• Culture—Jacob
    How students think critically about the differences between cultures?

  • Language—Robert
    How do languages connect and relate (to critical thinking)?

  • Critical thinking in classroom—Jared
    What is critical thinking and how does it apply to the Spanish classroom?

  • Why is critical thinking important?—Jared

    1. “In the comparative field of cross-cultural psychology, the goal is to study interactions between cultures, define differences, and determine commonalities and psychological universals between them. Cross-cultural studies address psychological diversity as well as why the diversity exists”
      Learning about the Spanish culture can help students identify the differences and similarities in its culture as compared to their own. It can also help provoke the question as to why these cultures differ the way they do.
    1. “When facing uncertain foreign cultural exchanges and situations, a natural human response is to impose one’s own perspectives to resolve behavioral ambiguities.”
      If students are better educated and well aware of cultures other than their own, they will be able to be more respectful towards those cultures, as well as be open to the ideas and beliefs of those cultures.
    1. “In communicating and making observations cross-culturally, it is essential to refrain from continually supporting beliefs that serve no purpose other than to alienate and ostracize one group of individuals from another. Critical thinking prevents this type of lazy and rigid thinking.”
      Learning about different cultures will help students find reasons as to why some cultures believe what they believe, and also what purpose it serves in the development in their culture. It will cause students to think critically rather than just stating common sterotypical statements about a certian culture.
    1. “Critical thinking becomes vital to sound evidence, to help avoid biased information relating to description and explanation.”
      Critical thinking can help eliminate bias views and opinions about other cultures by exposing students to the truth about how the beliefs of other cultures are developed.
    1. “Common to many, we tend to be easily convinced by means of subjective evidence than by reliable facts and statistics through thorough investigation. To avoid the biased perspective when assessing varying hypotheses of speculation, critical thinking skills can help produce sound evidence of support.”
      Critical thinking and learning about cultures will cause people to rely on actual facts and statistics rather than bias rumors or views about other cultures.
    1. “Critical thinking is a vital component in relation to cross-cultural psychology, as people have a basic tendency to follow subjective description and avoid relevant data and statistical information. By applying critical thinking antidotes, psychologists reduce the chance of providing biased information in research.”
      Same as 1&2
    1. “We have a tendency to stubbornly cling to our beliefs, sometimes even in the face of disconfirming evidence. Thus, when these beliefs are challenged, we feel impelled to protect them, almost as if we were protecting ourselves. One consequence of this belief perseverance effect is that it generally requires much more compelling evidence to change our beliefs than it did to create them in the first place.”
      If we allow people to become close minded and stubborn at an early age, it will slow down the process of development of new ideas and beliefs as a whole in society. Being able to teach students at an early age to think critically is important to help improve our society’s mind set.
  • “To me, cross-cultural research itself is an example of critical thinking because it asks the all-important question, ‘is what I know to be true for one cultural group also true for another?’ By asking this question and conducting studies to test it, cross-cultural research in and of itself naturally facilitates the constant challenging of and skepticism toward one’s truths and knowledge. By engaging in cross-cultural research one is always engaging in critical thinking about the state of the field.”
    Skepticism is commonly used when describing a group of people. Even if a belief may be true for the majority of that group of people, it doesn’t mean every single person within that group of people holds that belief. Being able to eliminate skepticism will make people more accepting of other people’s beliefs and more open minded to new ideas and beliefs.

  • Idea 1. Spanish is a syllable-centered language, while English is a stress-timed language. When Spanish speakers apply the native intonation, the result can be incomprehensible to English speakers.

  • Idea 2. “The major problem for the Spanish learner is that there is no one-to-one correspondence in the use of the tenses.”
    Spanish learners must think critically about the logic behind Spanish verb tenses in order to understand the language.

  • Idea 3. “Spanish has a strong correspondence between the sound of a word and its spelling. The irregularity of English in this respect causes predictable problems when Spanish learners write a word they first meet in spoken language or say a word first met in written language.”
    Spanish pronunciation requires learners to think about language in a different way.

  • Students face problems frequently with trying to apply English grammar to Spanish language.

  • “False Friends,” or Spanish words that sound similar to English words but have different meanings, are one big cause of confusion.

    1. “In describing phenomena, particularly social phenomena, the language that people use invariably reflects their own personal values, biases, likes, and dislikes. In this way, their words can reveal at least as much about themselves as the events, individuals, and groups they are attempting to describe.”
  • Critical thinking describes the process of working with ideas and using them to inquire and gain further knowledge. It can be used to guide a belief or action. At its best, critical thinking “transcends subject matter divisions.”

  • “In each class period, one student presents an aphorism such as “life is the vanity of all vanities” or “love is blind”, and then we discuss for a few minutes the implications of the aphorism. Not only are we practicing out Spanish, expanding our vocabulary, and growing in our speaking skills, but we are going beneath the surface and thinking more deeply about life and our personal philosophies.”

    Thoughts: This activity promotes critical thinking in the same way that we did in Honors Seminar: thinking about an idea and discussing it as a group. An added bonus for this activity is that it promotes speaking in Spanish. However for a Spanish II Honors Class, they might not be able to talk much in Spanish about subjects that promote critical thinking, unless it applies to vocabulary used in the chapter they are learning.

  • Difficult to learn a lot of vocabulary in a short amount of time. Thinking critically about words makes it easier to remember—make inferences, draw conclusions. Focus less on memorizing than reasoning.

  • Possible Activities:

    Which doesn’t belong?: Given a group of words or pictures and determine which doesn’t belong by justifying answer (there can be more than one, potentially).
    Analogies: Work on understanding relationships between words i.e. Apple: fruit - Broccoli: _.
    What’s Right: Provide four sentences and figure out which is correct.
    Something’s Wrong Here: Find missing/incorrect information within a few given sentences and correct it.
    Your Order Please: Organize a randomized series of events in order. (Szeto recommends using signal words: Then, Next, etc.) For advanced students: Give five sentences to put in oder, one of which does not belong

    Potential Homework Idea: Make a worksheet incorporating these critical thinking activities.

  • Strategies that may apply:

    1. Don’t sacrifice how much students will learn for more material
    2. Speak less and provide students to discuss and think more
    3. Use “fundamental and powerful concepts with high generalizability”
    4. Think aloud in front of students
    5. Present concepts, develop them as much as possible and place them in “the context of their use as functional tools for the solution of real problems and the analysis of significant issues.”
    6. Question students Socratically
    7. Use clear examples to demonstrate abstract ideas and thoughts
    8. Do small group activities
    9. Design activities and assignments so that the student can think through the problem(s)
  • Señor Ramos uses critical thinking in the classroom by:

    • having his students “play ahead of the game” by

    • having students “absorb” the material by “looking for commonalities”

      • does this with verbs by figuring out which verbs have which endings—looking for patterns
  • Summary: Simply giving students facts they need to pass the upcoming test and do well in a class does not prepare them to find the information themselves. Those who think critically are able to find the facts themselves and determine what is important to know. With these skills, people are able to do things on their own, instead of being given the information their entire lives. It also can help with forming connection between ideas and knowledge and create an environment of self-learning. Critical thinking is not just advantageous for gaining more knowledge and skills but also allows a person to be aware of his/her own “core values, opinions and calculations” and be able to “continually reach new planes of self-improvement and self-actualization.” The value of critical thinking is unlimited because it can be applied and be effective in many situations.

{"cards":[{"_id":"36b7bc7d3e2ee44ee400001a","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"Culture--Jacob\nHow students think critically about the differences between cultures?"},{"_id":"36ee37c48ba10f202c000015","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36b7bc7d3e2ee44ee400001a","content":"1. http://psychological-musings.blogspot.com/2011/06/cross-cultural-psychology.html\nThis site helps explain how critical thinking comes into the idea of differing cultures."},{"_id":"36fbe9577a86f1ce5e00001b","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36ee37c48ba10f202c000015","content":"1. \"In the comparative field of cross-cultural psychology, the goal is to study interactions between cultures, define differences, and determine commonalities and psychological universals between them. Cross-cultural studies address psychological diversity as well as why the diversity exists\"\nLearning about the Spanish culture can help students identify the differences and similarities in its culture as compared to their own. It can also help provoke the question as to why these cultures differ the way they do."},{"_id":"36fbee3c7a86f1ce5e00001c","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36ee37c48ba10f202c000015","content":"2. \"When facing uncertain foreign cultural exchanges and situations, a natural human response is to impose one's own perspectives to resolve behavioral ambiguities.\"\nIf students are better educated and well aware of cultures other than their own, they will be able to be more respectful towards those cultures, as well as be open to the ideas and beliefs of those cultures."},{"_id":"36fc33059c1dab9cc500001d","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36ee37c48ba10f202c000015","content":"3. \"In communicating and making observations cross-culturally, it is essential to refrain from continually supporting beliefs that serve no purpose other than to alienate and ostracize one group of individuals from another. Critical thinking prevents this type of lazy and rigid thinking.\"\nLearning about different cultures will help students find reasons as to why some cultures believe what they believe, and also what purpose it serves in the development in their culture. It will cause students to think critically rather than just stating common sterotypical statements about a certian culture."},{"_id":"36fc3b0f9c1dab9cc500001e","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36b7bc7d3e2ee44ee400001a","content":"2. http://psychmajor123.hubpages.com/hub/Cross-Cultural-Psychology\nThis site can help identify how critical thinking can prevent common bias views of people about cultures other than their own."},{"_id":"36fc408c9c1dab9cc5000020","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36fc3b0f9c1dab9cc500001e","content":"1. \"Critical thinking becomes vital to sound evidence, to help avoid biased information relating to description and explanation.\"\nCritical thinking can help eliminate bias views and opinions about other cultures by exposing students to the truth about how the beliefs of other cultures are developed. "},{"_id":"36fc53689c1dab9cc5000021","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36fc3b0f9c1dab9cc500001e","content":"2. \"Common to many, we tend to be easily convinced by means of subjective evidence than by reliable facts and statistics through thorough investigation. To avoid the biased perspective when assessing varying hypotheses of speculation, critical thinking skills can help produce sound evidence of support.\"\nCritical thinking and learning about cultures will cause people to rely on actual facts and statistics rather than bias rumors or views about other cultures. "},{"_id":"36fc5e389c1dab9cc5000022","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36fc3b0f9c1dab9cc500001e","content":"3. \"Critical thinking is a vital component in relation to cross-cultural psychology, as people have a basic tendency to follow subjective description and avoid relevant data and statistical information. By applying critical thinking antidotes, psychologists reduce the chance of providing biased information in research.\"\nSame as 1&2"},{"_id":"36fc6c5c9c1dab9cc5000024","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36b7bc7d3e2ee44ee400001a","content":"3. http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_shiraev_crosscultural_3/55/14195/3634112.cw/index.html\nThis site explains why a group of people are biased towards another group of people. It is also a summary of a book I could not find."},{"_id":"36fc70059c1dab9cc5000025","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36fc6c5c9c1dab9cc5000024","content":"1. \"We have a tendency to stubbornly cling to our beliefs, sometimes even in the face of disconfirming evidence. Thus, when these beliefs are challenged, we feel impelled to protect them, almost as if we were protecting ourselves. One consequence of this belief perseverance effect is that it generally requires much more compelling evidence to change our beliefs than it did to create them in the first place.\"\nIf we allow people to become close minded and stubborn at an early age, it will slow down the process of development of new ideas and beliefs as a whole in society. Being able to teach students at an early age to think critically is important to help improve our society's mind set."},{"_id":"3708f0c8c22bbe037a00002a","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"36b7bc7d3e2ee44ee400001a","content":"http://www.wwu.edu/culture/matsumoto.htm\nThis site explains why questioning the difference in beliefs in other cultures with our own may be important in the development of our own beliefs."},{"_id":"3708f59bc22bbe037a00002b","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"3708f0c8c22bbe037a00002a","content":"\"To me, cross-cultural research itself is an example of critical thinking because it asks the all-important question, 'is what I know to be true for one cultural group also true for another?' By asking this question and conducting studies to test it, cross-cultural research in and of itself naturally facilitates the constant challenging of and skepticism toward one's truths and knowledge. By engaging in cross-cultural research one is always engaging in critical thinking about the state of the field.\"\nSkepticism is commonly used when describing a group of people. Even if a belief may be true for the majority of that group of people, it doesn't mean every single person within that group of people holds that belief. Being able to eliminate skepticism will make people more accepting of other people's beliefs and more open minded to new ideas and beliefs."},{"_id":"36b7f01b3e2ee44ee400001b","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"Language--Robert\nHow do languages connect and relate (to critical thinking)?"},{"_id":"36e03925ac3b9b52bc00000d","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36b7f01b3e2ee44ee400001b","content":"1. http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/spanish.htm\nMain differences between Spanish and English"},{"_id":"36e06796eb57da98b9000010","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36e03925ac3b9b52bc00000d","content":"Idea 1. Spanish is a syllable-centered language, while English is a stress-timed language. When Spanish speakers apply the native intonation, the result can be incomprehensible to English speakers."},{"_id":"36edea00d434b489b9000011","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36e03925ac3b9b52bc00000d","content":"Idea 2. \"The major problem for the Spanish learner is that there is no one-to-one correspondence in the use of the tenses.\" \nSpanish learners must think critically about the logic behind Spanish verb tenses in order to understand the language."},{"_id":"36ee0fb745f59c7008000013","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36e03925ac3b9b52bc00000d","content":"Idea 3. \"Spanish has a strong correspondence between the sound of a word and its spelling. The irregularity of English in this respect causes predictable problems when Spanish learners write a word they first meet in spoken language or say a word first met in written language.\"\nSpanish pronunciation requires learners to think about language in a different way."},{"_id":"36e039acac3b9b52bc00000f","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36b7f01b3e2ee44ee400001b","content":"2. Ramos interview"},{"_id":"36fc76e28c7b7e6995000026","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36e039acac3b9b52bc00000f","content":"Students face problems frequently with trying to apply English grammar to Spanish language."},{"_id":"37003872aa9d693b5b000028","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36e039acac3b9b52bc00000f","content":"\"False Friends,\" or Spanish words that sound similar to English words but have different meanings, are one big cause of confusion."},{"_id":"36e039d7ac3b9b52bc000010","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36b7f01b3e2ee44ee400001b","content":"3. http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_shiraev_crosscultural_3/55/14195/3634112.cw/index.html\nYou're Welcome Robert!\n- Jacob"},{"_id":"36fc66869c1dab9cc5000023","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36e039d7ac3b9b52bc000010","content":"1. \"In describing phenomena, particularly social phenomena, the language that people use invariably reflects their own personal values, biases, likes, and dislikes. In this way, their words can reveal at least as much about themselves as the events, individuals, and groups they are attempting to describe.\" \n"},{"_id":"36fc6d3b8c7b7e6995000025","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"36b7f01b3e2ee44ee400001b","content":"http://blog.rev.com/articles/language/10-common-challenges-spanish-speakers-have-learning-english/\n10 common problems English speakers face with Spanish."},{"_id":"36b7f0663e2ee44ee400001c","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"Critical thinking in classroom--Jared\nWhat is critical thinking and how does it apply to the Spanish classroom?"},{"_id":"36b7f79c3e2ee44ee400001e","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36b7f0663e2ee44ee400001c","content":"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766\nWhat is critical thinking?\n"},{"_id":"36b7f8923e2ee44ee4000021","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36b7f79c3e2ee44ee400001e","content":"Critical thinking describes the process of working with ideas and using them to inquire and gain further knowledge. It can be used to guide a belief or action. At its best, critical thinking \"transcends subject matter divisions.\""},{"_id":"36b7f7cd3e2ee44ee400001f","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36b7f0663e2ee44ee400001c","content":"http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/library/articles-and-essays/the-teaching-forum/from-the-students-view-professors-who-cultivate-critical-thinking-skills/\n\nHow we might apply critical thinking?"},{"_id":"36ee015c537b764d7e000012","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36b7f7cd3e2ee44ee400001f","content":"\"In each class period, one student presents an aphorism such as “life is the vanity of all vanities” or “love is blind”, and then we discuss for a few minutes the implications of the aphorism. Not only are we practicing out Spanish, expanding our vocabulary, and growing in our speaking skills, but we are going beneath the surface and thinking more deeply about life and our personal philosophies.\"\n\n**Thoughts**: This activity promotes critical thinking in the same way that we did in Honors Seminar: thinking about an idea and discussing it as a group. An added bonus for this activity is that it promotes speaking in Spanish. However for a Spanish II Honors Class, they might not be able to talk much in Spanish about subjects that promote critical thinking, unless it applies to vocabulary used in the chapter they are learning."},{"_id":"36b7f7fa3e2ee44ee4000020","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":3,"parentId":"36b7f0663e2ee44ee400001c","content":"http://suite101.com/a/critical-thinking-activities-for-the-classroom-a221342\n\nCritical Thinking Activities in the Classroom; Potential Homework Idea"},{"_id":"36ef94a0564146d553000017","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36b7f7fa3e2ee44ee4000020","content":"Difficult to learn a lot of vocabulary in a short amount of time. Thinking critically about words makes it easier to remember--make inferences, draw conclusions. Focus less on memorizing than reasoning."},{"_id":"36ef9c75564146d55300001b","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":2,"parentId":"36b7f7fa3e2ee44ee4000020","content":"*Possible Activities*:\n\n**Which doesn't belong?**: Given a group of words or pictures and determine which doesn't belong by justifying answer (there can be more than one, potentially).\n**Analogies**: Work on understanding relationships between words i.e. Apple: fruit - Broccoli: ___.\n**What's Right**: Provide four sentences and figure out which is correct.\n**Something's Wrong Here**: Find missing/incorrect information within a few given sentences and correct it.\n**Your Order Please**: Organize a randomized series of events in order. (Szeto recommends using signal words: Then, Next, etc.) *For advanced students*: Give five sentences to put in oder, one of which does not belong\n\n**Potential Homework Idea**: Make a worksheet incorporating these critical thinking activities."},{"_id":"36f3dca8f21f72cddd00002f","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":"36b7f0663e2ee44ee400001c","content":"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/tactical-and-structural-recommendations/467\n\nTeaching Strategies"},{"_id":"36f3dd3ff21f72cddd000030","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f3dca8f21f72cddd00002f","content":"Strategies that may apply:\n\n 1. Don't sacrifice how much students will learn for more material\n 2. Speak less and provide students to discuss and think more\n 3. Use \"fundamental and powerful concepts with high generalizability\"\n 4. Think aloud in front of students\n 5. Present concepts, develop them as much as possible and place them in \"the context of their use as functional tools for the solution of real problems and the analysis of significant issues.\"\n 6. Question students Socratically\n 7. Use clear examples to demonstrate abstract ideas and thoughts\n 8. Do small group activities\n 9. Design activities and assignments so that the student can think through the problem(s)\n"},{"_id":"36fc2e1679750fddba00001d","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":5,"parentId":"36b7f0663e2ee44ee400001c","content":"Señor Ramos Interview (October 2, 2013)"},{"_id":"36fc2f1679750fddba00001e","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36fc2e1679750fddba00001d","content":"Señor Ramos uses critical thinking in the classroom by:\n\n- having his students \"play ahead of the game\" by \n\n- having students \"absorb\" the material by \"looking for commonalities\"\n - does this with verbs by figuring out which verbs have which endings--looking for patterns"},{"_id":"36f3838af21f72cddd00002b","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":4,"parentId":null,"content":"Why is critical thinking important?--Jared"},{"_id":"36f39f8bf21f72cddd00002c","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f3838af21f72cddd00002b","content":"http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/97818-the-importance-of-critical-thinking/\n\nImportance of Critical Thinking"},{"_id":"36f3a042f21f72cddd00002d","treeId":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","seq":1,"position":1,"parentId":"36f39f8bf21f72cddd00002c","content":"Summary: Simply giving students facts they need to pass the upcoming test and do well in a class does not prepare them to find the information themselves. Those who think critically are able to find the facts themselves and determine what is important to know. With these skills, people are able to do things on their own, instead of being given the information their entire lives. It also can help with forming connection between ideas and knowledge and create an environment of self-learning. Critical thinking is not just advantageous for gaining more knowledge and skills but also allows a person to be aware of his/her own \"core values, opinions and calculations\" and be able to \"continually reach new planes of self-improvement and self-actualization.\" The value of critical thinking is unlimited because it can be applied and be effective in many situations."}],"tree":{"_id":"36b7b6f03e2ee44ee4000017","name":"THE PROJECT","publicUrl":"the-project-honorsseminar"}}