• GUIDING QUESTIONS

    It makes sense for me to be passionate about the political economy of knowledge production!

    Modernity, Coloniality, Development - How colonialism and modernity influenced the power dynamics of knowledge production

    Whose opinion/practices/culture/perspective related to the environment counts? Whose is discounted? What and for what reason? - MCD is the power dynamic

    How does the decolonization of knowledge production occur? - through protest, alliances of resistance, here’s how:

    • decolonization of social relations - body - anti-racism
    • decolonization of nature relations - Earth - social nature/construction of nature,
    • decolonization of productive relations - political economy - to "what would the PE look like under reconciliation/decolonization in Canada?"
    • decolonization of political/intersubjectivity relations - cosmopolitics

    • decolonization of nature - social nature/construction of nature thesis

    • decolonization of knowledge
  • On the question of SUBJECTIVITY *

    • Check Can the Subaltern Speak?
    • For the question of essentialized subject positions or ‘ontologies of nature’ i.e. organic vs modern, think about the inter-relationship between the development of subjectivities - Sundberg re: Indigeneity & Homi Bhabba (article from Tyler)
    • MCD is the backbone, the evidence required to understand the two subjective ontological ‘forces’ at play in the human intervention with nature
    • Fanon - cannot return to a single subject position, a pre-colonial subject,
  • Research Questions

    • Assumptions
      I don't have an answer for what the PE would look like in a decolonial Canada, but I have an implicit assumption that reconciled nature and social relations as well as the deolonization of knowledge production would lead to a more harmonious future overall. But what would the PE look like? That entails thinking about structures and institutions, conceptualizing other worlds - Gibson Graham
    • Contributions
    • Gaps
    • Key terms
    • How does the colonization of knowledge impact the construction of nature and vice versa?
  • Decoloniality in Practice (Methodology)

    • Address the colonial nature of geography
    • place based, relational research demands attention to place
    • decolonialiality demands attention to place
    • always identify what positionality the authors are writing from
    • my positionality is very important
    • introduce myself and my relations to this work
  • Theory

    Cosmopolitics

    Modernity, Coloniality, Decoloniality

    • Social Nature (Braun)
    • Settler-colonialism & capitalism (Coulthard)
    • Education - (Freire)
  • Key Terms

    • Indigenous “groups with ancestral and often spiritual ties to particular land, and whose ancestors held that land prior to colonization by outside powers, and whose nations remain submerged within the states created by those powers” (Shaw et al., 2006, p. 268)

    • Cosmopolitics - A decolonial method for critiquing political relations and power dynamics

  • Decolonizing Geographical Knowledges

    • “geography’s history is of a terrible and problematic opening out of the world to colonial and exploitative forces, and the continued whiteness of its contemporary openness to difference and diversity in its knowledge production processes” (Noxolo, 2017, p. 317)

    • “decolonisation begins from the scholarship of black and indigenous peoples, and should be led by that scholarship* (Noxolo, 2017, p. 318)

    • “decolonial scholars advocate a process of ‘entering and existing academia’ in order to encounter and engage critically with other knowledge-producing processes” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 331) This is what I do when I learn from my work with TNEGI and my experiences in the government and as a New Brunswicker.

    • Decolonial approaches “encourage us to engage more systematically in co-production of knowledge with decolonial-inspired actors and institutions beyond the academy” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 331)

    • British geography, characterized by whiteness among students and staff (Radcliffe, 2017)

    • “Decolonial scholars highlight how the embodiments, politics and economics of Anglophone academic production entrench the power geometries of knowledge production” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 331)

    • “decolonisation [is] an ethico-political as well as an analytical project” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330) “decolonial political positionality”

    • “the enactment and practice of decolonisation requires caution, guidance and humility, and is always complex and highly contentious” (p. 330) & “requires a broader commitment to decolonial agendas” (p. 331) (Radcliffe, 2017)

  • Decolonial Theory

    “decolonisation is a process of building towards the pluriversality of knowledge, in which there is full recognition of the multiple flows of knowledge through an open, diverse ‘pluriversity’ system” (Noxolo, 2017, p. 318)

    **Link between cosmopolitics & decolonialism**

    • “a long-term process involving the bureaucratic, cultural, linguistic and psychological divesting of colonial power” (Tuhiwai Smith, 2010, p. 33)

    • “the forms of knowledge - about economy, democracy, development, education, culture, racial-ethnic difference and so on - through which the world is apprehended and explained and modelled for the future are deeply rooted in post-Englightenment Euro-American claims to be able to pronounce universal truths and to theorise the world” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 329)

    • “power relations in the colonial present permeate all forms of knowing about and understanding the world” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 329)

    • “Decolonial scholars build on postcolonial scholarship and examine ongoing socio-spatial transformations not solely in relation to enduring Western influences, and rather seek theoretical-conceptual frameworks and political inspiration from anti-colonial writers including WEB du Bois, Aime Cesaire, Frantz Fanon, Gloria Anzaldua, LT Smith, as well as movements such as the ‘500 years of resistance’, the World Social Forum and the Zapatistas. Decolonial approaches emerge from, and engage with, a wide range of critical and radical scholarship, including critical Black scholarship, Indigenous theory, feminist and queer theory […] and the modernity-coloniality-decoloniality (MCD)” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 229)

    • “it is important to place divese knowledges on a horizontal relation, bringing knowledge from different settings into juxtaposition with each other” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)

  • Coloniality/Modernity/Decoloniality

    • “works to re-frame and re-direct critical thinking about the universal and the particular. Colonial-modernity refers to the argument that modernity co-emerged with coloniality (colonial power), which consequently forms the underside of modernity” […] “this shifts analytical attention to examine colonial power and the colonial present not as exceptional and situated ‘elsewhere’, but as integral to socio-spatial relations across multiple differentiated terrains and scales” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)

    • Knowledge production occurs outside of and alongside the university, “there are multiple, diverse epistemic and ethical projects” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)

    • “Re-orientating intellectual work in this way generates sharp analytical insights into power - including the abandonments and durabilities of imperial power - and remains alert to alternative articulations of/within power” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)

    • Decolonial approaches to racialization and knowledge production - “consider Black and Indigenous experiences to be rooted in colonial-modernity and ineluctably framed by white supremacy and racial categorisations” & “the colonisation of the Americas inaugurated colonial-modern divisions of labour, the racialisation of non-Europeans and intersectional hierarchies of race-gender-class and knowledge” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)

    • “The actual meaning of land colonization of the Americas and Oceania has involved the deployment of spatial practices and representations that have rendered indigenous territories unclaimed, or un(der)utilized, or, in the case of terra nullius, empty wildernesses” (Shaw et al, 2006, p. 272)

  • Critical Indigenous Theory

    • “seeks to pinpoint the specificity of Indigenous disempowerment and to provide analytical and political alternatives to the Indigenous colonial present. This stance removes decolonial approaches from the realm of the metaphorical to examining the material and political costs of settler-colonialism” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)

    • connections between critical geographical scholarship and decolonial perspectives (Radcliffe, 2017)

    • the decolonial turn “extends postcolonial, feminist and critical race geography by centring the forms of knowledge production under colonial-modernity, in order to refine understandings of its particularities and to reanimate critiques of racialisation, colonial-modern resource distributions and epistemic violence” (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330-331)

    • “Engaging with indigenous geographies thus allows us to remove the epistemological blinders which perpetuate residual, static and uniform forms of ‘truth’ to reveal instead a cornucopia of worldviews that open up new vistas to understanding the world and humanity’s place within it” & “knowledge is a cultural artefact which reinforces social, political and economic norms” (Shaw et al, 2006, p. 273)

  • Indigenous Perspectives on Place

    • “Paramount for Inuit in their land claims negotiations was their ability to demonstrate a unique and living relationship to the environment. Land increasingly became the prevailing symbol of Inuit cultural identity, and the contemporary and ongoing Inuit relationship to that land was precisely the feature that distinguished them from qallunaat” (Wachowich, 2006, p. 128)
    • Inuit political movements of the 1970s and 1980s made it increasingly important for Iglulingmiut to exhibit nationally and internationally that they were an adaptive people, a people whose age-old hunting culture remained alive and well in the context of modern settlement life” (Wachowich, 2006, p. 129-130)
  • Decolonialism

    • “Colonialism results in the massive destruction of whole societies - societies that not only function at a high level of sophistication and complexity, but that might offer the West valuable lessons about how we might live together and remake the modern world” (Kelley, p. 21)
{"cards":[{"_id":"65d96e2bb8e7956873000049","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10939235,"position":0.5,"parentId":null,"content":"# **GUIDING QUESTIONS **\nIt makes sense for me to be passionate about the political economy of knowledge production!\n\nModernity, Coloniality, Development - How colonialism and modernity influenced the power dynamics of knowledge production\n\nWhose opinion/practices/culture/perspective related to the environment counts? Whose is discounted? What and for what reason? - MCD is the power dynamic\n\nHow does the decolonization of knowledge production occur? - through protest, alliances of resistance, here's how:\n* decolonization of social relations - body - anti-racism\n* decolonization of nature relations - Earth - social nature/construction of nature, \n* decolonization of productive relations - political economy - to `\"what would the PE look like under reconciliation/decolonization in Canada?\"`\n* decolonization of political/intersubjectivity relations - cosmopolitics\n\n* decolonization of nature - social nature/construction of nature thesis\n* decolonization of knowledge\n\n"},{"_id":"7fea049ed3118a610600005e","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":11033755,"position":0.5,"parentId":"65d96e2bb8e7956873000049","content":"# ** Research Questions **\n\n* Assumptions\n`I don't have an answer for what the PE would look like in a decolonial Canada, but I have an implicit assumption that reconciled nature and social relations as well as the deolonization of knowledge production would lead to a more harmonious future overall. But what would the PE look like? That entails thinking about structures and institutions, conceptualizing other worlds - Gibson Graham `\n* Contributions\n* Gaps\n* Key terms\n* How does the colonization of knowledge impact the construction of nature and vice versa?\n"},{"_id":"7fea0625d3118a610600005f","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10939048,"position":1,"parentId":"7fea049ed3118a610600005e","content":"# ** Key Terms **\n\n* Indigenous \"groups with ancestral and often spiritual ties to particular land, and whose ancestors held that land prior to colonization by outside powers, and whose nations remain submerged within the states created by those powers\" (Shaw et al., 2006, p. 268)\n\n* Cosmopolitics - A decolonial method for critiquing political relations and power dynamics "},{"_id":"65d96fa9b8e795687300004a","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10934318,"position":1,"parentId":"65d96e2bb8e7956873000049","content":"# **Decoloniality in Practice (Methodology) **\n* Address the colonial nature of geography\n* place based, relational research demands attention to place\n* decolonialiality demands attention to place\n* always identify what positionality the authors are writing from \n* my positionality is very important\n* introduce myself and my relations to this work"},{"_id":"7fcca7b0d3118a6106000042","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10933777,"position":1,"parentId":"65d96fa9b8e795687300004a","content":"# ** Decolonizing Geographical Knowledges**\n\n* “geography’s history is of a terrible and problematic opening out of the world to colonial and exploitative forces, and the continued whiteness of its contemporary openness to difference and diversity in its knowledge production processes” (Noxolo, 2017, p. 317)\n\n* \"decolonisation begins from the scholarship of black and indigenous peoples, and should be *led by* that scholarship* (Noxolo, 2017, p. 318)\n\n* \"decolonial scholars advocate a process of 'entering and existing academia' in order to encounter and engage critically with other knowledge-producing processes\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 331) `This is what I do when I learn from my work with TNEGI and my experiences in the government and as a New Brunswicker.`\n\n* Decolonial approaches \"encourage us to engage more systematically in co-production of knowledge with decolonial-inspired actors and institutions beyond the academy\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 331)\n\n* British geography, characterized by whiteness among students and staff (Radcliffe, 2017)\n\n* \"Decolonial scholars highlight how the embodiments, politics and economics of Anglophone academic production entrench the power geometries of knowledge production\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 331)\n\n* \"decolonisation [is] an ethico-political as well as an analytical project\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330) \"decolonial political positionality\"\n\n* \"the enactment and practice of decolonisation requires caution, guidance and humility, and is always complex and highly contentious\" (p. 330) & \"requires a broader commitment to decolonial agendas\" (p. 331) (Radcliffe, 2017)\n\n\n\n "},{"_id":"7fcd3c71d3118a6106000047","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10933746,"position":3,"parentId":"65d96e2bb8e7956873000049","content":"# ** Theory **\n\n**Cosmopolitics**\n\n**Modernity, Coloniality, Decoloniality**\n* Social Nature (Braun)\n* Settler-colonialism & capitalism (Coulthard)\n* Education - (Freire) \n\n"},{"_id":"7fcd3d5ad3118a6106000048","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10933744,"position":1,"parentId":"7fcd3c71d3118a6106000047","content":"# ** Decolonial Theory **\n\n\"decolonisation is a process of building towards the pluriversality of knowledge, in which there is full recognition of the multiple flows of knowledge through an open, diverse 'pluriversity' system\" (Noxolo, 2017, p. 318)\n\n`**Link between cosmopolitics & decolonialism**`\n\n* \"a long-term process involving the bureaucratic, cultural, linguistic and psychological divesting of colonial power\" (Tuhiwai Smith, 2010, p. 33)\n\n* \"the forms of knowledge - about economy, democracy, development, education, culture, racial-ethnic difference and so on - through which the world is apprehended and explained and modelled for the future are deeply rooted in post-Englightenment Euro-American claims to be able to pronounce universal truths and to theorise the world\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 329)\n\n* \"power relations in the colonial present permeate all forms of knowing about and understanding the world\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 329)\n\n* \"Decolonial scholars build on postcolonial scholarship and examine ongoing socio-spatial transformations not solely in relation to enduring Western influences, and rather seek theoretical-conceptual frameworks and political inspiration from anti-colonial writers including WEB du Bois, Aime Cesaire, Frantz Fanon, Gloria Anzaldua, LT Smith, as well as movements such as the '500 years of resistance', the World Social Forum and the Zapatistas. Decolonial approaches emerge from, and engage with, a wide range of critical and radical scholarship, including critical Black scholarship, Indigenous theory, feminist and queer theory [...] and the modernity-coloniality-decoloniality (MCD)\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 229)\n\n* \"it is important to place divese knowledges on a horizontal relation, bringing knowledge from different settings into juxtaposition with each other\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)\n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"7fe8934dd3118a610600005c","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10934792,"position":2,"parentId":"7fcd3c71d3118a6106000047","content":"# ** Coloniality/Modernity/Decoloniality **\n\n* \"works to re-frame and re-direct critical thinking about the universal and the particular. Colonial-modernity refers to the argument that modernity co-emerged with coloniality (colonial power), which consequently forms the underside of modernity\" [...] \"this shifts analytical attention to examine colonial power and the colonial present not as exceptional and situated 'elsewhere', but as integral to socio-spatial relations across multiple differentiated terrains and scales\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)\n\n* Knowledge production occurs outside of and alongside the university, \"there are multiple, diverse epistemic and ethical projects\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)\n\n* \"Re-orientating intellectual work in this way generates sharp analytical insights into power - including the abandonments and durabilities of imperial power - and remains alert to alternative articulations of/within power\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)\n\n* Decolonial approaches to racialization and knowledge production - \"consider Black and Indigenous experiences to be rooted in colonial-modernity and ineluctably framed by white supremacy and racial categorisations\" & \"the colonisation of the Americas inaugurated colonial-modern divisions of labour, the racialisation of non-Europeans and intersectional hierarchies of race-gender-class and knowledge\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)\n\n* \"The actual *meaning* of land colonization of the Americas and Oceania has involved the deployment of spatial practices and representations that have rendered indigenous territories unclaimed, or un(der)utilized, or, in the case of *terra nullius*, empty wildernesses\" (Shaw et al, 2006, p. 272)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"7fe8b636d3118a610600005d","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10934846,"position":3,"parentId":"7fcd3c71d3118a6106000047","content":"# ** Critical Indigenous Theory **\n\n* \"seeks to pinpoint the specificity of Indigenous disempowerment and to provide analytical and political alternatives to the Indigenous colonial present. This stance removes decolonial approaches from the realm of the metaphorical to examining the material and political costs of settler-colonialism\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330)\n\n* connections between critical geographical scholarship and decolonial perspectives (Radcliffe, 2017)\n\n* the decolonial turn \"extends postcolonial, feminist and critical race geography by centring the forms of knowledge production under colonial-modernity, in order to refine understandings of its particularities and to reanimate critiques of racialisation, colonial-modern resource distributions and epistemic violence\" (Radcliffe, 2017, p. 330-331)\n\n* \"Engaging with indigenous *geographies* thus allows us to remove the epistemological blinders which perpetuate residual, static and uniform forms of 'truth' to reveal instead a cornucopia of worldviews that open up new vistas to understanding the world and humanity's place within it\" & \"knowledge is a cultural artefact which reinforces social, political and economic norms\" (Shaw et al, 2006, p. 273)\n\n\n\n"},{"_id":"7f6dd8248e6957e25b00001d","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":11033783,"position":5,"parentId":"7fcd3c71d3118a6106000047","content":"# **Indigenous Perspectives on Place**\n* \"Paramount for Inuit in their land claims negotiations was their ability to demonstrate a unique and living relationship to the environment. Land increasingly became the prevailing symbol of Inuit cultural identity, and the contemporary and ongoing Inuit relationship to that land was precisely the feature that distinguished them from qallunaat\" (Wachowich, 2006, p. 128)\n* Inuit political movements of the 1970s and 1980s made it increasingly important for Iglulingmiut to exhibit nationally and internationally that they were an adaptive people, a people whose age-old hunting culture remained alive and well in the context of modern settlement life\" (Wachowich, 2006, p. 129-130)"},{"_id":"7eb5ce835817324f2d000020","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":11128505,"position":6,"parentId":"7fcd3c71d3118a6106000047","content":"# ** Decolonialism **\n* \"Colonialism results in the massive destruction of whole societies - societies that not only function at a high level of sophistication and complexity, but that might offer the West valuable lessons about how we might live together and remake the modern world\" (Kelley, p. 21)\n* \n"},{"_id":"7ff36b011fdb012cef000015","treeId":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","seq":10939079,"position":0.75,"parentId":null,"content":"# ** On the question of SUBJECTIVITY ***\n\n* Check Can the Subaltern Speak?\n* For the question of essentialized subject positions or 'ontologies of nature' i.e. organic vs modern, think about the inter-relationship between the development of subjectivities - Sundberg re: Indigeneity & Homi Bhabba (article from Tyler)\n* MCD is the backbone, the evidence required to understand the two subjective ontological 'forces' at play in the human intervention with nature\n* Fanon - cannot return to a single subject position, a pre-colonial subject, "}],"tree":{"_id":"65d96d17b8e7956873000046","name":"Thesis Proposal","publicUrl":"thesis-proposal"}}