• no exceptions, these are the rules- don’t reason episodically

  • rule - good moral rules maximize overall happiness, even if specific violations of the rules would offer greater happiness

  • two versions:
    act - each specific action should aim to maximize overll utility and/or minimize overall suffering

  • Utilitarianism

    Jeremy bentham; principles of moral legislation

  • british economist, early laissez fair opposed to crown involvement

  • what should we think about when we make a law?

  • general rules get in the way of maximizing happiness

  • only focuses on specific actions

  • utilitarianism:
    increasing overall happiness is right,even if individual must suffer, benthal agrees with this

  • consequentalism= right conduct and proper moral theory attract consequences; aim to produce the best consequence

    egalitarianism = equality

  • trolley problem:
    change track and kill one instead of five

  • egoism - the focus is on the self

  • prudential - rational

  • man is rational to pursue pleasure and irrational to pursue pain

  • hedonism: what is of value is pleasure and what is of disvalue is pain; there are no other values

  • psychological hedonism:
    2 masters - pleasure and pain

  • seek to feel pleasure and avoid pain

  • egalitarianism

    1. maximizing overall equality is the best thing to do
    2. right even if some people must suffer
  • we make all our moral decisions based on uncertainty

  • cross cultural support:

    1. most people across all cultures think we should kill one person
  • bc fewer deaths are better

  • our judgements in intuition pumps indicates our moral theory

  • premise 2 tells us that most people offer utilitarian reasons for running over just one person

  • universalization-
    moral principles must apply to everyone

  • ceteris paribus - all things equal

  • thus most people across all cultures are utilitarians

    • claim about rationality

    • if you’re not trying to make yourself happy, what’re you doing?

    • claim about psychology

    {"cards":[{"_id":"5c29cb3d6451384569000035","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639862,"position":0.125,"parentId":null,"content":"no exceptions, these are the rules- don't reason episodically"},{"_id":"5c29bd3b6451384569000033","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639832,"position":0.25,"parentId":null,"content":"rule - good moral rules maximize overall happiness, even if specific violations of the rules would offer greater happiness"},{"_id":"5c29b9e06451384569000031","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639829,"position":0.5,"parentId":null,"content":"two versions:\nact - each specific action should aim to maximize overll utility and/or minimize overall suffering"},{"_id":"5c29bc996451384569000032","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639830,"position":1,"parentId":"5c29b9e06451384569000031","content":"general rules get in the way of maximizing happiness"},{"_id":"5c29caa96451384569000034","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639856,"position":2,"parentId":"5c29b9e06451384569000031","content":"only focuses on specific actions"},{"_id":"5c295e566451384569000011","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639367,"position":1,"parentId":null,"content":"Utilitarianism\n\nJeremy bentham; principles of moral legislation"},{"_id":"5c2986d56451384569000020","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639509,"position":0.5,"parentId":"5c295e566451384569000011","content":"utilitarianism:\nincreasing overall happiness is right,even if individual must suffer, benthal agrees with this"},{"_id":"5c296df4645138456900001c","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639496,"position":1,"parentId":"5c295e566451384569000011","content":"consequentalism= right conduct and proper moral theory attract consequences; aim to produce the best consequence\n\negalitarianism = equality"},{"_id":"5c298427645138456900001e","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639501,"position":1,"parentId":"5c296df4645138456900001c","content":"egalitarianism\n1. maximizing overall equality is the best thing to do\n2. right even if some people must suffer"},{"_id":"5c2996d16451384569000022","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639552,"position":3,"parentId":"5c296df4645138456900001c","content":"we make all our moral decisions based on uncertainty"},{"_id":"5c2989566451384569000021","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639572,"position":1.5,"parentId":"5c295e566451384569000011","content":"trolley problem:\nchange track and kill one instead of five","deleted":false},{"_id":"5c29a98f6451384569000027","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639752,"position":1,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"cross cultural support:\n1. most people across all cultures think we should kill one person"},{"_id":"5c29ac126451384569000028","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639759,"position":2,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"bc fewer deaths are better"},{"_id":"5c29acbb6451384569000029","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639772,"position":3,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"our judgements in intuition pumps indicates our moral theory"},{"_id":"5c29af42645138456900002a","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639779,"position":4,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"premise 2 tells us that most people offer utilitarian reasons for running over just one person"},{"_id":"5c29b83a645138456900002f","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639822,"position":4.5,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"universalization-\nmoral principles must apply to everyone"},{"_id":"5c29b9066451384569000030","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639823,"position":4.75,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"ceteris paribus - all things equal"},{"_id":"5c29b087645138456900002b","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639786,"position":5,"parentId":"5c2989566451384569000021","content":"thus most people across all cultures are utilitarians"},{"_id":"5c299c236451384569000024","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639577,"position":1.625,"parentId":"5c295e566451384569000011","content":""},{"_id":"5c298648645138456900001f","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639503,"position":2,"parentId":"5c295e566451384569000011","content":"egoism - the focus is on the self"},{"_id":"5c295f9a6451384569000012","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639380,"position":2,"parentId":null,"content":"british economist, early laissez fair opposed to crown involvement"},{"_id":"5c29a5fb6451384569000026","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639723,"position":2.5,"parentId":null,"content":""},{"_id":"5c2961aa6451384569000013","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639384,"position":3,"parentId":null,"content":"what should we think about when we make a law?"},{"_id":"5c2969fc645138456900001a","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639469,"position":0.125,"parentId":"5c2961aa6451384569000013","content":"prudential - rational"},{"_id":"5c2968166451384569000018","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639426,"position":0.25,"parentId":"5c2961aa6451384569000013","content":"man is rational to pursue pleasure and irrational to pursue pain"},{"_id":"5c2969486451384569000019","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639427,"position":1,"parentId":"5c2968166451384569000018","content":"claim about rationality"},{"_id":"5c2966726451384569000017","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639421,"position":0.5,"parentId":"5c2961aa6451384569000013","content":"hedonism: what is of value is pleasure and what is of disvalue is pain; there are no other values"},{"_id":"5c296bb1645138456900001b","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639806,"position":1,"parentId":"5c2966726451384569000017","content":"if you're not trying to make yourself happy, what're you doing?"},{"_id":"5c2963556451384569000014","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639398,"position":1,"parentId":"5c2961aa6451384569000013","content":"psychological hedonism:\n2 masters - pleasure and pain"},{"_id":"5c2965416451384569000015","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639405,"position":2,"parentId":"5c2961aa6451384569000013","content":"seek to feel pleasure and avoid pain"},{"_id":"5c2965de6451384569000016","treeId":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","seq":4639816,"position":1,"parentId":"5c2965416451384569000015","content":"claim about psychology"}],"tree":{"_id":"5c295e3d645138456900000f","name":"utilitarianism","publicUrl":"utilitarianism"}}