the ingrown toenail. It is not the bad back.

The Christian Life and Prayer

The attitude of prayer
Content of prayer
Form of prayer
An example of prayer (Paul)
The requisite of prayer
The effect of prayer
The norm of prayer - the Word
Posture in prayer - Biblical examples

The Means of Grace

This is one area that has seen a lot of controversy.

Means communicate life and salvation to us. They are commanded by Christ. The way God communicates saving grace.

1. The Divine precedent. It has always been by faith in the power and promises of a Holy God.

a. Creation (common grace- a kindness shown to all even the wicked.Matt 5:45; Heb 1:3; John 1:1-4; Luke 6:35; Psalm 145:9; Acts 14:17; Nahum 1:3)
b. Noah - 1 Peter 3:17 - 22
c. Abraham John 8:56
d. Moses
f. Sacrifices - Hebrews 9:22
g. prophets
h. healing

2. Identity
a. Word (primary) Gospel. Scripture imparts life.
(secondary) the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper. (Confession and Absolution also occur in the Church.)
b. Benefits. life

3. Opposing Views
any opposing view basically goes toward works righteousness.
a. Enthusiasm
b. Romanism ex opere oporato
c. Calvinism
d. Synergism. Mixing grace and works. Both Romanism and semi-pelagists do this.
e. doubt with the church and believer

4. Foundation. finished work of Christ

5. Gospel as means
a. Primary - Mueller 442
b. functions

6. Sacraments as means.
A holy ordinance given by God through which He gives his invisible grace.

7. Importance of means
a. creation of faith
b. reception of Holy Spirit

8. Absolution
a. Usage
b. Basis: found through out Scripture. A promise that we are forgiven. Objective reconciliation to Christ through his death.
Matthew 18:18
John 20:23
Matthew 9:8
2 Corinthians 2:10
Luke 23:47

9. Old Testament
a. Circumcision Genesis 17:7-14
Romans 4:11
b. Passover Ex12:13, 20-29 “shadows” of what would come.
c. Abolished

  1. Means of Prayer
    Dealing with man, prayer cannot save us. Approaching God in faith.

Baptist: believer comes to baptism. Faith comes prior to baptism.

Lutheran: Faith is given in baptism.


a. Proper usage
b. figurative usage: tribulation, martrydom.
c. Synicticy: A part is used to describe the whole. “Nice wheels” means you have a nice car. The baptized is figurative for the Body of Christ.

Baptism is enduring. We are to baptize until Christ returns.

Some have called it a sacrament of initiation. It is bringing someone into the family of faith.

Element - water
John 1:33; 3:5
Acts 8:36; 10:47
Eph 5:26

“Infant Baptism” does not appear in Scripture.

If someone asks, “Is it necessary to be baptized?” they are showing an improper understanding of the sacrament.

Ask them this question, “If Jesus gave you a gift, would you turn it down?”


“If Jesus gave a command would you follow it?”

The Mode of Baptism
Biblical Usage

Figurative use of baptizein

Christ’s death
Noah’s deliverance - 1 Peter 3:18-22
Red Sea Crossing - 1 Cor 10:1

Pentecost - Matt 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16; Acts 1:5; 11:16

Proper use of Baptizein
Hebrews 9:10; Mark 7:4; Luke 11:38-39

Inconclusive cases

Confessional Lutherans accept various modes of baptism. Baptism must involve water and the Word.

The Efficacy of Baptism
The historic foundation: The cross
The connecting link: the gospel
The appropriating instrument: faith
The baptism promises
The confessional echoes

Candidates for baptism
Unbaptized believeing adults

Note: faith does not make a sacrament a scarmaent. The Lord’s Word as a command combined created matter conves grace.

Baptism is a means of grace.

faith, reflexive faith, what are the various types of faith?

Practical Concerns
The adminstrants. Normally it should be the called pastor. There are exceptions. IN an emergency a lay person can administer baptism.

The baptismal service
Normally takes place in the church service.

Pastor Monseth had in mind born again Lutherans. They are primarily witnesses to the event. The congregation is also a witness.

In the AFLC there is no rule regarding private baptism. As a rule it is important to have the baptism in the church setting. The church (Body of Christ) should be present.

Promises of baptism:
Acts 22:16; Titus 3:5; 1 Peter 3:20, 21

The Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper

Look for the definiton in the small catechism

Terms Employed
Lord’s Supper
Table of the Lord
The Breaking of the Bread
Holy Eucharist
Sacrament of the Altar



Relationship to other means of grace
Similarity: Word of grace
Uniqueness: “Heavenly matter” (Body and Blood)

There is a thread of thought that runs along with the Sacraments. That of imparting grace to the helpless that is distinctly Lutheran.

Erroneous views of the Lord’s Supper
Transsubstantiation (Roman Catholic)
Symbolic (Reformed)
No particular presence (Zwingli)
A “spiritual” presence (Calvin)

Biblical Lutheran view
The position states: “real presence”
Visible (bread and wine) plus Invisible (Body and Blood) - “real presence”
We can also use the word “ethos” which connects us to the idea that there is a doctrine that permeates the Lutheran Doctrine that there are means by which the grace merited at the cross comes to the weak and dead sinner.

Lord’s Supper - Historic Interpretations

Erroneous views
Transubstantiation (RC) 1Cor 11:27, 10:16
Symbolic (Reformed)

No particular presence (Zwingli)
A “spiritual” presence (Calvin)

Biblical Lutheran view
The positions stated: “real presence”
Visible (bread and wine) + invisible (body and blood)= real presence.

View, falsely charged to Lutheranism, that bread and body form 1 substance (a “3d substance”) in Communion (similarly wine and blood) or that body and blood are present, like bread and wine, in a natural manner. See also Grace, Means of, IV 3.

Theory of local inclusion of Christ’s body and blood in eucharistic elements without change in substances. The Wittenberg* Concord and FC SD VII 14–15, 64 reject impanation.

Don’t say anything other than that we believe in the Real Presence.

Luther felt that the Bible must be taken literally here. If not here then it would not be taken literally anywhere.

Lord’s Supper - Evidence for a literal sense

The words of institution
Jesus’ choice of words

Historic setting
The uniquenes calls for clarity
The character (a “testament”) calls for precision
A “Communion”: 1 Corinthians 10:16-17; Acts 2:42
The gravity of unworthiness - 1 Corinthians 11

No one is allowed to change a last will or testament. They stand and written.

The Apostle Paul understood the Supper to be more than a mear symbol. He took it very seriously and taught it so.

Lord’s Supper - Main Parts

The Consecration

Prayer of thanks - euchararist
Reciting words of institution

The Distribution

The manner - an adiaphora
The content - Both elements. It’s best to be consistent with the elements.

tirosh (Hebrew) used 38 times in the OT. It is used in all stages of the movement from grape juice unto wine.
Oinos (Greek) There were no fresh squeezed grapes at the time of the passover.
Archeaology has some info for us on this topic.

The Partaking

A “sacramental” reception always
A “spiritual” reception ideally

Lord’s Supper - Participants

The Need for Care
Biblical qualifications
Born Again (baptized)
Able to examine themselves
Able to discern the Lord’s body
Warning of judgment - 1 Cor 11:29

The pastoral responsibility
Set forth benefits and harm
Emphasize preparation “examination”
Reflection on God’s grace
Examination of personal life
Examination of corporate life. This is something that I don’t think we ever talk about. How are we doing as a family of believers.

The denial of the Sacrament
The uncoverted
The unbaptized
The immature or immoblized
Little children
The unrepentant under discipline

Lord’s Supper - Additional Points

Open vs. Closed communion
What should be done with unused elements?
Lutherans-need to be taught
Its necessity